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time." — Advancement of Learning, ii. 





r\ * * o VOLUME XXXI . 

ILotttron : 





The Council of the Kent Archaeological Society is not answerable 
for any opinions put forward in this Work. Each Contributor is alone 
responsible for his own remarks. 





- List of Officers, Societies in Union, x — xix 5 Rules and 

Honorary Members, xx — xxii ; List of Members, xxiii — xxxviii 

Proceedings, etc., 1913 and 1914 xxxix 

The Fittings op Medieval Churches. By Aymer Vallance xl 

Westerham Church. By Dr. Maude lii 

The British Oppidum, Squerryes Court lvii 

Sunt) ridge Church. By Rev. Canon G. M. Livett lix 

Chipstead Place. By C. I. Phillips lxi 

Presentation to B,ev. W. Gardner-Waterman lxii 

* Edenbridge. By Rev. H. L. Somers Cocks lxiii 

Edenbridge Church. By Rev. Canon G. M. Livett lxvii 

Cowden Church. By Rev. Canon G. M. Livett Ixxv 

Chiddingstone Church. By Rev. Canon G. M. Livett ...lxxvii 

Heyer lxxix 

St. Nicholas, Ash next Sandwich. By is), if. Goodsall...lxxxvii 

Obituary — W. Essington Hughes ci 

1. The Manor House and Great Park of the Arch- 

bishop op Canterbury at Otford. By Captain C. 
Heslceth 1 

2. Further Notes prom Kentish Wills. By Arthur 

Hussey 25 

3. The Stodmarsh Plaster Panels. By T. A. Lehfeldt 54 

4. Daniel Defoe and Kent : A Chapter in Capel-le- 

Ferne History. By William Minet, M.A., F.S.A. Hi 



5. Notes on the Remains of Westenhanger House, 

Kent. By George Clinch, F.G.S., F.8.A. (Scot.) ... 76 

6. St. Mart's, Westenhanger. Rectors and Patrons. 

By Rev. T. Shipdem Frampton, M.A., FS.A 82 

7. Extracts from Original Documents illustrating 

the progress of the Reformation in Kent. By 
Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff, M.A 92 

8. Two Headcorn Cloth Halls. By H. S. Oowper, F.S.A. 121 

9. Monumental Brasses in Kent. By Ralph Griffin, 

F.S.A 131 

10. "The Valley of Holmesdale." Its Eyolution and 

Development. By Copt. H. W. Knocker 155 

11. Extracts from some Lost Kentish Registers. By 

Leland L. Duncan, M.V.O., FS.A 178 

12. Some Kentish Charities, 1594. By Major F. Lambarde 189 

13. A Wealden Charter of a.d. 814. By H. S. Cowper, 

FS.A 203 

14. The Rectors and Vicars of St. Mildred's, Tenterden. 

With an Appendix. By A. H. Taylor 207 

15. Further Notes on Phil. Symonson, maker of the 

Map of Kent dated 1576—1596. By the Hon. H. 
Hannen 271 

16. (i) Researches and Discoveries in Kent, 1912 — 1915. 

By George Payne, FS.A 275 

(ii) Roman Remains at Hoo St. Werburgh. By J. J. 

Robson 287 

(iii) Ancient Walling at St. Augustine's, Canter- 

bury. By Dr. O. Cotton 290 

(iv) Recent Discoveries at St. Austin's Abbey, 

Canterbury. By Sir William H. St. John Hope, 
Litt.D., D.C.L 294 

(v) Sandwich and Deal District. By Stephen Manser 297 

List of Books and Pamphlets added to the Society's 

Library since 1911 299 

(General Index 303 



St. Nicholas, Ash next Sandwich : — 

Plan lxxxviii 

View from the South-west xc 

Interior xcii 

Manor House, Otford : Ruins of House now existing and 
shewing the Gallery with a floor superimposed used 

as Cottages facing 1 

Sketch Plan '.. „ 5 

Ruin at end of eighteenth century, as drawn by 

Mr. Petrie „ 6 

Interior of the existing Main Tower ,, 7 

Fireplace and Oak Panelling in Parlour of the 

"Bull" Inn, Otford „ 8 

North End of " Hall " now existing „ 22 

Stodmarsh Plaster Panels, No. 2 .. ,, 56 

No. 7 „ 58 

Westenhanger House. Plan. „ 79 

Entrance Gateway, from a Sketch, c. 1750 ; 
Buildings on the west of the house, probably of 

late fifteenth-century date „ 80 

Headcorn : — 

Cloth Hall, No. 1 „ 123 

Plan * >, 124 

Sections and Details „ 124 

King Post 126 

Cloth Hall, No. 2 facing 126 

Plan „ 126 

Details „ 128 

Spandrel of Tie-beam ,, 128 

" Valley of Holmesdale" : — 

(i) Map of Pre-Saxon Physical Features 155 

(ii) Map of some Pre-Norman Roads ,, 157 

(iii) Map of Lathes and Bailiwicks „ 163 



" Valley of Holmesdale " {continued) : — 

(iv) Map of Hundreds in West Kent, Court Leets 

in Holmesdale faoincj 

(v) Map of Domesday Fiefs and Manors 

(vi) Map of Holmesdale Sub-Manors 

Map to illustrate Harleian Charter 83 A. I 

St. Mildred's, Tenterden : — 

The Tower 

North Side, shewing the "Vice" or stair turret... 
Researches and Discoveries in Kent : — 

Plan of Chalk Quarry at Twydall 

Flint Implements— Plates I., II., III., IV., V., 

VI., and VII 

Plate VIII. 

Saxon Wall at St. Austin's, from the garden near 

the Cemetery Grate 

St. Austin's Abbey, Canterbury, Remains of the 

Round Tower, begun by Abbot Wulfric 

Tombs of Early-Saxon Bishops, lately discovered 
at St. Austin's Abbey, Canterbury 

iunt ^ideological ^octcty. 


JUNE, 1915. 

t * ) 

3unt ^rcljatilogtcal Stamtp. 



i^tmorarg editors, 



Sonorarg Secretary 

RICHARD COOKE, ESQ., The Croft, Betting, Maidstone. 

Wtonovavv ^Financial Secretary 


i^tmoravj? ^Treasurer. 

C. W. POWELL, ESQ., D.L., J.P., Speld/mrst, Tunbridge Wells. 



SlcctctJ Members of tije Council, 

W. Bruce Bannerman, Esq., f.s.a Croydon. 

Hubert Bensted, Esq Bearded. 

L. M. Biden, Esq Bromley. 

Rev. J. A. Boodle, m.a West Hailing. 

H. Mapleton Chapman, Esq Canterbury. 

F. W. Cock, Esq., m.d., f.s.a London. 

T. Colyer-Fergusson, Esq., m.a., f.s.a Gravesend. 

Sir Wm. Martin Conway, f.s.a Allington Castle. 

Charles Cotton, Esq., f.r.c.p Canterbury. 

H. S. Cowper, Esq., f.s.a Staplehurst. 

A. Randall Davis, Esq.. m.r.c.s. ......... Hythe. 

F. H. Day, Esq Rochester. 

Arthur Finn, Esq Lydd. 

F. F. Giraud, Esq Faversham. 

Ralph Griffin, Esq., f.s.a London. 

Hon. Henry Hannen ............. West Farleigh. 

Arthur Hussey, Esq . Whitstable. 

Capt. H. W. Knocker Sevenoaks. 

Herbert Monckton, Esq Maidstone. 

H. Western Plumptre, Esq Nonington. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton Birchington. 

W. H. Aymer Vallance, Esq., f.s.a London. 

Rev. C. H. Wilkie, m.a Little Chart. 

Gerald Woods Wollaston, Esq., m.v.o London. 


The Lord Northbourne, F.S.A. 
H. Mapleton Chapman, Esq. 
Herbert Monckton, Esq. 

i#on, AuBttors, 

Herbert Hordern, Esq., j.p. 
Captain Chas. F. Hooper, j.p. 


Messrs. W. J. King- and Son, Gravesend. 


H. Elgar, Esq. 

i#on, ^fjotograpijcr. 

E. C. Youens, Esq. 


Union of London and Smiths Bank, Maidstone. 
Capital and Counties Bank, Canterbury. 

( xii ) 

lient &xtb&o logical l^ctetp* 




Note. — In the following lists, unless otherwise noted, the 
names, of the Districts are those of the corresponding County 
Court Districts, and in each case the Parishes and Hamlets are 
those comprised in the County Court area. 

1. asijforU Htstrtct: 

J. BROAD, Esq., 5 Bank Street. Ashford. 




Boughton Aluph. 





Charing Heath. 



Great Chart. 


Little Chart. 













2. Blacftfieati) anfci Hetotsfiam Btstmt: 

(Vacant by death..) 







Forest Hill. 


New Cross. 



Shooters Hill. 



Note. — These places form that fart of the County of London 
which was formerly part of the County of Kent, and contains the 
four Metropolitan Boroughs of Deptford, Greenwich, Lewisham , 
and Woolwich. Also see note under Bromley District. 


3. Bromloj H (strict: 

L. M. BTDEN, Esq., 20 Bucklersbury, E.C. 

Beckenham. Faenboeough. Oepington. 

Beomley. Gbeen Steeet Penge.* 

Chelspield. Geeen. St. Maey Cray. 

Chislehurst. Hayes. St. Paul's Cray, 

cudham. keston. shoetlands. 

Downe. Knockholt. West Wickham. 

Note. — * In the County of London. Sidcup, Foots Ceat and 
North Ceay, in this County Court area, but also in the Sural 
Deanery of East Dartford, are placed in the Dartford District. 

4. <£antcrfmr» Btetxkt: 

H. MAPLETON CHAPMAN, Esq., St. Martin's Priory, Canterbury. 













Upper Hardres. 

Lower Hardres. 
Heene Bay. 




Milton near 














5a. ©raniiroofc Btstrict: 

De. T. JOYCE, Shepherd's House, Cranbrook. 


blddenden. hawkhuest. sandhurst. 

Cranbrook. Kilndown. Sissinghuest. 

Feittenden. Newenden. 

Note. — Other places in the Cranbrook County Court area are 
assigned to the Tenter den District. 

5b. ftrnttxtim HMstrtct 

Appledoee. Stone-cum-Ebony. Tenteeden. 

Ebony. St. Michael's. Witteesham. 

High Halden. Smallhythe. Woodchuech. 

Kenaedington. . 

Note. — The above places lie in the Cranbrook County Court 



6. DartfortJ ID (strict: 

E. C. YOUENS, Esq., 17 Tower Road, Dartford. 

Abbey Wood. 
Ash near Sevenoaks. 

Bexley Heath. 





East Wickham. 





Foots Cray.* 



Halfway Street. 




Kingsdown near 



North Cray.* 


Stone near Dartford. 
Sutton- at-Hone. 


Swanley Junction, 

Note. — * In the Bromley County Court area. 

7. Heal anti OTalmer Hi (strict: 

STEPHEN MANSER, Esq., Carter House, South Street, Deal. 


Great Mongeham. 
Kingsdown near Deal. 
Little Mongeham. 






Note. — Kingsdown and Eingwould are in the Dover County 
Court area. The other places form the Deal County Court District. 
See note under Sandwich District. 

8. 29obcr lEtstrtct: 

MARTYN MOWLL, Esq., Chaldercot, Dover. 


Buckland in Dover. 
Capel le Ferne. 
Denton near 



East Langdon. 



Oxney by Dover. 



St. Margaret-at- 


Temple Ewell. 
West Cliffe. 
West Langdon. 




9. JFatersfjam Etstrtct: 

F. F. GIRAUD, Esq., 50 Preston Street, Faversham. 


Buckland near 


Goodnestone near 


Preston next 





Stone near Faversham. 




10. JFolfewtone IStfttn'ct: 

(Vacant by death.) 








11. €5ratoesmt& Btstrtct: 

W. J. KING, Esq., Lifely Lodge, Whitehill Road, Gravesend. 

Chalk. Luddesdown. Nurstead. 

Cobham. Milton next Perry Street. 

Denton near Gravesend. Rosherville. 

Gravesend. Meopham. Shorne. 

Gravesend. Merston. Singlewell. 

Ifield. Northfleet. Thong. 

12. !#£tf)c Btstrtct 

A. RANDALL DAVIS, Esq., M.R.C.S., Oaklands, Hythe. 








Monks Horton. 
Newington next 









West Hythe. 



13. JrKaOJfttone UJtstvtct: 

HUBERT BENSTED, Esq., Woodstow, Bearsted, Maidstone. 

Barmtng. East Farleigh. 

Bearsted. East Sutton, 

boughton eccles. 




Maidstone County Court 





Note.— The 

Sutton Valence. 
West Barming. 

area includes also the 

places assigned to the Mailing District. 

14. mailing ^Itstrtrt: 

H. C. H. OLIVER, Esq., High Street, West Mailing. 

Addington. Hunton. Teston. 

Aldington. Laddingford. Trottescliffe. 

Aylesford. Leybourne. Wateringbury. 

blrltng. merbworth. west farleigh. 

Collier Street. Nettlestead. West Malling. 

Ditton. Offham. West Peckham. 

East Malling. Ryarsh. Yalding. 

East Peckham. Snodland. 

Note. — See note under the Maidstone District. 

15. Jttavgate Htstrtct: 

MAUGHAM C. COLLINGWOOD, Esq., 4 Lower Northdown Arenue, Margate. 

Birchington. Margate. Westgate. 

Garlinge. Northdown. 

Note. — Broadstairs and St. Peter's, in the Margate County 
Court area, are placed in the Ramsgate District. 

16. Etamsgate Htstrict: 

H. E. BOULTER, Esq., Effingham House, Ramsgate. 





Pegwell Bay. 

St. Lawrence. 
St. Nicholas. 
St. Peter's.* 

Note. — * In the Margate County Court area, 
under Sandwich District, 

Also see note 


17. Mod) ester district: 

E. F. COBB, Esq., High Street, Rochester. 










Hoo. Halling. 

High Halstow. 


Hoo St. Mary. 

Hoo St. Werburgh. 

Isle of Grain. 


New Brompton. 

Old Brompton. 






18. ftomnri? Htstrtci: 

ARTHUR FINN, Esq., Westbroke House, Lydd. 

Hope All Saints. New Romney. 



Old Romney. 

St. Mary's in the Marsh 



19. SattBtottJ) Btstnct: 

STEPHEN MANSER, Esq.. Carter House, South Street, Deal. 








Goodnestone near 


Preston next 









Note. — This area, hitherto included partly in the Deal District 
and partly in the Ramsgate District, is a new District corresponding 
with the County Court District of Sandwich. 

20. Sebenoafts ptstrtct : 

C. J. PHILLIPS, Esq., The Glebe, Oak Lane, Sevenoaks, 
acting- pro tern, for 
Capt. H. W. KNOCKER, London Road, Sevenoaks. 

Crockham Hill. 
Dunton Green. 
Ide Hill. 







Seal St. Lawrence. 
Sevenoaks Weald. 



Stone Street. 








21. £f)£pjjej> HMstrict : 

JOHN COPLAND, Esq., Sheerness. 
Eastchurch. Leysdown. Sheerness. 

Elmley. Minster. Sheppey. 

Harty. Queenborough. Warden. 

Note. — The above places form the County Court District of 

22. Sttttngfcourne Htstrict: 

(Vacant by death.) 

Lower Halstow. Rainham. 

mllstead. rodmersham. 

Milton near Sittingbourne. 

Sittingbourne. Tonge. 


Newington near Upchurch. 
Sittingbourne. Wormshill. 



Kingsdown near 


23. ^TontinUge district: 

CHARLES R. BOSANQUET, Esq., Woodsgate, Pembury. 

Bidborough. Four Elms. Mark Beech. 

Capel. Golden Green. Marsh Green. 

Chiddingstone. Hadlow. Penshurst. 

Cowden. Hever. Tonbridge. 

Edenbridge. Hildenborough. Tudeley. 

Fordcombe. Leigh. 

Note. — Assigned to this District are : Cowden, which lies in the 
County Court District of East Grinstead, Sussex, and the parts of 
Bidborough and Tonbridge which lie in the County Court District 
of Tunbridge Wells. 

24. &unimfege WLtWs Htstvtct: 

CHARLES WATSON POWELL. Esq., Speldhurst, Tunbridge Wells. 
Ashurst. Lamberhurst. Pembury. 

Brenchley. Langton. Rusthall. 



Mat field. 
Paddock Wood. 


■See note under the Tonbridge District. 

35. HonDon anK jtamgtt Htstnct: 

(Vacant by death,) 

( x ix ) 


For Interchange of Publications , etc. 

The Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain, 19 Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

The British Archaeological Association. 15 Paternoster Bow, E.C. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

The Architectural Museum, 18 Tufton Street, Westminster, S.W 

The Numismatic Society, 22 Albemarle Street, W. 

The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The Bishopsgate Institute, 

Bishopsgate Street, E.C. 
The Historic Society of Cheshire and Lancashire {R. B. Badcliffe, Esq., M.A., 

Sec, Boyal Institution. Colquitt Street, Liverpool). 
The Boyal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland {Hon. Gen. Secretaries, 6 St. 

Stephen's Green, Dublin). 
The Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society {The librarian, 5 Eastgate, 


The Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society, Norwich. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, Moyses Hall Museum, Bury St. Edmunds 

{Rev. Canon F. E. Warren, B.B., F.S.A., Hon. Sec). 
The Surrey Archaeological Society, Castle Arch, Guildford. 
The Sussex Archaeological Society, Barbican House, Lewes. 
The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Museum, Devizes. 
The Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Museum, 


The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society {Public Library, 

East Gate, Gloucester). 
The Cambridge Antiquarian Society {Frank James Allen, Esq., M.D. {St. John's 

College, Camb.), 8 Halifax Road, Cambridge). 
The Derbyshire Archaeological Society {P. II. Currey, Esq., 3 Marhet Place, 


The Bowysland Club {T. Simpson Jones, Esq., Gungrog Hall, Welshpool). 

The Cumberland and Westmoreland Archaeological Society {W. G. Colling - 

wood, Esq., Lanehead, Collision, Lancashire). 
The Leicestershire Archaeological Society {Major Freer, Y.B., F.S.A., 10 Neio 

Street, Leicester). 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, The Library, The Castle, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne {B. Blair, Esq.). 
The Shropshire Archaeological Society {Hon. Sec, II. W. Adnitt, Esq., The Square, 


Societe Archeologique de Dunkerque. 

R. Societa Bomana di Storia Patria, Biblioteca Vallicellicvna , Roma. 
National Historical Museum, Stockholm {Dr. Anton Blomberg). 
East Herts Archaeological Society (IF. B. Gerish, Esq., Ivy Lodge, Bishop's 

The Thoresby Society, 10 Pari Street, Leeds. 

The Essex Archaeological Society {A. G. Wright, Esq., Colchester Castle, Essex). 
The British School at Rome, Palazzo Odescalchi, Rome. 

The Library of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. {Messrs. 
E, G, Allen and Co., Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C). 

c 2 

Utiles of t|c jftcitt ^rcjraolojjical ^oticip. 

1. The Society shall consist of Ordinary Members and Honorary 

2. The funds, securities, and property of the Society shall be held in 
Trust for the Members by four Trustees, who shall be Members. Any 
vacancies shall be filled at the next Annual Meeting. The affairs of the 
Society shall be conducted by a Council consisting of the President of 
the Society, the Vice-Presidents, the Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary 
Secretary, the Honorary Financial Secretary, the Honorary Editors, and 
twenty-four Members elected out of the general body of the Subscribers : 
one-fourth of the latter shall go out annually in rotation, but shall never- 
theless be re-eligible ; and such retiring and the new election shall take 
place at the Annual General Meeting: but any intermediate, vacancy, 
by death or retirement, among the elected Council, shall be filled up 
either at the General Meeting or at the next Council Meeting, whichever 
shall first happen, and the Member so appointed shall hold office so 
long as he in whose place he shall be appointed would have held office. 
Five Members of the Council to constitute a quorum. 

3. The Council shall meet to transact the business of the Society on 
the second Thursday in the month of March in Maidstone, in the month 
of June in London, in the month of September in Rochester, and on some 
day in the month of December in Canterbury, and at any other time that 
the Honorary Secretary may deem it expedient to call them together. But 
the Council shall have power, if it shall deem it advisable, at the instance 
of the President, to hold its Meetings at other places within the county ; 
and to alter the days of Meeting, or to omit a Quarterly Meeting if it 
shall be found convenient. 

4. The Council shall appoint one of their Members to be the Hon. 
Financial Secretary. His duty shall be to keep an account of all Subscriptions 
and other Receipts and Payments for the Society, and on the 31 st December 
in every year to prepare the Balance Sheet for the past year, and, after it 
has been approved by the Auditors, to lay it before the next Quarterly 
Meeting of the Council, accompanied by a Statement of all Subscriptions, 
etc., in arrear and due to the Society, and of all moneys due from them. 
And the Council are further empowered, at any time when they think it 
desirable, to employ and pay a Chartered Accountant to assist the Hon. 
[Financial Secretary in making out such Balance Sheets and Account. 

5. At every Meeting of the Society or Council, the President, or, ii> 
his absence, the Chairman, shall have a casting vote, independently of his 
vote as a Member. 

6. A General Meeting of the Society shall be held annually, in July, 
August, or September, at some place rendered interesting by its antiquities 
or historical associations, in the eastern and western divisions of the 
county alternately, unless the Council, for some cause to be by them 
assigned, agree to vary this arrangement ; the day and place of meeting 
to be appointed by the Council, who shall have the power, at the instance of 
the President, to elect some Member of the Society connected with the 
district in which the meeting shall be held, to act as Chairman of such 

Miles and uegtjlations. 

Meeting. At the said General Meeting, antiquities shall be exhibited, 
and papers read on subjects of archaeological interest. The accounts of 
the Society, having been previously allowed by the Auditors, shall be 
presented; the Council, through the Secretary, shall make a Report on 
the state of the Society; and the Auditors and the six new Members of 
the Council for the ensuing year shall be elected. 

7. The Annual General Meeting shall have power to make such 
alterations in the Rules as the majority of Members present may approve : 
provided that notice of any contemplated alterations be given, in writing, 
to the Honorary Secretary, before June the 1st in the then current year, 
to be laid by him before the Council at their next Meeting; provided, 
also, that the said contemplated alterations be specifically set out in the 
notices summoning the Meeting, at least one month before the day 
appointed for it. 

8. A Special General Meeting may be summoned, on the written 
requisition of seven Members, or of the President, or two Vice-Presidents, 
which must specify the subject intended to be brought forward at such 
Meeting; and such subject alone can then be considered. 

9. Candidates for admission must be proposed by one Member of the 
Society, and seconded by another, and be balloted for, if required, at any 
Meeting of the Council, or at a General Meeting, one black bail in five to 

10. Each Ordinary Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of Ten 
Shillings, due in advance on the 1st of January in each year ; or £10 may 
at any time be paid in lieu of future subscriptions, as a composition for 
life, provided that arrears (if any) of Annual Subscriptions are paid 
up. Any Ordinary Member shall pay, on election, an entrance fee of Ten 
Shillings, in addition to his Subscription, whether Annual or Life. Every 
Member shall be entitled to a copy of the Society's Transactions ; but 
none will be issued to any Member whose Subscription is in arrear. The 
Council may remove from the List of Subscribers the name of any Mem- 
ber whose Subscription is two years in arrear, if it be certified to them 
that a written application for payment has been made by one of the 
Secretaries, and not attended to within a month from the time of applica- 
tion. Any Member intending to withdraw his name from the Society 
shall give notice, in writing, to the Hon. Secretary of his intention to do 
so, on or before the 1st of January in any year, otherwise he shall be 
liable for the current year's Subscription. Institutions are only admitted 
to become Ordinary Members. 

1 1 . All Subscriptions and Donations are to be paid to the Bankers of 
the Society, to the Hon. Treasurer, or to one of the Secretaries. 

12. All Life Compositions shall be vested in Government Securities, 
in the names of the Trustees. The interest only of such funds to be used 
for the ordinary purposes of the Society. 

13. No cheque shall be drawn except by order of the Council, and 
every cheque shall be signed by two Members of the Council and the 
Honorary Financial Secretary. 

14. The President, Secretaries, Editors, and Treasurer, on any vacancy, 
shall be elected by a General Meeting of the Subscribers. 



15. Members of either House of Parliament, who are landed pro- 
prietors of the county or residents therein, shall, on becoming Members 
of the Society, be placed on the list of Vice-Presidents, and with them 
such other persons as the Society may elect to that office. 

16. The Council shall have power to elect, without ballot, on the 
nomination of two Members, any lady who may be desirous of becoming 
a Member of the Society. 

17. The Council shall have power to appoint as Honorary Member 
any person likely to promote the interests of the Society. Such Honorary 
Member not to pay any subscription, and not to have the right of voting at 
any Meetings of the Society ; but to have all the other privileges of 

18. ' The Council shall have power to appoint any Member Honorary 
Local Secretary for the town or district wherein he may reside, in order 
to facilitate the collection of accurate information as to objects and dis- 
coveries of local interest, and for the receipt of subscriptions, and may at 
any time cancel such appointment. 

19. Meetings for the purpose of reading papers, the exhibition of 
antiquities, or the discussion of subjects connected therewith, shall be 
held at such times and places as the Council may appoint. 

20. The Society shall avoid all subjects of religious or political con- 

21. The Secretary shall keep a record of the proceedings of the 
Society, to be communicated to the Members at the General Meetings. 


The British Museum, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

Sir W. H. St. John Hope, litt.d., d.c.l., Nethergate House, Clare, Suffolk. 
George Payne, Esq.. f.l.s., f.s.a., The Precinct, Rochester. 




The number before a Dame is that of the District in which the Member 

The * denotes a Life Compounder. 

The number (in parentheses) after a name indicates the Hon. Local Secretary 
through whom the Member pays his Annual Subscription. 

It is requested that errors and omissions be notified forthwith to R. Cooke, 
Esq., Hon. Sec, Detling, Maidstone. 

25 Abbe", Professor Cleveland, Weather Bureau, Washington, U.S.A. 
25 *Acworth, Rev. R. William Harrison, Twyford Vicarage, Berks. 

14 Adam, Mrs., Mailing Place, West Mailing. 

15 Adutt, A. Leon, Esq., Northiam, Palm Bay, Cliftonville, Thanet. 
4 Aitken, C. H., Esq., Vernon Grange, Canterbury. 

6 Alcock, Rev. John Price, m.a., The Rectory, Southfleet, Kent, 
6 Aldridge, H. E., Esq., 40 Gt. Queen Street, Dartford. 
13 Allchin, J. H., Esq., The Museum, Maidstone. 

20 Allchin, Lady, Nut Tree Hall, Plaxtole, Sevenoaks, and 5 Chandos 

Street, Cavendish Square, w. 
25 Allwork, E. C, Esq., 34 Leaside Avenue, Muswell Hill, n. 
5b Alston, Miss, Hathewolden Grange, High Halden. 
20 Amherst, The Right Hon. Earl, Montreal, Sevenoaks. 
13 Arkcoll, John, Esq., Eoley House, Maidstone. 
11 Arnold, Augustus A., Esq., f.s.a., Cobhambury, Gravesend. 
11 Arnold, Bernard, Esq., f.l.s., Milton Hall, Gravesend. 
25 *Ashcombe, The Right Hon. Lord, 17 Prince's Gate, s.w. 
4 Ashenden, Campbell, Esq., Ventnor House, London Road, Canterbury. 
1 *Ashley-Dodd, Mrs., Godinton, Ashford. 

*Ashton-Gwatkin, Rev. W. H. F., m.a., Villa Benedetini, San Gervasio, 
Florence. (20) 
25 Athenaeum Club, The, 107 Pall Mall, s.w. 

20 Athill, Charles H., Esq., m.v.o., f.s.a., Richmond Herald, College of Arms, 
Queen Victoria Street, e.c, and Sevenoaks. (2) 

25 *Badcock, W., Esq., 1 College Lawn, Cheltenham. 

20 Bailey, Lieut.-Colonel E. Wyndham, Ightham Court, Ightham, Sevenoaks. 

20 Baird, Robert George, Esq., Holmleigh, Granville Road, Sevenoaks, 

11 Baker, Herbert, Esq., Cobham, near Gravesend. 

4 Baker, Percy T., Esq., Rosebank, Bridge, Canterbury. 



1 Balaton, R. J., Esq., Bilsington Priory, Ashford. (13) 

25 *Bannerman, W. Bruce, Esq., f.s.a., 4 The Waldrons, Croydon. 
25 *Barrett, F. A., Esq., 7 South Square, Gray's Inn, w.c. 

2 Barrett, J. P., Esq., Westcroft, South Road, Forest Mill, s.e. (15) 

25 * Barron, Edward Jackson, Esq., f.s.a ., 10 Endsleigh Street. Tavistock 
Square, w.c. 

2 Bartlcet, H. Stuart, Esq., Severndroog, Shooters' H ill, s.E. 

13 Barton, Arthur, Esq., Sunny Croft, Holland Road, Maidstone. 

25 *Bartrani, Rev. Canon H., m.a., Greenroynl, Teignraouth, Devon. (8) 

25 * Baxter, Wynne E., Esq., J. p., d.l., 170 Church Street, Stoke Newington, n 3 

G Beadles, John C, Esq., Bourne Cottage, Bexley, Kent. 

5b *'Beale, G. E. Tracy, Esq., J.P., The Priory, Tenterden, Kent. 
11 *Beamish, R. J., Esq., Grove House, Gravesend. 
25 *Bean, A. W. T., Esq., 52 Porchester Terrace, Hyde Park, w. 
20 Rev. Canon Beaulands, Wickhurst Manor, The Weald, Sevenoaks. 
25 Beardmore, Rev. H. L., m.a., Abbey Gate, St. Catherine's, Lincoln. 
25 Beauchamp, The Right Hon. The Earl, K.G., K.C.M.G. (A. de C. Wilson, 

Esq.), Manor Office, Madresfield, Mnlvern. 
25 Beck, Rev. Canon E. Josselyn, m.a., 4 Scroope Terrace, Cambridge. 
25 Belcher, H. Taswell, Esq., 14 Melbourne Avenue, West Ealing, w. 

Bennett, E. J., Esq. 
13 Bensted, Hubert, Esq., Woodstow, Bearsted, Maidstone. 

13 Bensted, W. H., Esq., Longfield, Maidstone. 

25 Bergh, Rev. E. R. 5 The Convent, Carshalton, Surrey. 

20 *Bevan, Arthur T., Esq., J. p., Dormers, Bessels Green, Sevenoaks. 

16 Bevan, Rev. R. F., M.A., St. Lawrence Vicarage, Ramsgate. 

3 Biden, L. M., Esq., 20 Bucklersbury, London, E.c. 

25 Birmingham Free Libraries (Mr. A. Capel Shaw, Librarian), Ratcliff Place, 

14 Blest, W. W., Esq., Broomscroft, Wateringbury, Maidstone. 
11 Bligh, The Honourable Arthur, Cobham Hall, Gravesend. 

14 Bligh, The Lady Isabel, Eatherwell Hall, Ryarsh, Maidstone. 
7 Bliss, Rev. Canon, m.a., Betteshanger Rectory, Eastry, Deal. 
7 Blogg, Rev. E. Babington, m.a., Great Mongeham Rectory, Deal. 

4 Blore, Rev. Canon G. J., p.D., St. Stephen's, Canterbury. 

25 Board of Education, South Kensington, s.w. (Director and Secretary, 

Victoria and Albert Museum). 
25 Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 
5b Body, W., Esq., Tenterden, Kent. 

17 Bond, Lieut.-Col. R. H., Southgate, Rochester. 

25 Bonner, A., Esq., 23 Streathbourne Road, Upper Tooting, s.w. 

14 *Boodle, Rev. John A., m.a., Tudor House, West Mailing. 

11 Booth, Arthur W., Esq., Scaler's Hill, Cobham, Gravesend. 

25 Borden, Sir E. W., k.c.m.g., Old Place, Canning, Nova Scotia. (1) 

25 Borden, Spencer, Esq., Interlaken, Eall River, Mass., U.S.A. (1) 

25 *Borrowinan, J., Esq., a.e.i.b.a., 9 Adam Street, Adelphi, w.c. 

14 Borton, Lieut.-Col. A. C, Cheveney, Hunton, Maidstone. 

24 Bosanquet, Chas. R., Esq., Woodsgate, Pembury, Tunbridge Wells. 

25 Boston PubKc Library, Mass., U.S.A. (per B. Quaritch, 11 Grafton Street 

New Bond Street, w.). 
16 Boulter, H. E., Esq., Effingham House, Ramsgate. 

20 *Bowker, A. E., Esq., f.r.g.s., f.g.s., f.r.m.s., Whitehill, Wrotham, Kent. 
20 Bowles, Charles W., Esq., l.r.i.b.a., 9 Staple Inn, Holborn Bars, E.c, 
and Sevenoaks. 

20 Box, Edward Gaspar, Esq., Oak Cottage, St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks. 
25 *Boys, Rev. H. J., m.a., Layer Marney Rectory, Kelvedon, Essex. 
Brack, Rev. J. L., m.a. (23) 
9 Bramah, Mrs. ,1. West, Davington Priory, Eaversham. 
24 Brampton, E. J., Esq., 25 Culverden Park Road, Tunbridge Wells. 



21 Brainstem, Rev. William, m.a., Vicar of Minster, Sheerness. 

13 Brenchley Trustees, The Museum, Maidstone. 

25 *Brent, Algernon, Esq., f.k.g.s., 12 Mandeville Place, W. 

25 Brent, Dr. Mortimer de, 33 Victoria Road, Clapharn Common, s.w. 

13 Bridge, John William, Esq., 6 Brewer Street, Maidstone. 

25 Briggs, C. A., Esq., f.s.a., Bock House, Lynmouth, North Bevon. 

25 Brighton Free Library (Henry I). Roberts, Chief Curator), Church 
Street, Brighton. 

1 Broad, John, Esq., 5 Bank Street, Ashford, Kent. 

14 *Brocklebank, Thomas, Esq., Wateringbury Place, Maidstone. 
10 Brockman, A. Drake, Esq., 78 Cheritou Road, Folkestone. 

25 Brooke, Edward, Esq., Ufl'ord Place, Woodbridge, Suffolk. 

10 Brooke, H., Esq., 9 Radnor Cliffe, Sandgate. 

1 Brown, Alex., Esq., Hothfield, Ashford, Kent. 

23 Browne, Rev. R. C. Lathom, m.a., Hever Rectory, Edenbridge. (24) 

15 Brunton, Dr. W. B., St. John's, Birchington. 

14 *Bunyard, G., Esq., V.M.H., The Crossways, Mereworth, Maidstone. (13) 

20 Burchell, Tufnell, Esq., Vine Lodge, Holly Bush Lane, Sevenoaks. 

14 Burden, T. W., Esq., Headcoru, Ashford. 

1 Burrows, A. J., Esq., f.s.i., Holmlea, Kennington, Ashford, Kent. 

5a Butt-Gow, Phillip, Esq., Little Fowlers, Hawkhurst, Kent. 

23 Buxton, A. F., Esq., Fairhill, Tonbridge. 

24 Camden, The Most Noble the Marquess, Bayham Abbey, Tuubridge 


25 Canterbury, His Grace The Archbishop of, Lambeth Palace, Lambeth. 
4 Canterbury, The Very Rev. The Dean of, The Deanery, Canterbury. 

4 Canterbury Cathedral, Library of the Dean and Chapter. 

4 Canterbury Municipal Library, The Royal Museum, Canterbury. 

11 Cape, H. J., Esq., m.a., St. Aubin's, Meopham, Kent. 
20 Carnell, John Frederick, Esq., Suffolk House, Sevenoaks. 
25 Caroe, Mrs. E., 3 Great College Street, Westminster. 

4 Cartwright, Rev. H. B., m.a., St. Augustine's College, Canterbury. 

20 Cartwright, Sidney, Esq., Kirklees, Britains Lane, Sevenoaks. 

21 Castle, Rev. J., m.a., Queenborough, Isle of Sheppey. 

20 Castle, M. P., Esq., m.v.o., j.p., Oak Hill House, Sevenoaks. 

16 Caswell, Miss E., Elcot, St. Mildred's Road, Ramsgate. 

20 *Cazalet, W. M., Esq., j.p., Fairlawn, Shipborne, Tonbridge. 

13 Chamberlaine, Rev. J. S. ff., m.a., 36 St. Aubyns, Hove, Sussex. (5a) 

23 Chapman, A. D. B., Esq., The Birches, Penshurst. (24) 

4 *Chapman, H. Mapleton, Esq., St. Martin's Priory, Canterbury. 

23 Charrington, M. V., Esq., How Green, Hever, Edenbridge. (24) 

12 Cheney, A. D., Esq., f.s.a., Berwick, Lympne, Hythe. 
3 Churchill, John, Esq., Fircroft, Shortlands, Kent. 

16 Churchill, Rev. W. H., m.a., Stone House, St. Peter's, Broadstairs. 

13 Clark, Edwin T., Esq., 99 King Edward's Road, Maidstone. 

13 Clark, G. Foster, Esq., Boughton Mount, Boughton Monchelsea, Kent. 

13 Clark, Thomas, Esq., J. p., Fairbourne, Harrietsham. 

16 Clarke, A. B., Esq., Shirley, Penshurst Road, Ramsgate. 

25 Clarke, A. W. H., Esq., 140 Wardour Street, London, W. 

11 Clarke, R. Feaver, Esq., j.p., Daneholme, Pelham Road, Gravesend. 

25 Clarke, Stewart A., Esq., 198 Denmark Hill, London, s.E. 

13 Clifford, James, Esq., Wynnstay, St. Michael's Road, Maidstone. 

25 Clinch, George, Esq., f.g-.s., f.s.a. scot., 3 Meadowcroft Villas, Sutton, 

19 Cloke, F., Esq., Richborough House, Sandwich. 

14 Clout, Albert, Esq., Brome House, West Mailing, Maidstone. 

20 Clouting, Charles, Esq., Carlyon, Granville Road, Sevenoaks. 



8 Coates, Rev. A. L., m.a., St. Bartholomew's Vicarage, Dover. 
17 Cobb, E. Esq., a.r.i.b.a., High Street, Rochester. 

15 Cobb, F. Marsden, Esq., The Bank House, Margate. 
17 Cobb, H. M., Esq., Higham, Rochester. 

25 *Cock, E. W., Esq., m.d., f.s.a., 19 Randolph Road, Maida Hill, W. 

16 Cockburn, Edward, Esq., The Croft, Ellington Road, Ramsgate. 
25 *Cohen, Sir H. 13., Bart., 0 King's Bench Walk, The Temple, E.c. 

4 Collett, Rev. Anthony, m.a., Ellerslie, Barton Eields, Canterbury. 

24 *Collins, Brenton H., Esq., Dunorlan, Tunbridge Wells. 

25 Collyer, H. C, Esq., The Grange, Seaton, Devon. 

7 Collyer, T. H., Esq., Redcote, St. Clare Road, Upper Walmer, Deal. 

25 Columbia University Library, New York (per Mr. G. E. Stechert, 2 Star 

Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, W.C.). 

20 *Colyer~Fergusson, Thos. C, Esq., f.s.a., Ightham Mote, Ivy Hatch, near 

Sevenoaks, and Wombwell Hall, Gravesend. 

25 Congress Library, Washington, U.S.A. (per Messrs. Allen and Son, 14 

Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, w.). 

13 Connor, F. R., Esq., Pentillie, Baver Mount Road, Maidstone. 
25 Constitutional Club, Northumberland Avenue, w.c. (24) 

14 *Conway, Sir W. Martin, Kt. Bach., m.a., f.e.g.s., f.s.a., Allingtou 

Castle, Maidstone. 

13 Cooke, Richard, Esq., Honorary Secretary, The Croft, Detling, Maidstone. 

20 Coombe, A. E., Esq., Manor House, Ightham, Sevenoaks. 

20 Cooper, John Paul, Esq., Mariner's Cottage, Westerham. 
2 Cooper, Norman, Esq., 18 Lawn Terrace, Blackheath, s.e. 

21 Copland, John, Esq., Sheerness. 

13 Corbet, E. K., Esq., c.m.g., Rock House, Boughton Monchelsea, Maidstone. 

13 *Corfe, A. E., Esq., Wayside, Tollbridge Road, Maidstone. 

13 *Cornwallis, E. S. W., Esq., j.p., Linton Park, Maidstone. 

4 # Cotton, Charles, Esq., f.r.c.p., Briarfield, Ethelbert Road, Canterbury. 

20 Cotton, H. H. P., Esq., The Manor House, Westerham. 

25 Couchman, John Edwin, Esq., Dene Place, Hurstpierpoint, Sussex. (16) 

15 Courtenay-Page, Miss M., St. Martin's, Cliftonville, Margate. (16) 
25 Courthope, Captain G. L., M.P., Whiligh, Sussex. 

25 *Cowell, George, Esq., f.e.c.s., 24 Harrington Gardens, s.w. 

13 Cowper, H. Swainson, Esq., f.s.a., Loddenden Manor, Staplehurst. 
2 *Cox, Frederick John, Esq., Lustleigh, Dorville Road, Lee, Kent. 
4 Cozens, Walter, Esq., 24 Longbeach Road, Lavender Hill, s.w. 

5a Cranbrook Literary Institute, Cranbrook. 

16 Craufurd, Rev. L. P., m.a., The Vicarage, Ramsgate. 

20 Crawshay, de Barri, Esq., Rosefield, Oakhill Road, Sevenoaks. 

20 Crawshay, Lionel de Barri, Esq., Rosefield, Oakhill Road, Sevenoaks. 

11 Cripps-Day, F. H., Esq., Holly Hill, Meopham, Kent. 

14 Crocker, A., Esq., Lavenders, West Mailing. 
20 Cronk, E. E., Esq., Sevenoaks. 

11 Crook, F. W., Esq., b.a., Beckley, Overcliff, Gravesend. 

9 Crosse, Rev. T. G., m.a., The Vicarage, Faversham. 

8 Crundall, Sir W. H., Kt. Bach., j.p., Woodside, Kearsney, near Dover. 

22 Cruso, Rev. H. E. T., m.a., Tunstall Rectory, Sittingbourne. 
25 *Curtis, James, Esq., f.s.a., 179 Marylebone Road, N.W. 

25 *Curzon of Kedlestoii, The Right Hon. Lord, g.m.s.i., g.m.i.e., 1 Carlton 

House Terrace, s.w. 

25 Cust, Lionel, Esq., c.v.o., Datchet House, Datchet, Windsor. 

2 Cutler, Samuel, Esq., West Bank, Lewisham Hill, Blackheath, s.E. 

12 Dale, Rev. H. D., m.a., Vicarage, Hythe, Kent. 
16 Daniel, H. K., Esq., 1 Effingham Street, Ramsgate. 



16 Daniels, H. O., Esq., Sandivvay, Avebury Avenue, Rarasgate. 

11 Darnley, The Right Hon. The Earl of, Cobham Hall, Gravesend. 

7 Darwall, Captain W.E.,E.N.,Earlsmead, St. Clare Road, Upper Walmer, Deal. 

12 Davis, Arthur Randall, Esq., m.r.c.s., Oaklauds, Hythe, Kent. 
3 Davis, R. E., Esq., Church Hill, Beckenham, Kent. 

20 Daws, William, Esq., 57 London Road, Sevenoaks. 

3 Dawson, Miss A. J., The Rectory, Chislehurst, Kent. 

3 Dawson, Rev. J. E. le Strange, m.a., The Rectory, Chislehurst, Kent. 

17 Day, Erancis H., Esq., Diocesan Registry, Rochester. 
7 *Day, Miss, Glenside, Upper Walmer, Kent. 

13 Day, Walter, Esq., Earl Street, Maidstone. 

25 Denne, Major Alured B., r.a., Chief Inspector of Explosives, Johannesburg, 
Transvaal, South Africa. 

4 Denne, W., Esq., Lancaster Villa, Beltinge, Herne Bay. 

2 Deptford Public Library (E. J. Peplow, Librarian), 116 and 118 New 

Cross Road, s.e. 
25 Dewey, Henry, Esq. 

3 *Dewey, T. C, Esq., South Hill Wood, Bromley. 

25 *Dewick, Rev. E. S., f.s.a., 26 Oxford Square, Hyde Park, w. 

21 Dickson, Rev. R. H., m.a., Eastchurch Rectory, Sheerness. 
25 *Dimsdale, John, Esq., 22 Palmeira Court, Hove, Sussex. 

3 *Dodgson, W. H., Esq., Forest Lodge, Keston, Kent. 

25 Donaldson, Sir George, Kt. Bach., 2 Eastern Terrace, Brighton. 
25 Donne, Mrs. Augusta, 22 Ladbroke Road, Notting Hill, w. 
Dorey, Mrs. John, Park House, Brentford, Middlesex. 
7 Douglas, Mrs., Groton Cottage, Walmer, Kent. 

4 Dover, The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of, The Precincts, Canterbury. 
Downs Butcher, Mrs., 17 Cottesmore Gardens, London, w., and Graystone, 

Whitstable, Kent. 

9 Drake, Charles, Esq., Newton Road, Eaversham. 
25 Druce, G. C, Esq., Ravenscar, The Downs, Wimbledon, s.w. 

5a Druce, John A., Esq., Gore Court, Goudhurst, Kent. 
12 Duffield, Rev. C. G., The Rectory, Stowting, Hythe, Kent. (13) 

3 Duffield, E. H., Esq., St. Oswald's, Shortlands, Bromley, Kent. 

2 Duncan, Leland L., Esq., m.v.o., f.s.a., Honorary Editor, Rosslair, 
Lingard's Road, Lewisham, s.e. 
25 Duveen, Ernest, Esq., c/o 21 Old Bond Street, London, W. 
25 Duveen, G. E., Esq., 15 Stratton Street, Piccadilly, w. 
20 Duveen, John, Esq., Chipstead Place. Sevenoaks. 
25 Dyke, Rev. John Dixon, m.a., 30 Crowhurst Road, Brixton, s.w. 

6 Dyke, Hart, Miss, Lullingstone Castle, Dartford, Kent. 

25 Eagleton, L. O., Esq., 42 Ladbroke Grove, w. 

25 East, E. J., Esq., 69 Cazenove Road, Stamford Hill, n. 

16 # Eastgate, Rev. C. E., m.a., St. Paul's Vicarage, Ramsgate. 

3 *Ebbs, A. B., Esq., Tuborg, 57 Plaistow Lane, Bromley, Kent. 

7 Ebbs, Miss M. E., The Hermitage, Upper Walmer. 

13 Elgar, Hubert, Esq., Museum, Eaith Street, Maidstone. 

10 Elgar, W. H., Esq., 48 Watkin Road, Folkestone. 

5b Elgood, G. S., Esq., Knockwood, Tenterden. 

13 Eliot, Colonel W., Redheugh, Sutton Valence, Maidstone. 

7 Eliot, Gilbert, Esq., Hull Place, Sholden, Deal. 

25 Ellice- Clark, E. B., Esq. 

1 Elliot, Robert, Esq., Ashford. 

2 Elliston-Erwood, Frank C, Esq., Jesmond Dene, Foxcroft Road, Shooters' 

Hill, Kent. 

25 Elyard, S. John, Esq., Bank of England, London, e.g. 


25 Essell, E. W., Esq., 25 Bedford liow, w.c. 

6 Evans, Miss A., Skenstone, Crayford, Kent. 

19 Evans, Rev. L. H , Goodnestone Rectory, Canterbury. 

25 *Evans-C wynne, Rev. Gorges F. J. G., m.a. 

23 *Ewing, G. 13., Esq., Claydene, Cowden, Kent. 

25 Earn, A. B., Esq., Deward Cottage, Ganarew, Whitchurch- ou-Wye. 

3 *Faunthorpe, Rev. John P., m.a., Elmfield, Bromley Common, Kent. 

7 Eeltoe, Rev. C. L., d.d., Ripple Rectory, "Dover. (8) 

25 *Fergusson, Sir James Ranken, Bart., f.s.a. scot., Bordlands, West Linton, 

18 Einn, Arthur, Esq.,, Westbroke House, Lydd, Eolkestone. 

18 Einn, Edwin, Esq., Elm Grove, Lydd, Eolkestone. 

4 Ein'n, Mrs. Frederick, " Thornby," Ethelbert Road, Canterbury. 
11 Firth, Charles, Esq., m.d., Cromer House, Gravesend. 

25 Eitch, Mrs. M. L., S. Nicholas, Gordon Road, Camberley, Surrey. 

13 Fletcher, C. E., Esq., Broomfield, Yalding, Maidstone. 

10 Eolkestone Public Library and Museum, Folkestone. 

6 *Eooks, C. C. S., Esq., Reynolds Place, Horton Kirby, Kent. 

24 Eooks, E. J ., Esq., Langton House, Langton Green, Tunbridge Wells. 
13 Foreman, Frank E., Esq., The Chantry, Headcorn, Ashford, Kent. 
13 Foreman, Owen, Esq., Hunton, Maidstone. 

13 Forrest, Rev. J. A., Linton Vicarage, Maidstone. 

13 Forster, Arthur, Rumwood Court, Langle} r , Maidstone. 
6 Fountain, H., Esq., Little Mote, Eynsford. 

25 Fox, Col. Sir George Malcolm, 118 Eaton Square, s.w. 
25 Fox, Lady Marian Jane, 118 Eaton Square, s.w. 

8 Frampton, Rev. T. Shipdem, b.c.l., m.a., f.s.a., 8 Town Wall Street, Dover. 
24 Franklin, Miss, 9 Guildford Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

14 Fremlin, R. H., Esq., Wateringbury. 
20 Fulton, Major, Lisburn, Sevenoaks. 

4 Furley, Walter, Esq., Coombe House, Canterbury. 

10 Eynmore, Richard John, Esq., j.p., " By the Sea," 119 High Street, Saudgate. 

12 Galpin, Rev. Canon, D.D., Saltwood Rectory, Hythe, Kent. 

25 *Gardner, Saml., Esq., Oakhurst, Mount Park Road, Harrow-on-the-Hill. 

13 Gardner- Waterman, Rev. W., m.a., Loose Vicarage, Maidstone. 
4 Garnon Williams, Captain R.N., 7 Ethelbert Road, Canterbury. 

13 Gatehouse, Rev. A., Headcorn Vicarage, Ashford, Kent. 

1 Geering, Robert J., Esq., Laurel Bene, Ashford, Kent. 

22 Gibson, F. G., Esq., Tyneswydd, Sittingbourne. 

3 Gibson, Miss, Camden Hill, Chislehurst, Kent. 

17 *Gill, J. Haymen, Esq., Holland House, Rochester. 

5b Gilpin, Rev. B. W., m.a., High Halden Rectory, Ashford, Kent. 

9 Giraud, F. F., Esq., 50 Preston Street, Faversham. 

25 *Giraud, Rev. R. E., St. Mary Magdalene's Vicarage, 58 Osnaburgh Street, 


25 *Glasgow University Library (care of Messrs. James MacLehose and Sons, 

61 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow). 
22 Gledhill, Rev. A. E., Borden Vicarage, Sittingbourne. 
25 *Godfrey-Faussett, Major Edmund G., k.e. (care of Messrs. Cox and Co., 

Charing Cross, s.w.). 
22 Godfrey-Faussett-Osborne, H. B. G., Esq., Pipe Hill House, Lichfield, 

20 Godwin, Frank, Esq., Greystone, Sevenoaks. 



16 Goldsack, John Charles, Esq., Llanberis, Grove Road, Ramsgate. 

23 Goldsmid, J. D'Avigdor, Esq., Summerhill, Tonbridge. 

Goodenough, Rev. Leonard, Worlds End, Green Street, Sittingbourne. (9) 

4 Goodsall, Robert H,, Esq., Chilton, Tankerton-on-Sea. 

14 Goodwin, E., Esq., Canon Court, Wateringbury. 

22 Grant, W. L., Esq., High Street, Sittingbourne. 

25 ^Graves, Robert Edmund, Esq., b.a., Lyndhurst, Grange Park, Ealing, w. 

11 Gravesend Public Library (A. J. Philip, Librarian), Gravesend. 

25 Grayling, Dr. Francis, l.e.c.p., 52 Rutland Gardens, Hove, Sussex. 

4 Greene, Rev. W. L., m.a., St. Martin's Rectory, Canterbury. 

25 Griffin, Ralph, Esq., f.s.a., The Patent Office, 25 Southampton Buildings, 
London, w.c. 

13 Grubb, Mrs., Elsfield House, Holiingbourne, Maidstone. 

4 Guinness, Miss H. D., 9 Ethelbert Road, Canterbury. 

13 Guise, Rev. Julian, m.a., Addington Rectory, Maidstone. 

13 Hale, Rev. J. R., m.a., The Vicarage, Boxley, Maidstone. 

13 Hammond, Miss, East Court, Detling, Maidstone. 

14 Hannen, The Hon. Henry, The Half, West Farleigh. (13) 

13 Harbord, Dr. Edward A., Frinningham, Thurnhain, Maidstone. 

13 Hardcastle, Rev. E. H., m.a., Maidstone. 

25 Hardy, Newton II., Esq , 110 North Pine Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A. 

9 *Harris, The Right Hon. Lord, g.c.m.g., Belmont, Faversham. 

22 Harris, C. B., Esq., High Street, Sittingbourne. 
24 Harris, David, Esq. 

17 Harris, Edwin, Esq., Eastgate, Rochester. 

20 Harris, Walter S., Esq., Ashenden, Plaxtole, Sevenoaks. 

1 Harrison, Rev. Alban Henry, m.a., The Rectory, Great Chart, Ashford. 

24 Harrison, Miss, Dornden, Tunbridge Wells. 

19 Harrison, W. R., Esq., The Limes, Sandwich. 

4 Harvey, Sidney, Esq., F.c.s., Watling House, Canterbury. 

2 *Haslehust, Arthur C, Esq., Thornden, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, s.e. 

25 Haslewood, H. Dering, Esq., 139 Temple Chambers, Temple Avenue, e.c. 

14 Haynes, Lewis P., Esq., Boroughs Oak, East Peckham, Kent. (13) 

14 Hayton, Rev. G., Ryarsh, AVest Mailing. 

23 Hedges, A. P., Esq., Kenward, Tonbridge. 

20 Herries, Robert S., Esq., St. Julians, Sevenoaks. 

20 Hesketh, Captain C. T., Shorehani Road, Otford, Kent. 

2 Hesketh, Everard, Esq., Beachcroft, Eltham, Kent. 

22 Hewitt, G., Esq., Newington-next-Sittingbourne. 

25 Hill, R. H. E., Esq., 60 Chancery Lane, e.c. (3) 

16 Hills, Miss E., Trafalgar Villa, AVest Cliffe Road, Eamsgate. 

13 Hills, Henry, Esq., Pliilse, Queen's Avenue, Maidstone. 

15 Hills, W., Esq., Gwydyr House, Dane Road, Margate. 

16 Hinds, Henry, Esq., 57 Queen Street, Ramsgate. 

2 Hitchcock, Capt. W. M., Esq., Mayfield, 1 Orchard Road, Blackheath, 


13 Hoar, Robert, Esq., The College Tower, College Buildings, Maidstone. 

5a *Hoare, W., Esq., Summerhill, Benenden, Cranbrook. 

6 Hodsdon, G. C, Esq., 24 Spring Vale, Dartford, Kent. 

2 *Holt- White, R., Esq., m.a. 

22 Homewood, Chas. E., Esq., Ufton Court, Sittingbourne. 

11 Homewood, E. J., Esq., 13 Harmer Street, Gravesend. 

3 Homewood, W. J., Esq., Holmbury, Shawfield Park, Bromley, Kent. (11) 
25 Hone, Nath. J., Esq. (20) 

9 Honeyball, Col. Jas. F., j.p., New Gardens, Teynham, Sittingbourne. 

4 Hooker, G. N., Esq., m.a., Sunningdale, Westbere, Canterbury. 



9 Hooper, Captain Charles F., J.P., Harewoll, Sheldwich, Faversham. 

15 Hope-James, Miss M. L., St. Augustine's, Heridgc, Herts. 

24 Horan, Mrs., Mount Horan, Lamberhurst, Kent. (25) 

9 *Hordern, Herbert, Esq., J.P., Throwley House, Faversham. 

25 Horsley, Sir Victor, M.B., f.k.s., 25 Cavendish Square, w. 

1 Hothfield, The Right Hon. Lord, Hothfield Place, Ashford, Kent. 

2 Howell, G. O., Esq., 210 Eglinton Road, Plumstead, Kent. 

22 Hughes, C. G., Esq., Myrtle House, Canterbury Road, Sittingbourne. 
13 Hughes, Rev. H. R., m.a., Leeds Vicarage, Maidstone. 

23 *Hulkes. C J. G., Esq., J.P., Hadlow, near Tonbridge. 

11 Hunter, J. G., Esq., 6 Victor Terrace, Sun Lane, Gravesend. 

16 Hurst, Miss M. J., 119 High Street, Ramsgate. 

4 Hussey, Miss Anna, 14 Edward Road, Canterbury. 

4 *Hussey, Arthur, Esq., Glen Lynn, Northwood Road, Tankerton, Kent. 

8 Hutchinson, C. B., Esq., a.E.i.b.a., Bay Hill, St. Margaret's-at-Cliffe, 
"Dover. (7) 

20 Ibbett, Ered. David, Esq., Sevenoaks. 
1 Igglesden, C, Esq., Heathfield, Ashford, Kent. 

9 Jackman, E. C, Esq., 12 Market Street, Faversham. 
Jackson, Alfred, Esq. 
19 Jackson, Mrs. L., Updown House, Eastry, s.o., Kent. 
13 Jacob, W., Esq., 8 Somerfield Terrace, Maidstone. 
19 * Jacobs, J. A., Esq., Sandwich, Kent. 

4 James, Hon. Mrs. Wilfred, Woodlands, Adisham, Canterbury. 
25 James, J. B., Esq., Claremont, Kingswear, S. Devon. 

James, Miss, St. Augustine's, Edgar Road, Margate. 
25 Jaye, W. R., Esq., Springwood Lodge, Oakfield Road, Clapton, n.e. 
25 Jenkinson, F. J. H., Esq., Southmead, Chaucer Road, Cambridge. 

3 * Jennings, C. F. J., Esq., Brackley House, Beckenham, Kent. 

1 Jennings. W. J., Esq., Kennington Hall, Ashford. 
5a Jobson, Mrs , Brooksden, Cranbrook, Kent. 

25 * Johnson, M. Warton, Esq., 75 The Drive, West Brighton. 
25 Johnston, P. Mainwaring, Esq., f.s.a., f.k.i.b.a., Sussex Lodge, Champion 
Hill, S.E. 

2 *Jones, Eric A. Goddard, Esq., 3 Talbot Place, Blackheath, s.e. 
25 Jones, Rev. Geo., Shirley Vicarage, Croydon. 

2 * Jones, Herbert, Esq., f.s.a., 42 Shooters' Hill Road, Blackheath, s.E. 
13 Jones, Miss L., Derwent House, Loose, Maidstone. 
16 Jones, Mrs. A. Keith, 31 St. George's Road, Eccleston Square, s.w. 
18 * Jones, R. S., Esq., m.a., New Hall, Dymchurch, Kent. 
15 Joyce, A., Esq., Richborough Lod^e, Alpha Road, Birchington, s.o., Kent. 

5a Joyce, Dr. T., Shepherd's House, Cranbrook, Kent. 
22 Julian, Mrs. B., Milsted Rectory, Sittingbourne. 

19 Kennedy, A., Esq., The Lynch, Eastry, Deal. 

6 Keyes, S. Kilworth, Esq., The Dene, Dartford, Kent. 

25 *Keyser, Charles E., Esq., m.a.., d.l., j.p., f.s.a., Aldermaston Court, 

17 *Kidwell, John, Esq., The Banks, Rochester. 

13 Killick, Charles, Esq., m.a., m.d., Trinity House, Maidstone. 

11 King, A. Warr, Esq., Trewinnow, Darnley Road, Gravesend. 

11 King, W, J., Esq., Lifely Lodge, Whitehill Road, Gravesend, 



13 Kingsland, H. M., Esq., J.P., Headcorn, Kent. (5a) 

13 *Kleinwort, H. G., Esq., Wierton Place, Boughton Monchelsea. 

2 *Knill, Sir John, Bart., South Vale House, Blackheath, s.E. 

20 Knocker, Capt. Herbert W., London Road, Sevenoaks. 

20 Kraftmeier, Edward, Esq., Asbgrove, Sevenoaks. 

25 # Lambarde, Major Fane, f.s.a., Honorary Editor, 34 Emperor's Gate, 
South Kensington, s.W. 

14 Lambert, Alan, Esq., The Limes, Wateringbury. 

25 Lambert, Uvedale, Esq., Southpark Farm. Bletchingley, Surrey. 

25 Laming, Major H. T., The Knoll, Barton-under-Needwood, Burton-on- 
Lampen, Rev. C. D. 

1 Lamprey, A. S., Esq., m.a., The Grammar School, Ashford. 

25 Lane, Mrs. H. Murray, St. Anthony's, Weybridge, Surrey. 

17 Latham, F. L., Esq., Gads Hill Place, Higham, Rochester. 

13 Lattimer, E., Esq., Church Institute, Maidstone. 

13 Le Bosquet, Rev. George, The Presbytery, Week Street, Maidstone. 
25 Le Couteur, J. D., Esq., Rosedale, Beaumont, Jersey, CI. 

15 Leetham, Herbert Rowe, Esq., Thanet College, Margate. 

25 *Legg, J. Wickham, Esq., m.d., f.s.a., 4 St. Margaret's Road, Oxford. 

25 Legg, Rev. Wm., m.a., St. Mary's Vicarage, Reading. (12) 

14 Leney, Mrs. A., Orpines, Wateringbury, Maidstone. 
9 *Leney, Harry, Esq., Selling Court, Faversham. 

8 *Leney, Hugh, Esq., Castle Street, Dover. 

4 Letchworth, Mrs., 3 Ethelbert Road, Canterbury. 

22 *Levy, Lewis, Esq., Borden Hall, Sittingbourne. 

25 Lewis, Rev. R. W. M., m.a., Dersingham Vicarage, King's Lynn, Norfolk. 

20 Lewis, William C, Esq., Millwood, Wrotham Heath, Kent. (13) 

25 Lincoln's Inn Library (A. F. Etheridge, Esq., Librarian), Lincoln's Inn, 
w.c. (24) 

20 Little, A. G., Esq., f.k.a.s., Risborough, Sevenoaks. 

13 Littlewood, Rev. A. B., The Vicarage, East Farleigh, Maidstone. 

14 Livett, Rev. Canon Grevile M., b.a., f.s.a., Wateringbury Vicarage, Kent. 
25 *Llewellin, W., Esq., Upton House, near Poole. 

4 Lochee, W. A., Esq., Upper Hardres, Canterbury. 

25 London, The Librarian (pro tern) of the Corporation of the City of, Guild- 
hall, E.C. 

25 London Library, The, 14 St. James's Square, s.w. 

7 Lord, W. Wyley, Esq., f.e.g.s., Westlea, Upper Walmer, Deal. 

11 Lovell, Charles E., Esq., 8 Wrotham Road, Gravesend. 

16 Lowndes, Mrs., Stone Cross, Ramsgate. 

20 Lubbock, Percy, Esq., Emmetts, Ide Hill, Sevenoaks. 

13 Lushington, Henry V., Esq., Aldington Court, Thurnham, Maidstone. 

13 Lushington, Mrs. H. V., Aldington Court, Thurnham, Maidstone. 

13 Lushington, Rev. T. Godfrey, m.a., Park House, Maidstone. 

7 McCall, R. A., Esq., k.c, The Knoll, Drum Hill, Walmer, Kent. 

24 McCheane, Rev. H. Dalgety, m.a., The Cottage, Cumberland Walk, Tun- 

bridge Wells. 

11 Macartney, S. R., Esq., Meadowlands, Gravesend. 

25 MacCormick, Rev. F., f.s.a. scot., m.r.a.s., Wrockwardine Wood Rectory, 

Wellington, Salop. 
20 McDermott, Walter K., Esq., Borough Green, Wrotham, Kent. 
4 MoDowall, Rev. C. R. L., m.a., King's School, Canterbury. 



20 Maekinnon, Rev. D. ])., m.a., Speldhurst Close, Sevenoaks. (24) 

13 MacLeod, Sir Reginald, E.C.B., Vintors, Boxley, Kent. 

13 MaoMahon, VV. II., Esq., Magenta, Loose, Maidstone. 

13 *Maoonochie. Mrs. Beatrice, The Priory, East Farleigh, Kent. 

25 Madders, 11. Franklin, Esq., 12 New Court, Carey Street, w.c. 

15 Madders, John Messenger, Esq., Homestead, Westgate-on-Sea, Thanet. 

15 Madders, Mrs., 75 Lansclowne Road, London, w . , and Homestead, Westgate- 


4 Maidstone, The Venerable The Archdeacon of, Precincts, Canterbury. 

10 Man, E. Garnet, Esq., J.P., Halstead, The Riviera, Sandgate. 
7 Manser, S., Esq., Carter House, South Street, Deal. 

25 Maplesden, The Rev. Canon, Knowle, Semaphore Road, Guildford. 

25 Marchant, Charles, Esq., 10 Charles Street, St. James's, s.w. 

6 Marchant, Roht., Esq., Sutton-at-Hone, Hartford, Kent. 

16 *Marks, H. H., Esq., j.p., Callis Court, St. Peter's, Thanet. 
25 Marks, H. Cecil, Esq., 6 Cavendish Square, W. 

20 Marshall, George, Esq., The Royal Crown Hotel, Sevenoaks. 

13 Marsham, George, Esq., j.p., Hayle Cottage, Loose, Maidstone. 

11 Martin, F. W., Esq., 57 Darnley Road, Gravesend. 
20 *Martin, P. A. B., Esq., Chipstead, Sevenoaks. 

25 *Martin, Sir Richard Biddulph, Overbury Court, Tewkesbury. 

22 Martin, Rev. W. T., m.a., Bicknor Rectory, Hollingbourne, Kent. (13) 

4 *Mason, Rev. Canon, The Precincts, Canterbury. 

10 Masterman, J., Esq., Mayfield Lodge, Christ Church Road, Folkestone. 

18 Maude, E. W., Esq., j.p., The Elms, New Romney. 

15 Maughan, C. Collingwood, Esq., 4 Lower Northdown Avenue, Margate. 

16 May, Miss Edith, 1 Belvidere Place, Broadstairs. 

4 Maylam, Percy, Esq., 32 Watling Street, Canterbury. 

25 ^Melbourne Public Library, Victoria (Agent-General, Melbourne Place, 

Strand, w.c). 

13 Mercer, Randall, Esq., Sandling Place, Maidstone. 

13 Mercer, W. F., Esq., Arreton House, Maidstone. 

15 Mercer, W. J., Esq., j.p., 12 Marine Terrace, Margate. 

25 Mesham, Colonel Arthur, Poutruffydd, Trefnant, R.S.O., North Wales. 

3 Miles, Martin, Esq., Netherfield, 13 Scott's Lane, Shortlands, Kent. 

25 Mitchell, J. Hawthorn, Esq., Isthmian Club, Piccadilly, w. 

13 Monckton, Herbert, Esq., Astley House, Maidstone. 

20 # Mond, Robert, Esq., Combe Bank, Sevenoaks. 

7 Monins, John H., Esq., j.p., Ringwould House, Ringwould, Dover. 

16 *Montefiore, Robert M. Sebag, Esq., East Cliff Lodge, Ramsgate. 
15 Moore, Rev. C, D.D., Apley Rise, Westgate-on-Sea. 

20 Morgan, Rev. E. K. B , Sundridge Rectory, Sevenoaks. 

24 Morland, C. W., Esq., Court Lodge, Lamberhurst, Kent. 

7 Morrice, F., Esq., The Vine, Northbourne, Deal, Kent. 
Morris, Mrs. 

8 *Mowll, Martyn, Esq., Chaldercot, Dover. 

10 Muir, Mrs., 11 Grimston Avenue, Folkestone. 

2 Muller, Harry, Esq., 12 West Park, Eltham, Kent. 
Murray, A. G., Esq. (7) 

24 Murton, Sir Walter, Kt. Bach., c.B., Gipps Close, Langton, Kent. 

9 Neame, Mrs. FYederick, Colkins, Faversham, Kent. 
23 Neve, Arthur, Esq., Pinnacles, Tonbridge, Kent. 

5a Neve, Miss Mary, Osborne Lodge, Cranbrook. 
14 Nevill, The Honourable Ralph P., Birling Manor, West Mailing, Maid- 



25 Newberry Library, Chicago, TJ.S.A. (per Messrs. B. E. Stevens and Brown, 

4 Trafalgar Square, W.C.). 
25 *Newington, Mrs. Campbell, Oakover, Ticehurst, Sussex. 
20 Newman, R. V., Esq., Wrotham, Kent. (23) 

6 Newton, W. M., Esq., Summerhill Road, Dartford, Kent. 

25 New York Public Library (care of Messrs. B. E. Stevens and Brown, 4 Tra- 
falgar Square, w.c). 
*Nicholls, W. H., Esq. 
3 *Nichols, Wm. J., Esq.. Lachine, Chislehurst, Kent. 

24 ^Nicholson, Herbert, Esq., Old Farm, Bidborough, Tunbridge Wells. 

25 *Ninnis, Inspector-General Belgrave, m.d., f.e.g.s., f.s.a., The Elms, 

Leigham Avenue, Streatham, s.w. 
2 *Noakes, Miss E., Brockley Hall, Brockley, s.e. 
25 * Norman, Philip, Esq., f.s.a., 45 Evelyn Gardens, South Kensington, s.w. 
11 North, Captain O. H., Camer, Meopham, Graveseud. 

7 Northbourne, The Bight Hon. Lord, f.s.a., President, Betteshanger, 

Eastry, S.O., Deal.'" (7) 
1 ^Norwood, Edward, Esq., Charing, Asbford, Kent. 
1 *Norwood, Rev. George, Charing, Ashford, Kent. 
1 Nottidge, T., Esq., j.p., Ashford, Kent. 

25 *Oke, A. W., Esq., 32 Denmark Villas, Hove, Sussex. 

25 *01iver, Edm. Ward, Esq., 1 Corbet Court, Gracechurch Street, e.c. 

14 Oliver, H. C. Hewitt, Esq., High Street, West Mailing. 

18 Oliver, Dr. H. S., Skinner House, Lydd, Kent. 

8 Orger, Rev. E. R., m.a., 24 Marine Parade, Dover. 

2 Orwin, Levi, Esq., 13 Marnock Road, Crofton Park, s.e. 

2 Outhwaite, H., Esq., 98 St. John's Park, Blackheath, s.E. 

1 Owen, Rev. E., Boys Hall, Willesborough, Ashford, Kent. 
25 Owin, C. S., Esq., 7 Marston Ferry Road, Oxford. 

2 Oxenham, E. H., Esq., f.e.s.l., Keston Villa, Rushey Green, Catford, s.e. 
25 Oxford Architectural and Historical Society (Charles T. E. Phillips, Esq., 

Assistant Librarian), Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

13 Oyler, T. H., Esq., Woodbury, Maidstone. 

16 Page, Major Stanley H., Tancrey House, Vale Square, Ramsgate. 

16 Page, W. Gray, Esq., 2 Queen Street, Ramsgate. 

6 Palmer, Rev. H. J., m.a., Coniston, Main Road, Sidcup, Kent. 
25 *Parker, E. C. Shirecliffe, Esq., m.a., Green End, Northwood, Middlesex. 

1 Parkes, R., Esq., Church Road, Ashford, Kent, 

2 Parsons, Arthur P. Gymer, Esq., f.r.c.s., Harbledown, Kidbrook Gardens, 

Blackheath, s.e. 
25 Partridge, Rev. E., m.a., Lewes, Sussex. 

25 Patrick, G., Esq., Ivanhoe, Woodborough Road, Putney, s.w. 

12 Paxon, Arthur, Esq., 4 Tanner's Hill, Hythe, Kent. (25) 

19 Payne, Rev. Orlebar David Bruce, St. Clement and St. Mary Vicarages, 

Sandwich, Kent. 

25 Peabody Institute of Baltimore (The Chairman), Baltimore, U.S.A. (per 
Messrs. Allen & Son, 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, w.c). 

20 Pearce-Clark, Mrs. L. P., Suffolk Lodge, Sevenoaks. 

17 Pearman, Mrs., The Precincts, Rochester. 

13 Pearne, Thomas, Esq., Carmel Cottage, Loose, Maidstone. 

3 Peckett, W. H., Esq., Wyvelsfield, Kemnali Road, Chislehurst, Kent. 

VOL. XT.TI. d 



25 Pennsylvania Historical Society, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. (care of Messrs. 
Stevens and Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, w.c.). 

8 Pepper, Matthew, Esq., J.P., 47 High Street, Dover. 

25 Perowne, E. S. M., Esq., f.s.a., 10 Coleman Street, e.g. 

25 Perry, Rev. C. R., D.D., Mickfield Rectory, Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

25 *Phelps, Rev. L. R., m.a., Oriel College, Oxford. 

20 Phillips, Charles J,, Esq., The Glehe, Oak Lane, Sevenoaks. 

25 Phillips, Rev. E. E., m.a., Markyate Vicarage, near Dunstable, Herts. 

20 Phillips, Rev. Wilmot, m.a., Plaxtole Rectory, Sevenoaks. 

25 Pleadwell, W. G., Esq., 31 Castellain Road, Maida Hill, w. (5b) 

19 Plumptre, H. W., Esq., Fredville, Nonington, Dover. 

20 Poland, Henry, Esq., St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks. 
25 * Porter, Horace, Esq., 16 Russell Square, London, w.c. 
20 Potter, Percy P., Esq., Buona Vista, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

4 Potts, Rev. R. IT., St. Augustine's Missionary College, Canterbury. 

4 Potts, Miss Violet E., Speldhurst, Canterbury. 

24 *Powell, C. Watson, Esq., D.L., J.P., Hon. Treasurer, Speldhurst, Tunbridge 


15 Powell-Cotton, Major P. H. G., Quex Park, Birchington. 

20 Pratt, The Lady Prances, The Grove, Seal, Sevenoaks. 

22 Prentis, Charles, Esq., Posiers, Borden, Sittingbourne. 

8 Prescott, P. W., Esq., J.P., Strond Street, Dover. 

6 Priest, S., Esq., f.e.g., 5 South View, Watling Street, Dartford. 

25 Probyn, Lieut.- Colonel Clifford, 55 Grosvenor Street, w. 
13 *Prosser, W. B., Esq., Ardenlee, Maidstone. 

25 Public Record Office (care of Messrs. Wyman and Sons, Ireland Yard, St. 
Andrew's Hill, E.c). 

4 Pyper, Rev. R. B., Bekesbourne Vicarage, Canterbury. 

25 Quaritch, B., Esq., 11 Grafton Street, New Bond Street, w. 

16 Radcliffe, A., Esq., Lowther, D'Este Road, Ramsgate. 

10 Radnor, The Right Hon. The Earl of (per L. G. A. Collins, Esq., Manor 
Office, Folkestone). (25) 

19 Raggett, Mrs., Manwood Court, Sandwich, Kent. 

9 Rammell, Rev. W. H., m.a., Boughton Blean, Paversham. 

16 Ramsgate Pree Library, Ramsgate. 

25 Raven, Roger Abbot, Esq., b.a., Rugby School, Rugby. (16) 

25 Rawes, Mrs., 10 Hyde Park Mansions ("J" Plat), Marylebone Road, n.w. 

13 Reatchlous, Miss, Hemsley House, Terrace Road, Maidstone. 

6 Redshaw, C. J., Esq., Astana, 53 Oaklands Road, Bexley Heath, Kent. 

15 Reeve, R. Dalby, Esq., 7 Cecil Square, Margate. 

5b Rendall, Rev. Seymour Henry, m.a., Woodchurch Rectory, Ashford, Kent. 

13 Richards, Miss A., Oakfield, Hollingbourne, Maidstone. 

25 *Richardson, E. P. Boys, Esq., Denecote, 46 Normandy Avenue, High 

2 Richardson, Walter H., Esq., Rookwood, Eltham, Kent. (25) 
1 Richardson, W., Esq., 9 Bank Street, Ashford. 

13 Richford, E. W., Esq., Summerhill, Headcorn, Ashford. (5a) ' 

22 Rickards, Arthur W., Esq., Norton Court, Sittingbourne. 

25 Roberts, Colonel Sir Howland, Bart., v.d., d.l., 75a Lexham Gardens, 
Kensington, w. 

3 Robertson, John C, Esq., Prior's, Keston, Beckenham, Kent. 

3 Robertson, Mrs. Scott, The Haven, Wickham Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

17 Robins, Rev. Canon W. H., D.D., Gillingham Vicarage, Chatham. 

20 Robinson, Mrs. Fred., Betsomes Bank, Westerham, Kent. 

20 Rochester, The Rt. Rev. The Lord Bishop of, Bishop's Court, Sevenoaks, 



17 Rochester Public Library, The Librarian, Rochester. 

20 *Rogers, Col. J. M., d.s.o., j.p., Riverhill, near Sevenoaks. 

13 Rogers, G. H. J., Esq., f.k.m.s., 55 King Street, Maidstone. 

4 Rogers, Mrs., Barton Fields, Canterbury. 
25 Romney, The Right Hon. The Earl of, Gay ton Hall, King's Lynn, Nor- 

20 Rooker, Rev. John, m.a.. The Rectory, Sevenoaks. 

19 Roscow, Rev. B., m.a. 

11 Rosher, Miss Isabelle R., The Grange, Rosherville, Gravesend. 
25 Rotter, C. M., Esq., Oxo Co., Thames House, Queen Street Place, e.o. 

15 Rowe, Arthur W., Esq., m.d., Shottendane, Margate. 

20 Rowell, J. B., Esq., Durrant, Mount Harry Road, Sevenoaks. 

24 Roxby, H. T., Esq., 16 Lansdowne Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

25 Royal Institution of Great Britain, The Library of, Albemarle Street, w. 
13 Ruck, Walter, Esq., 11 High Street, Maidstone. 

24 Ruxton, Capt. Julian H. Hay, j.p., Crooke, Brenchley, Kent. 

25 Ryland's Library, The John (S. J. Tennant, Esq., Treasurer), Deansgate, 


20 Sackville, The Right Hon. Lord, Knole Park, Sevenoaks. 

16 St. Augustine's Abbey, The Very Rev. the Abbot of, Ramsgate. 
4 St. Augustine's College, The Bursar of, Canterbury. 

24 *Salomons, Sir David Lionel, Bart., Broom Hill, Tunbridge Wells. 

25 Sands, Harold, Esq., F.s. a. , f.k.h.s., m.i.m.e., Bernersmede, Carlisle Road, 

Eastbourne. Sussex. (5b) 

15 Sankey, P. E., Esq., 11 Cecil Square, Margate, and 44 Russell Square, w.c. 

7 Sargant, Lady, General's Meadow, St. Clare Road, Upper Walmer, Deal. 

13 Scarlett, Mrs., Penenden House, Maidstone. 

25 Scott, B. J., Esq., St. Catherines, Weybridge. 

23 Scott, Mrs. C. J., Cowden Cross, Cowden, Kent. 
12 Scott, Rev. G. M., Lympne Vicarage, Hythe. 

24 Scott, The Venerable Archdeacon, St. James's Vicarage, Tunbridge Wells. 
11 Scratton, John, Esq., Sole Street, Gravesend. 

11 Scriven, C. H., Esq., Thong, Gravesend. 

20 Seale, Miss P. E., 24 London Road, Seveuoaks. 

9 Selby, Mrs. Elizabeth, Bruson, Teynham. (24) 

20 Sevenoaks Pree Library, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

22 Sewell, Rev. T. J., m.a., Lynsted Vicarage, Sittingbourne. 
11 Sharland, G., Esq., Parrock Hall, Gravesend, 

25 Shindler, T., Esq., m.a., ll.b., 43 Streathbourne Road, Upper Tooting, s.w. 

23 Shrivell, F. W., Esq., f.l.s., Thompson's, Golden Green, Hadlow, Tun- 


20 Sills, Francis, Esq., a.e.i.b.a., Dornhurst, Bradbourne Park Road, Seven- 

25 Simmons, G., Esq., Woburn Hill, Addlestone, Surrey. 

3 Simpson, David Chisholm, Esq., Iona, 19 Wendover Road, Bromley. 

3 Simpson, David Guthrie, Esq., 155 Widmore Road, Bromley. 

17 *Smetham, Henry, Esq., Strood, Rochester. 

7 Smith, Dr. S. J., Beachy, Stanley Road, Deal. 
17 Smith, F. F., Esq., Watt's Avenue, Rochester. 

6 Smith, H. W., Esq., " Earde-cote," Picardy Road, Belvedere, Kent. 

9 Smith, Jabez, Esq., j.p., Craythorne House, Faversham. 

6 Smith, Rev. Canon Percy E. P., Dartford Vicarage. 

25 Smith, W. P. Haskett, Esq., 34 Russell Road, Holland Park, w. 

17 Smyth, R. P., Esq., 33 Star Hill, Rochester. 

8 Smythe, Lieut. -Colonel G. F. A., r.a.m.c, 1 Castlemount Terrace, Dover 
6 Snowden, E, W., Esq., 6 Highfield Road, Dartford, 

d 2 



19 Solley, G. 0., Esq., Richborough, Sandwich. (7) 

18 South, Rev. Hugh G., m.a. } High House, New Romney. 
18 South, Rev. R. M., m.a., The Vicarage, New Romney. ' 
25 # Southey, Ronald, Esq., 23 "Rue Felix Faure, Cote d'Ingouville, Havre, 

5a Springett, Mrs., Ashfield, Hawkhurst, Kent. 
1 Springett, Rev. I)r., Pluckley, Ashfbrd. 

24 Stagg, Cecil, Esq., Sandhurst Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

20 *Standen, Hugh Wyatt, Esq., a.m.i.c.e., Canterbury House, Sevenoaks. 
20 Stanhope, The Countess, Chevening, Sevenoaks. 

20 Stanhope, The Right Hon. The Earl, Chevening, Sevenoaks. 

17 Stephens, A. F. W ., Esq., Rome House, Chatham, Kent. 
5a Stevens, W. R., Esq., Winchet Hill, Goudhurst, Kent. 

11 *Stevens, Miss E. J„ The Parsonage, Cobham, Gravesend. 
16 Stock, W. T., Esq., 2 Elm Villas, Ramsgate. 

1 Stokes, C, Esq., 22 Kent Avenue, Ashford, Kent. 
16 Stokes, Miss A. E., York Villa, Grange Road, Ramsgate. 

25 *Stratton, A., Esq... Corringham, Reigate Road, Reigate. 
20 Streatfield, Claude A. C, Esq., Uplands, Westerham. 

25 *Streeter, E. W., Esq., f.e.g.s. 49 Compayne Gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 
4 Strettell, Miss H., 3 Etlielbert Road, Canterbury. 

18 Stringer, H. W., Esq., b.a., New Romney. 

25 *Stubbs, Henry, Esq., Danby, Ballyshannon, Donegal, Ireland. 

9 Stunt, Walter C, Esq., Lorenden, Ospringe, Faversham. 
25 *Styan, Miss Anne, 72 Oxford Terrace, w. 

5b Sutton, John, Esq., Chomlea, Tenterdeu, Kent. 
14 Swan, Rev. R., m.a., West Peckham Vicarage, Maidstone. 
16 Swinford, F., Esq., Minster House, Minster, Thanet. 

25 Sydney Free Public Library (care of Messrs. Truslove and Hanson, 151 

Oxford Street, w.). 
25 *Sylvester, Charles F., Esq., Branksome, Godalming. 

11 Tanner, Rev. R. E., Shorne Vicarage, Gravesend. 

13 Tasker, Henry, Esq., Danefield, Bearsted. 

25 Taylor, A. H., Esq., 6 Clement's Road, East Ham, Essex. 

6 *Taylor, E. Reginald, Esq., Medomsley, Sidcup, Kent. 

24 Taylor, Henry, Esq., Braeside, Rusthall, Tunbridge Wells. 

25 *Taylor, R. Wright, Esq., m.a., ll.b., f.s.a., 8 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's 

Inn, W.c. 

8 Terson, T. A., Esq., j. p., Castle Street, Dover. 

20 Thomas, Carmichael, Esq., Mount Cottage, Wrotham, Sevenoaks. 

2 Thomas, J. Lambly, Esq., 12 North Park, Eltham, Kent. 

7 Thomas, Rev. W. C, m.a., Northbourne Rectory, Deal. 
25 Thompson, Gibson, Esq., 24 Bride Lane, Fleet Street, E.c. 

17 Thompson, Henry, Esq., 21-23 High Street, Strood, Rochester. 

20 ^Thompson, Rev. H. P., m.a., Kippington Vicarage, Sevenoaks. 

3 Thornton, T. W., Esq., 43 High Street, Beckenham, Kent. 

6 Till, E. D., Esq., The Priory, Eynesford, Kent. 
17 Tingey, Wm., Esq., Castle Moat, Rochester. 

25 *Tinn'e, H. W., Esq., Union Club, Trafalgar Square, s.w. 

10 Toke, N. E., Esq., Penfillan House, Sandgate Road, Folkestone. 

5a *Tomlin, E. L., Esq., j.p., Angley Park, Cranbrook, Kent. 

16 *Tomson, Martin J. R., Esq., J.P., Court Stairs, St. Lawrence, Ramsgate. 
13 Tonge, Miss Gertrude, The Croft, Detling, Maidstone. 

15 Trimmer, Rev. H. E., m.a., St. Nicholas at Wade Vicarage, Birchington. 

20 Tubby, A. H., Esq., f.k.C.s., Wilburv, South Park, Sevenoaks. 

7 Tudor, Rev. C. M., Bradfield, Walmer, Deal. 

17 Tuffill, C. J., Esq., Rochester. 


12 Turle, Miss, The Whim, Hythe. 

13 Turner, J. H., Esq., 6 Ashford Road, Maidstone. 

13 Turner, Mrs. Blois, Medway Cottage, Sandling, Maidstone. 

13 Turner, W. H., Esq., 2 St. Luke's Avenue, Maidstone. 

25 *Tyssen- Amherst, Daniel, Esq., 40 Chancery Lane, E.c. 

20 Underwood, H. T., Esq., Broughton Manor, Otford, Kent. 

20 Underwood, N. E., Esq., Belle Vue, Sevenoaks. 

10 Vacheil, I. N. T., Esq., 24 Castle Hill Avenue, Folkestone. 

25 Vallance, W. H. Aymer, Esq., f.s.a., Burlington Eine Arts Club, 17 Savile 
Row, w., and 88 Newman Street, Oxford Street, w. 

5b Varty, G. F., Esq., 1 Borough Place, Tenterden. 

13 Vaughan, E., Esq., J. p., Kensale House, Tonbridge Road, Maidstone. 

21 Venn, Rev. A. D., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Sheerness. 

1 Viggers, C, Esq., Ashford, Kent. 

2 Vincent, Win. Thos., Esq., 189 Burrage B-oad, Plumstead, Kent. 
16 Vinten, Harold Bertram, Esq., Elmside, The Elms, Ramsgate. 
16 Vye, G. F., Esq., Truro Lodge, East Cliff, Ramsgate. 

11 Wade, H., Esq., Homeland, Meopham, near Gravesend. 

25 *Wadinore, Beauchamp, Esq., 10 Kimbolton Avenue, Bedford. 

25 *Wagner, Henry, Esq., f.s.a., 13 Half Moon Street, Piccadilly, w. 

9 Waite, Rev. William, Graveney Vicarage, Eaversham. 

25 Walford, Arthur, Esq., 6 New Oxford Street, w. 

24 Waller, H. W., Esq., 58 St. James's Road, Tunbridge Wells. 
13 Wallis, F. E., Esq., J.P., 239 Boxley Road, Maidstone. 

25 *Walmisley, A. T., Esq., m.inst.c.e., 9 Victoria Street, Westminster, s.w. 

22 Walter, John A., Esq., Berengrave, Rainham, Kent. 
6 Ward, H. J., Esq., The Mill House, Farningham. 

13 Ward, W. R., Esq., The Mill House, Sutton Valence, Kent. 

25 Warde, Norman B., Esq. (care of Messrs. Howe and Rake, 22 Chancery 
Lane, w.c). 

3 Waring, A. T., Esq., Woodlands, Chelsfield, Kent. 

2 *Warner, Edmond, Esq., Southend House, Eltham, Kent. 

4 Warren, Sir Charles, g.c.m.g., k.c.b., f.k.s., e.e., The Oaks, Westbere, 


4 *Wastall, E. E., Esq., J.P., Dwilock Minster, Thanet, Kent. 

4 Waterfield, Miss M., Nackington House, Canterbury. 

10 # Watkin, Lady, 29 Cheriton Gardens, Folkestone. 

4 Watkinson, J., Esq., The Quinta, Herne Bay. 

20 Watson, F., Esq., Sundridge Place, Sevenoaks. 

3 Watson, M. W., Esq., Manor Road House, Manor Road, Beckenham. 
13 Watts, Rev. J., m.a., 20 Cornwallis Road, Maidstone. 

0 Weardale, Lord, Weardale Manor, Brasted Chart, Sevenoaks. 
28 *Webb, Sydney, Esq., Waterloo Crescent, Dover. 

1 *Welldon, J. T., Esq., Ashford, Kent. 

25 * Wells, E. E., Esq., 6 Spencer Road, Cottenham Park, Wimbledon. 

23 Wheatley, Rev. S. W., Four Elms Vicarage, Edenbridge, Kent. (20) 
25 Wheeler, R. E. M., Esq., 16 Rolls Court Avenue, Herne Hill, s.e. 

4 Wbeler, Captain George W. R., 21st Lancers, Headquarters R.E.K. 

Yeomanry Drill Hall, Canterbury. (9) 

13 White, Mrs. Herbert, The Poplars, Maidstone. 

4 White, Mrs. J. B., Street End House, Canterbury. 

*White, James G., Esq., m.a. 

10 White, Miss K., Eversley House School, West Folkestone. 

6 *Whitehead, G. H., Esq., m.a., j.p., Wilmington Hall, near Dartford, Kent 

9 Whiting, W., Esq., Ospringe, Faversham. 


4 Whitley, J. W., Esq., The Woodlands, Rhodes Minnis, Elham, Canter- 
bury. (10) 

25 Wickham, G., Esq., Stone Wall, Limpsfield, Surrey. 

25 Wickins, H. White, Esq., F.K.G.S., Log House, Wadhurst, Sussex. 

3 1 Wigan, Mrs., Luddesdown, Gravesend. 

25 *Wigan, Rev. P. F., M.A., Puckrup Hall, Tewkesbury. 

13 Wigan, Rev. S. 11., m.a., Thornham Vicarage, Maidstone. 

13 Wild, Rev. E. J., Barming Rectory, Maidstone. 

1 Wilkie, Rev. Christopher Hales, m.a., The Rectory, Little Chart, 


25 Wilkin, Henry E., Esq., 140 Ebury Street, London, s.W. 

15 *Wilkinson, Mrs., High Cliff Hotel, Margate. 

23 * Williams, Lieut. -Colonel C. Stanley, Ivy House, Edenbridge. 
18 Williamson, A. W., Esq., New Romney, Kent. 

7 Williamson, J. J., Esq., Hawks Hill House, Walmer, Deal. 
4 Williamson, Mrs. Silas, Riverslea, London Road, Canterbury. 

2 Willis, Miss Irene C, 99 Shooters' Hill Road, s.e. 

16 Wills, Miss J. Stancomb, Eastcourt, Ramsgate. 

25 *Wilmott, Rev. E. W., Cornish Hall End Vicarage, Braintree, Essex. 
9 Wilson, W. J., Esq., The Red House, Sevenoaks. 

17 Wingent, H. E., Esq., Roebuck Road, Rochester. 

12 Winnifrith, Rev. A., Prospect Lodge, Hythe, Kent. 
20 Winnifrith, Rev. B. T., Ightham Rectory, Sevenoaks. 

18 Wintle, Cyril, Esq., The Lodge, New Romney, Kent. 

24 Winton, Edwin W., Esq., Etherton Hill, Speldhurst, Tunbridge Wells. 

25 Wisconsin, State Historical Society of (care of Messrs. Sotheran and Co.^ 

Strand, w.c.). 

18 Witchel, G. C. Henshall, Esq., New Romney, Kent. 

7 *Wollaston, Gerald Woods, Esq.. m.v.o., Bluemantle Pursuivant, College of 

Arms, e.c, 3 Barkston Gardens, London, s.w., and Glenhill, Walmer, 

14 *Wolseley, General Sir George B., k.c.b., Thatched Cottage, Watering- 

bury, Kent. 

13 Wolseley, Mrs. W. O., Vale House, Loose, Maidstone. 
13 Wood, Jas., Esq., Boughton Monchelsea, Maidstone. 
13 Wood, J. P. H., Esq., The Rocks, Maidstone. 

20 Woodall, H., Esq., J.P., 4 Kuole Paddock, Sevenoaks. 
25 *Woodhouse, Rev. R. J., m.a., Merstham Rectory, Surrey. 
10 Woodruff, Mrs. Cumberland H., St. David's, Shorncliffe Road, Folkestone. 
4 * Woodruff, Rev. C. Eveleigh, m.a., St. Laurence Gate, Canterbury. 
25 Woodruff, John, Esq., 8 Church Street, St. Helier's, Jersey. (17) 
25 Woodruff, Rev. J. E., b.a., The Oratory, Brompton, s.w. 
22 Woodruff', Rev. W., Iwade Vicarage, near Sittingbourne. (9) 
25 Woollett, Lieut. -Col. William Charles, f.s.a., 4 The Ridges, Farnborough, 

25 *Woolley, Rev. Charles Boyle, The Rectory, Church Lench, Evesham. 
2 *Woolwich Public Libraries (Borough Librarian, Dr. Ernest A. Baker, 
m.a.), William Street, Woolwich. 

8 Worsfold, E. M., Esq. 

1 Worsfold, W. Basil, Esq., Romden Place, Smarden, Kent. 

5b Wright, C. B., Esq., Hookstead, High Halden, Ashford, Kent. 
20 Wright, Mrs., 106 High Street, Sevenoaks. 

6 *Wright, Rev. Charles E. L., m.a., Eamoiat Dale, Julian Road, Folkestone. 
25 *Wrightson, Mrs., Felix Hall, Kelvedon, Essex. 

25 Yale University, Connecticut, U.S.A. (care of Messrs. E. G. Allen & Sons, 
Ltd., 12 — 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, London, w.c). 
6 Youeng, E. C, Esq., 17 and 19 Tower Road, Dartford, Kent. 




March 13th, 1913. — The Council met this day in the Society's 
rooms at Maidstone. Fourteen members present. F. F. Griraud, 
Esq., in the Chair. 

The Hon. Secretary was directed to convey the thanks of the 
Society to Mr. C. J. Phillips for a munificent gift of topographical 
works relating to the county of Kent ; and to Mr. Nicholls, 
Surveyor to the Borough of Folkestone, for a plan drawn to scale 
shewing the exact position of the Saxon graves lately discovered 
on Folkestone Hill. 

Mr. Leland Duncan reported that the paintings on plaster 
panels from Stodmarsh Court had been acquired by the Trustees 
of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, and that 
the authorities of that institution would permit photographs of 
the paintings to be taken on behalf of the K.A.S. 

The following ladies and gentlemen were elected members of 
the Society: Mrs. Pearce Clarke, Mrs. Keith Jones, Mrs. F. 
Robinson, Mrs. C. Wright, Rev. L. W. Groodenough, Rev. E. J. 
Wild, Rev. F. Somers Cocks, Messrs. W. T. Brown, C. Clouting 
and J. G. Hunter. 

Records Branch. — A resolution was passed approving of the 
formation of a Records Branch of the Society for the publication 
of Records which, on account of their length or special character, 
may not be suitable for the pages of Archceologia Cantiana. The 
following gentlemen were elected as members of a Committee of 
the Records Branch : Messrs. L M. Biden, J. Churchill, the 



Hon. H. Hannen, L. Duncan and Eev. GL M. Livett, with power 
to co-opt additional members and appoint officers either from or 
outside the list of members of the K.A.S. 

Mr. Knocker reported that Earl Amherst had graciously com- 
municated to him an assurance that steps would be taken to 
preserve from further destruction the ruins of Otford Place, and 
that Caxton House, Sevenoaks Weald, had been purchased by a 
lady in the district, who proposed to put it into a proper state of 

The Eev. T. S. Prampton, P.S.A., a member of the Council 
since 1889, having resigned his seat on account of ill-heath, was 
unanimously elected a Vice-President of the Society. 

Passbooks were produced and cheques drawn. 

At the Meeting of the Society held on the same afternoon at 
the Maidstone Museum, by kind permission of the Trustees, 
Mr. Aymer Vallance read the following Paper on 


I am not going to deal on this occasion with the growth or 
development of Mediaeval Church plans, but rather with their 

It may be noted, however, that parish churches were usually 
so placed in relation to their surroundings that a clear way was 
available for outdoor processions making a complete and uninter- 
rupted circuit round the exterior. Thus when Sir John Cobham 
in 1362 was granted a licence to found Cobham College, one of the 
conditions stipulated was that the residential buildings were to be 
erected at such a distance from the church as not to interfere with 
the procession. 

In cases where the east end of the church abutted right up 
against the boundary of the churchyard as at Hythe, a procession - 
way would be provided under the chancel in order that the pro- 
cession should pass right round the church without going outside 
the churchyard on to unconsecrated ground. At Wrotham, where 
the western tower abuts on the roadway, side doorways to the 
tower were provided so that the procession could pass underneath 
it. The same occurs at East Bergholt, Suffolk, and St. Peter 
Mancroft, Norwich. At Walpole St. Peter, Norfolk, the pro- 
cession-way passes underneath the chancel for the same reason. 

§o much for the placing of the church. There is another thing 


to notice before entering the building — the consecration crosses. 
In this country there were always twelve consecration crosses 
outside, as well as twelve inside every consecrated church. The 
most famous example is at Salisbury Cathedral, where there are at 
least ten if not all the twelve complete outside the building. An 
example of one from the buttresses of the Lady Chapel is 2 ft. 6 in. 
in diameter. Some two and a half inches below the cross the hole 
still remains where a branch or bracket was inserted for a light to 
be burnt on certain days — e.g., the anniversary of the consecration. 
This is interesting because the exact date of the consecration is 
known, September 20th, 1258 ; in the interior of churches they 
were usually painted on the walls. 

Next we come to the church porch, which was no arbitrary 
addition, but was put to important uses. It was employed cere- 
monially for the first part of the Baptismal and Marriage Services 
and for the Churching of Women. 

It was decreed in 1225 that any child baptized by a lay person 
should afterwards be brought to the church porch, and there the 
priest should supply whatever was lacking in the ceremony of lay 
baptism. The porch was the recognized place for teaching, for 
fulfilling certain solemn obligations such as the paying of bequests, 
and for the execution of deeds and solemn contracts. Until the 
practice was forbidden at the end of the twelfth century civil and 
criminal cases were sometimes tried in the porch. Sometimes also 
the porch was the place where inquests were held in cases of sudden 
and violent deaths. 

In or close to the porch was a little recess for the holy water 
in order that people might bless themselves as they went into 
the church. At Hawkedon and Poslingford, both in Suffolk, the 
stoup is on the outside. More usually, however, the holy water 
stoup was placed inside the porch or in the church itself . 

Inside the building, as near as possible to the principal 
entrance, would be the font. The most primitive form was a tub 
font ; there is an example of twelfth century date at Grillingham 
in this county. The next type of fonts would be square, and finally 
octagonal. At the Council at Durham in 1220 fonts were ordered 
to be kept under lock and key lest the water should be stolen for 
purposes of sorcery or magic. In 1305 Archbishop Winchelsea 
decreed that font covers, with lock and key, should be supplied at 
the expense of the parish, an order binding throughout the Southern 
Province. On some fonts you will find the places where the 



attachment for securing the covers was fixed. The cover, at first 
probably only a flat lid, grew to be a handsome ornament like a 
spire, with a mass of carved work and soaring pinnacles. At 
Ewelme, Oxfordshire, there is a fine fifteenth-century example 
raised by a pulley ; but as these covers became larger and heavier 
they could not easily be raised, and consequently folding doors in 
the sides of the cover were provided something like a triptych. I 
do not know of any very large or imposing font covers in Kent, 
but fine specimens may be seen at Holy Cross and St. Dunstan's 
Churches, both in Canterbury. 

In the pillar close to the font is sometimes to be seen an 
aumbry, or a little niche in which some of the utensils required at 
the baptism were placed for convenience during the ceremony. A 
niche of this character remains at Moulton Church in Lincolnshire, 
and another, supposed to be for the same purpose, in the nave of 
G-reat Malvern Priory Church, "Worcestershire. 

We now come to the seats in the nave. The earliest form of 
fixed seats was of stone, and fixed wooden benches do not occur 
before the latter part of the thirteenth century, nor did they 
become general before the fifteenth century. The low stone bench, 
or bench-tables as they are now commonly called, were built along 
the wall or around the foot of the piers. Usually, however, in such 
cases the bench-tables have been ruthlessly swept away or hidden 
by the pewing. Instances may be seen round some of the nave 
piers at St. Margaret-at-ClifEe, near Dover, at Lydd and Upchurch. 

Probably the earliest fixed wooden benches existing in any 
church in this country are at Clapton in Grordano in Somerset. 
Another early example is at Honeychurch in North Devon. There 
is a curious example of fifteenth-century fixed seats in the north 
aisle of the nave of Cawston Church, Norfolk, where on the seat 
nearest the door a back is placed as a protection against the 
draughts, but none of the other seats have backs. It is now very 
rare to find these old seats without backs surviving. 

Beside the pulpit in the nave, another point to note would be 
the presence of nave altars. In all mediaeval churches there 
were at least two altars — the High Altar and the Altar of Our 
Lady. "Where the church consisted of nave and chancel only the 
High Altar was in the chancel and the Altar of Our Lady in the 
nave. Tou can always be quite sure of the position of the altar 
where you see the piscina in the wall. 

In every pre-Reformation church the most conspicuous object 



was the Great Rood (the symbol of man's redemption and the all- 
compelling majesty of the Son of Man), usually accompanied by 
figures of Mary and John on either side. The Great Rood was 
either attached to the top of the rood screen or later to the rood 
loft ; occasionally it was suspended by chains from the roof, but 
perhaps most usually it was placed on a separate beam above the 
rood loft. Roods were destroyed on the accession of Edward VI. 
in 1547 ; they were restored again for a short period during the 
reign of Queen Mary, and finally destroyed on the accession of 
Queen Elizabeth in November 1558. The ends of the rood beam, 
sawn off:., remained in the wall on each side of the church at 
Ightham until recently, when the whole beam was restored to the 
pattern of the surviving fragments. The rood gave its name to the 
screen which stood underneath. Rood screens were sometimes of 
stone, but usually of oak, a material of which England had a finer 
supply perhaps than any country in Europe. There is a fourteenth- 
century stone rood screen at Broughton Church, near Banbury in 
Oxfordshire, and a plain oak one at Shutford Church in the same 
county. The solid panels in the lower part of screens were some- 
times perforated with little holes of various shapes and patterns, 
and at different levels. The reason for these perforations is not 
always understood, but, personally, I believe these holes were 
squints through which children might see the Elevation of the 
Host. I am confirmed in this belief by noticing the holes at 
various heights in the panelling, some being only about 2 feet from 
the ground. The Elevation of the Host obtained increasing- 
importance from the thirteenth century onwards, and the reason 
was that the Host should be shewn to the people. An interesting 
side light is provided in the case of Smarden Church. Those of you 
who have read Fox's Acts and Monuments will perhaps remember 
how the writer gives an account of Justice Drayner, who, in the 
time of Queen Mary, was supposed to have spied on people in 
order to see who were good Catholics and who were not. Eox tells 
how Drayner pierced holes in the front of the rood loft at Smarden 
into which he mounted, and at the moment of the Elevation of the 
Host he would be able to watch the congregation through these 
holes and take note of those who looked up and lifted up their 
hands, and those who did not he arraigned and caused to be 
punished. I do not know of any examples of these Elevation 
Squints in this county. 

The earliest screens were rectangular, and not designed to carry 



a rood loft. Rood lofts were introduced in a few parish churches, 
e.g., Holy Trinity, Hull, as early as the beginning of the fourteenth 
century, but they did not become general and indispensable until 
nearly the close of. the fifteenth century. They then went on 
being built to the eve of the Reformation. Whenever you see a 
screen with an arched opening you may know for certain that it 
was planned from the outset and built to carry a rood loft. It is 
an error, therefore, to decorate the spandrels of screens which have 
lost their vaulting, because these spandrels would have been 
hidden within the pockets of the vaulting, and a mutilation cannot 
properly be treated as a subject for ornament. An illustration of 
this mistake occurs at Stalisfield. 

Rood lofts were intended chiefly for the accommodation of the 
singers and whatever musical instruments were in vogue at the 
time. The rood loft was also a convenient place from which to 
reach the Great Rood for veiling it in Lent, and for placing lights 
on the rood beam. Perhaps in the majority of churches the rood 
loft extended across the width of the nave only, but in. the south- 
west of England, e.g., in Devonshire, it usually spanned the aisles 
as well as the nave, reaching from the north to the south laternal 
wall, or, in cases where the continuity of the loft was interrupted 
by the arcades, openings would be tunnelled through the corre- 
sponding spandrels of the arcades to provide a passage from one 
part of the loft to the other. A feature, almost peculiar to Kent, 
is the rebuilding of the easternmost arch of the nave arcade (or 
arcades) to a higher sweep, producing in effect a rampant arch, in 
order to make headway for persons to pass along from the gang- 
way across the aisle (or aisles) to the central part of the rood loft 
in the nave. Instances of this may be seen at Erith, Biddenden, 
Doddington, Lynsted, Sittingbourne and Staplehurst Churches. 
Rood stairs were, of course, in every case provided to mount up to 
the rood loft. Where there are none remaining it is either because 
the stone stairs have been purposely obliterated, or because they 
were of wood and have subsequently perished. Rood stair turrets 
are so familiar in this county that they need no illustration. At 
Hatfield Broad-Oak in Essex there is a little bell cot on the top of 
the rood turret. 

The subject of "The Doom" or "The Last Judgment" was 
commonly painted on the east wall of the nave, above the rood 
loft, forming a background for the Great Rood. Sometimes a 
background was provided in the shape of a tympanum of boarding, 



of lath, and plaster, or sometimes only a canvas stretched on a 
wooden framework in the head of the chancel arch. The reason 
for this was that as the Great Kood always had to be the most 
prominent object in the church, and our national custom was to 
have a large east window, the light shining from the latter would 
prevent the Grreat Rood being seen clearly unless a background 
shutting out the light was provided. 

Another thing to note in connection with the Grreat Rood is 
that sometimes the roof above was decorated, forming what was 
called a " celure," i.e., canopy of honour, as at Rainhain, where the 
panels are painted with the roses and sun -rays of Edward IV. At 
South wold Church, Suffolk, is a very rich example of a celure 
painted with angels holding emblems of the Passion. At Great 
Rollright, Oxfordshire, and Wooipit, Suffolk, may be seen an over- 
hanging canopy of wood projecting from the east wall of the nave 
over where the rood stood. 

The destruction of rood lofts began in the diocese of Canter- 
bury as early as 1560, by order of Archdeacon Guest, afterwards 
Bishop of Rochester, but it was not officially required before the 
third year of Queen Elizabeth, when an Order in Council, dated 
10th October 1561, commanded the removal of rood lofts, at the 
same time expressly ordering that the " partition" beneath, i.e., the 
chancel screen, should be retained, and that where the screen had 
already been removed a new one must be provided. This order has 
never been repealed, and it is thus strictly illegal to this day to 
remove a rood screen. 

One thing more to notice is that sometimes it happens that 
the doors of the screen will not shut. A fantastic reason given is 
that the nave of the church represented earth and the chancel 
heaven, and the doors of the screen were purposely made not to 
shut as a symbol that the way from earth to heaven was always 
open. That is quite true about heaven and earth, but it has 
nothing to do with the screen. Whenever screen doors will not 
shut it simply is because constant usage has strained the hinges of 
the doors and caused them to drop. 

Passing into the chancel we note sometimes the low side 
window near the west part of the north or south wall, and more 
rarely on both sides. Various explanations have been given and 
hazarded. We may dismiss the popular theory that they were for 
lepers, whether for the administration to them of the Holy Com- 
munion or for other reasons, because in the Middle Ages leprosy 



was such, a terrible scourge that lepers were not allowed to associate 
with other people, nor to come near the churchyard at all. Lepers 
were not cut off from religious ministrations, but they were con- 
fined to lazar houses, which were provided with a chaplain, who 
administered the Holy Communion to them. Therefore the leper 
theory is sheer nonsense. Other people think that low side win- 
dows were intended for light, ventilation, or for hearing confessions. 
Whatever their purpose, it must have been connected with some 
action from within, though I scarcely think that any one explana- 
tion covers all cases. At Leeds Castle, in the Chapel, there is a 
low side window in the upper floor of a part of the building rising 
sheer from the water. Therefore its intention obviously had nothing 
to do with anybody looking into the church from outside. Authori- 
ties still differ as to the object of this low side window, but the 
view most generally accepted among archaeologists is that it was 
intended for a bell to be rung at the elevation of the Host, to afford 
people unable to be present in church an opportunity to join in the 
spirit of the service. Accordingly the lower part of low side 
windows was not glazed but shuttered with a wooden shutter, the 
iron hooks for which are frequently to be observed in the jamb. 
Archbishop Peckham in 1281 directed as follows : " Let a bell be 
rung at one side of the church at the Elevation so that persons 
who have not the leisure to be present, wherever they happen to 
be, indoors or in the field, may bend the knee and thus obtain the 
indulgences granted by mauy Bishops." Low 7 side windows extended 
over a long period, one of the earliest, a twelfth -century example, 
being found at Burnby in the East Eiding of Yorkshire. One of 
the best known and most perfect instances is at Doddington at the 
west end of the north wall of the chancel. The iron hinges for the 
shutter remain though the opening has been blocked up. I can 
remember the time when this church was restored. The walling of 
the lower part of the window was then removed and the whole 
window glazed from top to bottom, thus destroying an interesting 
piece of history. 

The seats in the choirs of monastic and parish churches were 
arranged in rows facing north and south with a clear alley between ; 
and in cathedrals it was usual to arrange other stalls against the 
west enclosure of the choir with their fronts facing towards the 
high altar. These were called return stalls, and the same arrange- 
ment obtained sometimes in parish churches also. The seats were 
joined together in rows having divisions marking the separate 



places, the ends being often richly carved in what we call poppy- 
heads, but in the Middle Ages " popies " (i.e., French poupee, doll). 
In many churches these seats were provided with hinged slabs to 
raise up or down as desired, with a little projecting ledge or 
bracket attached under the front edge ; this is a misericord — i.e., 
an alleviation from the fatigue during the long period of standing 
for the divine office. They were provided out of compassion for 
human infirmity, for according to ancient usage the recitation of 
the Psalter was not spread over a whole month as it is in the Book 
of Common Prayer, but it was recited once a week, and this w T as 
obligatory on all clergy and was part of the regular routine of the 
religious houses. 

Other fixed seats in the chancel were those commonly called 
Sedilia, which are found on the south side of the altar near the east 
end on the south wall. They were intended for those ministering 
at the altar, who would occupy them at mass and other times. 
They vary in number from one to four, although quite the most 
usual number was three ; they were generally of stone. Oak 
sedilia remain at Kodmersham. 

Just east of the sedilia and commonly of one design with the 
latter is the altar drain, which we now call a piscina — literally a 
fish-pond ; in this the priests washed their hands and the sacred 

And now the Lenten veil. Archbishop Gray, of York, in his 
constitutions of 1250 directed that the Lenten veil was to be pro- 
vided at the expense of the parishioners in every church; and 
Archbishop Winchelsea in 1305 made it obligatory throughout the 
Southern Province. The Lenten veil was hung across the chancel 
between the choir and the altar at a line just to the west of the 
sedilia. It remained in position from after Compline on the First 
Sunday in Lent until the Wednesday in Holy Week, and during 
all that time (except on occasions when a high festival occurred) it 
was only raised for the reading of the GTospel until the " orate 
fratres " (a point of the old service which may perhaps best be 
compared with the Exhortation before the Prayer for the Church 
Militant in the Prayer Book). On the Wednesday in Holy Week, 
at the words in the Gospel " the veil of the temple was rent in 
twain," the Lenten veil was taken down or torn asunder. The iron 
hooks for the Lenten veil remain at Heckington Church, Lincoln- 
shire. There are others in the presbytery at Ripon Minster ; while 
on the north side of the presbytery at Salisbury Cathedral may yet 



be seen the winch by which the cord suspending the veil might be 
lowered or drawn taut as required. 

In many churches on the north side of the chancel opposite 
the sedilia there remains a recess for the Easter .Sepulchre. This 
was universally in use once a year, and where no stone recess 
survives one may be sure that a wooden receptacle was provided. 
The sepulchre was used to deposit a crucifix (the same that had 
served at the " Creeping to the Cross " on Good Friday) and a pyx 
containing the Sacred Host. These were placed in the sepulchre 
after the Mass of the Pre-Sanctified on Good Friday and remained 
therein, constantly watched with much devotion until Easter 
morning ; then they were brought back with festal solemnity to 
the high altar. It was a much coveted honour to have one's tomb 
in this position in the north chancel wall, where with a flat top and 
without an effigy over it might serve yearly as the sepulchre for 
the Blessed Sacrament to rest on. 

In every church, too, in addition to the great rood were two 
images, one on either side of the east window — one of the saint to 
whom the church was dedicated and the other of the Blessed 
Virgin . 

The reredos was never very high because an important feature 
of the east end of English churches was the east window, which 
did not admit of much space for a high structure underneath. 

Lastly, the altar. The high altar was ordered by Archbishop 
Lanfranc in 1076 to be of stone. It was a plain rectangular mass 
of masonry supporting a flat slab without ornament, except that 
its overhanging edge was sometimes chamfered on the underside. 
The reason for the absence of ornament was not that the altar was 
considered unimportant, but that it might always be perfectly 
bare when stripped on Good Friday. Of course altars had gorgeous 
hangings and sometimes a carved movable front of alabaster in a 
frame, but the altars themselves were obliged to be plain and 

At the Reformation these stone altars were taken down and 
broken up, sometimes the consecrated slab was laid on the ground 
by the porch or in some other situation where everyone who 
entered the building must, consciously or unconsciously, degrade 
it by treading it underfoot. 

The features I have enumerated were familiar throughout the 
land in the Middle Ages ; but on account of the havoc wrought at 
the Reformation and from that time onwards it is necessary to go 



far afield, gathering together the various examples, one here and 
one there, in order to appreciate the complete aspect of a mediaeva 
church interior. 

Mr. L. M. Biden followed with a Paper on " The Purpose and 
Work of the Eecords Branch." 

June 3rd, 1913.— The Council met this day at the Coburg 
Hotel, Mount Street, W., by invitation of the President, who, pre- 
vious to the meeting, hospitably entertained the members to 

Lord Northbourne in the chair. Twenty-three members 

Maidstone " Tithe- Barn." — The following resolution was 
adopted : " The Council venture to express the hope that any 
restoration or repair to the above building may be entrusted to an 
architect accustomed to deal with ancient structures, and that 
plans and particulars of such repairs may be submitted to the 
Council of the Kent Archaeological Society." 

Beports from the Local Secretaries Committee and the Eecords 
Branch Committee were presented and adopted. 

Protection of Ancient Buildings. — After a long discussion the 
following resolution was passed : " The Council of the Kent 
Archaeological Society would welcome any well-considered scheme 
or schemes whereby — without infringement of the jurisdiction of 
ecclesiastical authority, whether Diocesan, or Capitular, or the 
rights of parishioners — the preservation of features of architec- 
tural or historic interest in churches undergoing alteration or 

j repair would be insured." The Hon. Secretary was requested to 

j send copies of the above resolution to His Grace the Archbishop 

jj of Canterbury and the lord Bishop of Rochester. 

Mr. L. M. Biden was elected a member of Council. The Bev. 

1 Gr. M. Livett and Mr. Aymer Vallance were re-elected as the 
Society's representatives at the Congress of Archaeological 

j Societies. 

The following new members were elected : Messrs. P. E. 
\ Foreman, J. D'Avigdor Goldsmid, D. Vaughan Rice, P. E. Potter, 
! H. T. Underwood, P. Watson, Miss Y. E. Potts and Mrs. Raggett. 

The Pifty-sixth Annual Meeting was held at Westerham and 
j Edenbridge on Monday and Tuesday, July 28th and 29th, 1913. 

The members and friends present included Lord North bourne, 

VOL. XXXI, <? 




Sir Martin and Lady Conway, Miss Conway, Hon. H. A. and Mrs. 
Han n en, Mr. Herbert and Mrs. Monckton, Eev. G. M. and Mrs. 
Livett, General Wolseley, Eev. W. and Mrs. Gardner- Waterman, 
Eev. C. E. and Mrs. Woodruff, Mr. and Mrs. IT. M. Chapman, 
Eev. H. L. Somers Cocks, Mr. Eichard Cooke, Mr. L. W. Biden, 
Major and Miss Powell-Cotton, Mr. Cripps Day, Mr. J. Ellis Mace 
and Mrs. Mace, Eev. E. Swan, Mr. J. A. "Walter, Eev. S. E. 
and Miss Wigan, Mr. G. E. Duveen, Mr. W. E. Hughes, 
Mr. W. T. Vincent, Mr. S. W. Kershaw, Mr. A. H. Taylor, 
Major E. Lambarde, Eev. and Mrs. McCheane, Mr. S. Manser, 
Eev. C. N. Wilkie, Mr. Till, Mr. H. S. Cowper, Mr. E. Garnet 
Man, Mr. Youens, Mr. A. A. Arnold, Eev. J. Eooker, Mr. C. J. 
and Mrs. Phillips, Mr. H. W. Knocker, Colonel Eogers, Captain, 
Mrs. and Miss De Gale, and many others. 

The large party assembled at Sevenoaks on Monday morning, 
and proceeded to Westerham in motor cars. 

The road from Sevenoaks westward to Westerham runs parallel 
with the chalk escarpment (2 miles to the north), and along the 
lower greensand formation. It passes Eiverhead, with its modern 
church, Bessels Green (left), and Chipstead (right). Erom Sun- 
dridge Cross onwards it follows the right bank of the little river 
Dart, which rises near Westerham. On the right, between Sun- 
dridge and Brasted, is the park of Combe Bank, the seat succes- 
sively of the Isleys, who joined Wyatt's rebellion, the Campbells 
(Duke of Argyll) and the Mannings (parents of the Cardinal). 
The house of Brasted Park w r as designed by the Adam brothers. 
Going up to Westerham Church, which occupies a fine position, a 
headland surrounded by the sources of the Dart and having an 
extensive view towards Che veiling on the N.E., we pass (right, 
opposite the turning to Edenbridge) Quebec House, with its three 
gables, the family residence of the Wolfes, recently purchased and 
offered to the Canadian Government, and the Vicarage on the left, 
where General James Wolfe was born. 

The Preliminary Meeting for the despatch of business was held, 
in the King's Arms Hotel, Westerham, with the President in the 

The following were elected members of the Society : M. P. 
Castle, Esq., M.V.O., J.P., Canon H. Beanlands, William Daws, 
Esq., John Messenger Madders, Esq., W. H. Elgar, Esq., Captain 
Garnon Williams, E.N., Eev. Dr. Moore and Colonel Sinclair, 



Mr. R. Cooke, the Hon. Secretary, next read the Annual 
Report, which alluded to the loss the Society had sustained through 
the deaths of Lord Avebury, well known for the interest he took 
in all matters relating to archaeology, natural science and litera- 
ture ; Mr. Oldrid Scott, to whom they were indebted for many 
papers and much assistance; and the Very Rev. Dr. Era aid Lane, 
Dean of Rochester, whose genial presence at the meetings of the 
Council w r ould be much missed. The chauge advocated by Mr. 
Knocker with respect to defining the districts of the Local Secre- 
taries, and suggesting new and enlarged spheres of work for them, 
would shortly come into operation. At a meeting of the Local 
Secretaries held last December at Maidstone, the scheme, after a 
two hours' discussion, was approved. Very much of the work 
attending this alteration had fallen upon Mr. Knocker and the 
Eev. G-. M. Livett, to both of w r hom the Society was much 
indebted. It was hoped that this meeting of Local Secretaries 
might be the precursor of a meeting to be held yearly in future. 

Another important subject had been the formation of a Records 
Branch to the Kent Archaeological Society, with Mr. L. M. Biden 
as its first Hon. Secretary, and Lord Northbourne as Chairman of 
the Committee. 

A work on lines similar to the Rev. W. E. Buckland's Parish 
and Diocesan Records of the Diocese of Rochester is now in hand 
for the Canterbury Diocese under the hon. editorship of the 
Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff. 

The President, in moving the adoption of the report, congratu- 
lated the Society on doing very useful work. The Society w r as 
extremely fortunate in securing and retaining the services of 
Mr. R. Cooke as Hon. Secretary, and the energy of the Rev. W. 
Gardner- Waterman as Financial Hon. Secretary had placed the 
business side of the Society's affairs on a satisfactory basis. The 
President concluded by referring to the importance of the work 
which was being done by the Parochial Records Enquiry Com- 
mittee appointed by the Canterbury Diocesan Conference, and 
exhorted those persons who have influence and opportunity 
to induce the custodians of these documents to furnish full 

The Rev. C. E. Woodruff, Hon. Secretary to the Parochial 
Records Enquiry Committee, reported that good progress was 
being made in cataloguing the ancient documents in the custody 
of incumbents and churchwardens in the diocese of Canterbury. 




The Committee hoped that the enquiry might not only he the 
means of drawing attention to the value of these records for 
parochial history, hut also of ensuring their more careful preserva- 
tion in the future. 

The report was adopted. 

Mr. Leland Duncan and Mr. A. Einn, retiring members of the 
Council, were re-appointed. 


Dr. Maude received the members at the churchyard gates, and 
made a few remarks before they entered. He said : — 

I have been asked, almost at a moment's notice, to say what I 
know about this church, but unfortunately I do not know very 
much. I propose leaving the real architectural features to 
Mr. Livett to describe because he knows a great deal more about 
them than I do, but there are a few general features to which I may 
allude. This church is dedicated in honour of St. Mary the Virgin, 
and the original Early English structure was in existence up to 
about the middle of the fourteenth century, when a complete 
reconstruction of the edifice took place. The only part of this 
Early English church now remaining is the fabric of the tower. 
The tower was higher than it is now, and besides the actual 
masonry of the walls there are parts of the original archway, as 
well as the jambs and sills of the old lancet belfry windows, which 
obviously ran up higher than the present Perpendicular window. 
The rest of the church shew 7 s hardly any trace of the older structure 
except just the quoins at the extreme end of the chancel, and the 
outer and inner jambs of the two outer lights of a triple lancet 
east window, which are in the Perpendicular window you see now ; 
that window was restored in the last century, but was originally 
three lancet lights. The plan of the church before the fifteenth 
century was much smaller than now ; it did not include the two 
side-aisles or the aisle on either side of the chancel. They were 
included in a general scheme of reconstruction in the fifteenth 
century at different dates, according to Mr. Leveson-Gower, but I 
should doubt that — at least there is no evidence to prove it. I 
have not had access to any of the plans which were drawn out 
during the successive restorations the church has undergone. 
This arch in the tower looks like a relieving arch and is 
obviously part of the original tower arch, The porch was entirely 


reconstructed in 1878 when the church was restored, but there was 
a porch in existence before, though it had been closed for a number 
of years, and perhaps centuries. 

The Visitors having entered the church, Dr. Maude continued 
his observations. He remarked : As I said outside, the north and 
south chancel aisles were constructed probably in the middle of the 
fifteenth century and the aisles of the nave probably rather later. 
The south aisle is supposed to have been constructed first. The 
puzzle about this church would appear to be why the arcading in 
the chancel looks of a later date than the arcading in the nave. I 
should hazard the suggestion that the arcading of the nave was 
copied from some arcading in the neighbourhood, as was often the 
case in the reconstruction of churches. I would also suggest that 
the designers had the arcading of Sundridge Church in their minds 
because that arcading is one of the finest pieces of Early English 
pointed work you will find in any small parish church. The church 
was restored partly under Mr. Teulon in 1852, but he did not do 
very much ; among other things the gallery at the west end was 
then removed. A complete restoration was carried out in 1882-3 
under the supervision of Mr. Edward Streatfield, to whose memory 
the east window was erected by his family. The points of 
interest in the church are the windows. There is no old painted 
glass nor evidence that there ever was any ; if any ever did exist 
it has been completely destroyed. We know the agents of 
Cromwell were here about 1650, aud possibly they may have been at 
work here as at Croydon. Taking the modern windows, I think 
we have a very good show of modern glass in this church. The 
east window is one of Powell's from designs by Mr. Henry Holiday ; 
those on the north side are at once recognized as from the atelier 
of Kemp. A very fine window has lately been placed opposite the 
door, to which I should like you to pay special attention ; it is an 
example of Morrison's work from the design of Burne Jones. 
There are eight ancient brasses ; one of them is rather curious. It 
is to the memory of two men, each of whom had two wives and one 
of whom had fifteen children. The curious thing is that on the 
brass they have mixed up the children, and probably the wives 
accredited to these two individuals. The south chancel aisle is 
called the chapel of St. Catharine ; there was an altar at the east 
end and a very fine piscina at the side. There are no very early 
tombs in the church. Over the south door is a marble tablet 
erected to the memory of the brave G-eueral Wolfe, who, however, 



is buried in St. Alphege's Church, Greenwich. Then there are 
various memorials to members of the Warde family, wlio have been 
at Westerham since about 1730. One tablet is to the memory of 
Admiral Warde, father of the late Colonel, and another to one of 
his sons who died in the massacre of Cawnpore. There is also one 
to the memory of General George Warde, but that is not the 
General "Warde who was the great friend of Wolfe, but his 

Dr. Maude then described the church plate. Of the fine 
Nurenberg cup (see Arcliceologia Cantiana, Vol. XVI.) he 
said : " These cups were shooting trophies, given by the 
citizens of Nurenberg to the Shooters Guild, hence the figure on 
the cover which has been variously taken for St. George and 
Minerva. The cup is of silver gilt, 11^ inches high, of cylindrical 
form, ornamented with strap work, on a stem with knobs and 
cherub heads. The figure by which it is surmounted is holding a 
bow and a shield. It has the initials " N.G-.S.," " N." probably 
meaning Nurenberg. I had the advantage a few years ago of 
going through the Carthusian Monastery's Museum at Nurenberg, 
and of being shewn there by one of the Curators a fine collection 
of similar cups to the one at Westerham. It is one of the later 
examples, shewing considerable Renaissance influence in its design 
—date c. 1600." 

The Rev. GL M. Livett said : " The Society would wish me to 
thank Dr. Maude for giving us the benefit of his time and knowledge 
on the subject of which he has been speaking. I will devote only 
a few moments to certain points in the architecture of this church 
which came to my notice during a brief visit in company with the 
Vicar, the Rev. S. Le Mesurier, whose absence to-day we regret. 
First, with regard to the tower. The tower is Early English, and the 
west door, if I remember right, is Tudor, as is also the window over 
it. The arrangement of the buttresses is very peculiar, and sug- 
gests that when the tower was built the west boundary of the 
churchyard ran in a line with its west wall, leaving no passage-way 
at that end. This is confirmed by signs of an archway in the south 
wall, to which Dr. Maude at my request kindly called attention 
outside. The archway was blocked up at a later date, and a small 
doorway inserted in it. There was doubtless a similar archway in 
the north wall or tower, so that, as at Wrotham Church, by this 
arrangement processions might pass rouud the church through the 


tower. We remember the provision made for a like purpose at 
Hythe, in the ambulatory under the east wall of the chancel. The 
tower has remains of lancet windows. The great arch at the west 
end of the nave seems to have been raised in height at a date 
unknown. With regard to the rest of the church, Dr. Charles 
Cox, in his Bamhles in Kent, has rather wronged the architect, Mr. 
Streatfeild (to whose memory the great east window was glazed), 
in saying "that the whole was drastically restored in 1852-3, and 
has lost all interest to the architectural student." The way in 
which the Tudor builders, when they remodelled the Early English 
building, ran their arcades through from end to end, as at Chid- 
dingstone, is extremely interesting. We can recover the lines of 
the nave and chancel of the Early English church. As usuall 
the chancel was slightly narrower than the nave. Its east wal, 
remains ; both outside and inside, beside the inserted four-light 
Decorated window, there are signs of the Early English triplet of 
lancets, and also of the quoins. On the south side a few feet of 
the Early English wall (the south wall of the chancel) remain near 
the east end, beyond two Tudor arches of unequal span. On the 
north side the Tudor people inserted two arches of equal span, 
occupying the whole length of that side. Why did they not do 
the same on the south side, and so make the whole look uniform ? 
Doubtless because they wanted that bit of wall for ritual purposes, 
to contain the aumbry and pisciua and for a backing for the sedilia. 
A portion of a blocked Early English lancet remains in that bit of 
wall, shewing that the Early English aisles did not extend to the 
full length of the chancel eastward. Now we come to the inte- 
resting features which shew how the Tudor people accommodated 
the width of the Early English chancel to the greater width of the 
nave. On the north side they ran the arcades exactly on the old 
Early English lines, both in the nave and in the chancel, and at the 
point where the two approach each other (i.e., on the line of the 
old chancel arch wall) they designed a column of peculiar shape, 
which served to deceive the eye and conveyed the impression of an 
unbroken continuous arcade. On the south side they managed it 
differently : from the bit of Early English walling at the east end 
they ran their arches a little askew, so as to meet the line of arches 
along the side of the nave. By this means they were able to dis- 
pense with the adoption at the meeting point of a column of 
peculiar shape, like that on the north side. But in inserting these 
skewed arches on the south side of the chancel they left the old 



Early English wall above them, paring its face down to the imposts 
of the arches. In the wall above the column at the said meeting 
point, on the line of the destroyed Early English chancel arch, as 
seen from the aisle, you may see the remains of the original quoin, 
the south-east quoin of the nave. There is no time left to enable 
me to trace in detail the evolution of the aisles of the church, but 
there is one further feature to which attention must be drawn. The 
central portion of the aisle wall had at some period inclined out- 
ward towards the top, and in arranging for the new roof the 
builders thickened the wall on the inside so as to support the wall 
plate of the roof, and they supported this thickening by means of a 
series of three depressed wall arches, springing from corbels, seen 
in the dim light near the top of the wall. I regret that I am 
unable to fix the date of this work, as I have spent only a short 
hour and a half in examining the building, and had no ladder which 
would enable me to inspect the arches at close quarters." 

The Eev. C. E. Woodruff said : " The Church of Westerhain in 
mediaeval times was appropriated to the great Benedictine Convent 
of Christ Church in Canterbury. As was the custom, the small 
tithe was set aside for the perpetual vicar of the parish, but it 
proved insufficient for his maintenance. At length in 1453 the 
vicar was constrained to ask the prior to augment his stipend, and 
at the same time he submitted a financial statement. Both are 
preserved amongst the Archives of the Dean and Chapter of 
Canterbury, and are worth quoting in full." 

" Be it remembered to my Lord the Prior of Christis Chirch of 
Cawnturbery, and to all my masters his brethren there pretendyng 
Patrons and parsons of the Church of Westerham that the tithes 
and commodities longyng to the Vicarage of ye saied Chirche be 
not sufficient neyther of reasonabill valew to susteyn the Vicary 
and ye onerous grevous and unportabill charges of the said Chirche 
and Vicarage as ye said Vicary can shew for hym by a rekenyng of 
all paryssohns made, and in the most opynyst wyse made and 
rekened of the Vicary, of the tithes and commoditees, and valew of 
every howsolder both of grete and small, rich and poore men, from 
the secund day of April ye yere of oure Lorde mccccliii to the 
xxii day of April next follewyng. 

" ffirst the tithe commodities and valew by a rekenyng made by 
twene the saied Vicary and every howsolder of the saied parish of 
Westerham as tochyng to ye Vicarage drawfch to the sum of 
v]U. vijs. iijd. ob. 

proceedings, ioii 


"The Costis and Chargis of the said Chirche and Vicreage is as 
it is undir wreten. 

ffirst for ffrankyncens xvi^. 
It. for syngyng brede and hoselyn brede xvd 
It. for my lord of Rowchester's visitacion every third yere 

iijs. iiiji. 

It. for ye Kynge's dymse (tenths) xiijs. iiijJ. 

It. for my Master Archedekyns proxies vijs. viJ. 

It. for wast of wex brynnyng in the said Cherche 

xxiijs. xd. ob. 

It. for syngyng wyne and hoselyng wyne njs. id. 

It. for reparacions of bakes, vestments and weshyng of the 
vestments and reparacion of ye vicreage xls. 

It. for a clerk to help ye vicary synge every weekday and to goo 
with ye saied vicary a visitacion, and a man also to fetche home 
all the tithes longyng to the saied vicreage iiiji. 

It. for certifying of mawndments of citacions, suspencions, 
excommunicacions as well in the diocese of Rowchester as oute of 
the diocese foresaied xls. 

It. the Vicary must have an hors to fetche home ye forsaied 
tithes xxvijs. viijd. 

It. ye Vicary must have of custom e at dynner with hym all the 
priests and clerks of the Chirche at ye principall fests of ye yere 

vis. viii^. 

It. ye Vicary must of custome to have all his parishons uppon 
Esturday with in the Vicreage forsaied and they must have of 
custome brede with chese and ale with cidar xs. 

summa. tot' is xij 11 xviijs. ob." 

Mr. Woodruff added : This document throws considerable light 
on the condition of the incumbents of impropriated parishes in 
mediaeval times, and should be compared with Abbot Grasquet's 
remarks on the same subject in English Monastic Life, p. 194. 


Luncheon was served at the King's Arms Hotel, Westerham, 
and afterwards a visit was paid by kind permission of Mrs. Warde 
to the British Oppidum in the Park at Squerryes Court. 

The Rev. C. E. Woodruff, in the absence of Mr. Clinch, who 
was to have acted as guide, said : v 

The Society met here about twenty-eight years ago, and at that 



time the late Canon Scott Robertson described briefly the chief 
features of the earthwork. His remarks were afterwards pub- 
lished in the XlVth Volume of Archceoloyia Cantiana accom- 
panied by a map. Mr. Livett has enlarged that map, and you will 
have an opportunity of seeing it at the evening meeting to-day, 
when you will be able to understand the contour of the country 
and the shape of this earthwork. I may say it is in form an 
irregular oval, covering an area of about eleven acres and enclosed 
on its eastern side by a double vallum . The original entrance 
was apparently at the south extremity, although several other 
entrances have been made since. I have been told that at the 
northern extremity there is an ancient trackway which the people 
still call the Roman Road. I do not think we can attach much 
importance to that, because we know a generation or two ago all 
these earthworks were called Roman camps. It is quite possible 
that it may have been occupied and strengthened by the Romans. 
Perhaps it is more likely that it was used in opposition to the 
Romans, and that British forces as they were driven back from the 
eastern parts of Kent may have retired into "West Kent and 
fortified themselves in this wooded district. At the same time the 
work may be of much earlier origin. We have not sufficient 
information for dating with accuracy these rude earthworks. The 
purposes they served were various ; some were forts, some pounds 
for cattle, some had settlements or villages within them. We have 
to await the elucidation of the problem which these camps offer 
until further spadework enables them to be classified in a scientific 
manner. The thorough examination of earthworks is an expensive 
and tedious business, and we cannot expect many such enthusiasts 
as the late Greneral Pitt Rivers to arise in a single generation, but 
gradually the requisite data will be got together. 


A drive through the beautiful park brought the party to 
Squerryes Court, the residence of Mrs. Warde, by whose kind per- 
mission the house and gardens were inspected, an account of 
which and of the family portraits will be found in Arclueologia 
Cantiana, Vol. XVI. 



Sundridge Church, where the Vicar, the Hev. E. K. B. Morgan, 
received the Society, was described by the Rev. Gr. M. Livett, who 
said : This benefice is a rectory in the patronage of the Archbishop. 
The church is mentioned in Domesday Book, and is an example 
of a church in which the original Norman plan is plainly visible in 
the existing plan, but of which no other architectural evidence 
remains. The Norman church consisted, as usually, of plain aisle- 
less nave and short square chancel. Imagine solid walls in place 
of the nave arcades, a small chancel arch in the place of the present 
arch, and the chancel ending across the present chancel where the solid 
side walls of the eastern part of it commence. Such was the Norman 
church. Its height is indicated by the offsets running along the nave 
walls above the arcades, and which, under the quatre-foil openings, 
formed a clerestory. The line also appears at the west end. The Early 
English additions to that original Norman church consisted of (a) the 
west tower ; (b) narrow nave aisles of the same width, but not so 
high as the present aisles ; (c) side chapels to the chancel on the lines 
of the existing chapels ; (d) an eastward extension of the chancel; 
(e) the nave arcades inserted in the old walls ; (/') clerestories of 
quatre-foil openings, formed in an addition to the nave walls above 
the arcades ; (y) choir arcades; and (h) chancel arch. All these 
remain. Notice how in extending the chancel eastwards the Early 
English builders splayed their walls, making the chancel about a 
foot wider at the extreme east end. On each side of the five-light 
Perpendicular east window the moulded jambs of the original Early 
English lancets remain. The side windows (lancets) of this addition 
are modern ; that on the north replaced a Perpendicular window 
above a tomb. There is a double piscina in the chancel. The 
arcades are all in Kentish rag, a hard intractable material, hence 
the rudeness of the Early English mouldings. The tower arch is 
Perpendicular, and the whole tower is wrongly assigned by Sir 
Stephen Grlynne to that period. The tower had lancet lights, as 
seen plainly on the inside on the first stage. One of these lancets 
is still seen on the west face exterior, with its pointed head blocked 
and a straight lintel inserted. The west door is Perpendicular 
(Tudor). The massive clasping buttress of the south-west angle 
may be original. The newel staircase is an addition. In the 
shingled spire on the west face peeps out a sauctus beli, a very 
rare and precious possession. The remodelling of the aisles in 


Perpendicular times is most remarkable. As a rule Perpendicular 
architects widened the early aisles of a church ; in this case they 
simply raised the outer walls to contain tall three-light windows 
and to support new roofs. The object of the new windows was 
the display of stained glass, all of which is destroyed. In the aisles 
can be seen the horizontal weather-course of the original sloping 
roofs, and below this a series of corbels that carried the wall posts 
which supported the plate (immediately under the weather-course) 
on which the rafters rested, or with which they were framed. The 
aisles, doubtless in accordance with the usual arrangement, com- 
municated with the chancel chapels in each case by means of an 
arch. A sign of such arch is seen at the east end of the south 
aisle, in the bit of string-course which served as the impost of the 
arch on the south face of the chancel arch pier. In the wall oppo- 
site may be seen the blocked doorways which formerly communi- 
cated with the rood loft. There are remains of two doors of exit 
from the newel staircase on to the loft, one above the other, 
pointing to a rebuilding of the loft at a different level. Note the 
way in which the jambs of the Perpendicular windows run down to 
form recesses for benches. 

A fire in 1802 destroyed the remains of the rood screen, and 
did much damage in the chancel. Notice the altar-tomb of John 
Isley and his wife (1484) at the east end of the north aisle, and 
brasses under the chancel step, two to Isleys (1429 and 1515), 
and a third to some civilian. The Isleys owned Combe Bank in 
this parish before it passed to the Campbells. It may not be 
generally known that it was as Baron Sundridge that the late 
Duke of Argyll sat for many years in the House of Lords. Lady 
Frederic Campbell, previously widow of the Earl Ferrers, who was 
executed for murder in 1760, was burnt in one of the towers of 
Combe Bank, and only a single bone was recovered for burial in 
this church. Mary Bellenden, the court beauty and correspondent 
of Mrs. Howard (Greorge the Second's Countess of Suffolk) , mar- 
ried a Campbell, and her bust, chiselled by Mrs. Anne Seymour 
Darner, is in the chancel, as is also the bust of Lady Caroline 
Campbell, the sculptor's mother. This Mrs. Darner was the author 
of the busts of Thames and Isis on the bridge at Henley-on- 
Thames, and was sung by Erasmus Darwin in the following lines : — 

" Long with soft touch shall Darner's chisel charm, 
With grace delight us and with beauty warm." 



My last note refers to Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London in the 
reign of George II., who lies buried with his wife on the east side 
of the churchyard. 


Another motor drive brought the party to Chipstead Place, the 
residence of Mr. J. Duveen, who had generously provided tea for 
his guests on the lawn. Before they dispersed to view the garden 
and grounds, Mr. C. J. Phillips apologized for the absence of Mr. 
Duveen, who had asked him to undertake the duty of reading a 
short account of Chipstead Place. Mr. Phillips said : The Manor 
of Chipstead was formerly called Wilkes, from a family of that 
name who possessed it in the reign of Richard II., 1377 — 1399. 

The first mention of the manor is in the reign of Edward III., 
when it w^as in the possession of a family who took their name 
from it. In 1347, when the Black Prince was made a knight, the 
heirs of John de Chepsted paid aid for it as the tenth part of a 
knight's fee. 

The first mention of Chipstead House that I can find is in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558 — 1603), when Robert Cranmer 
lived here. He died March 4th, 1619, and was buried in Chipstead 
Church. His daughter Anne married Sir Arthur Herrys, who 
died possessed of this house on January 9th, 1632, and was suc- 
ceeded by his second son John Herries, who married Frances, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Dacre of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire. 

Frances Herries survived her husband and afterwards married 
William Priestly. 

The Priestlys, with other interested parties, in October 1652 
conveyed Chipstead House and Estate to Jeffrey Thomas, son of 
Richard Thomas of Sevenoaks, who in November 1654 conveyed it 
to Ealph Suckley. 

In 1658 Suckley conveyed it to Mr. David Polhill of Otford. 

The Polhills are first heard of at Detling in 1619, and branches 
of the family settled at Shoreham, Otford and Wrotham. A local 
descendant of this family is Mrs. Polhill Drabble of Sevenoaks. 

David Polhill died in 1665 and left Chipstead House to his 
brother Thomas, who married Elizabeth Ireton, her mother being 
Bridget, daughter of Oliver Cromwell. 

Thomas Polhill, prior to his death in 1683, conveyed Chipstead 
to Sir Nicholas Strode of Westerham, whose widow Catherine and 



her two daughters sold it to William Emerton of the Temple, 
London, in July 1093. 

Emerton pulled down the old mansion and built the present 
house. I shew a print of this house as it was in 1719. 

Emerton married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Beale of 
Earningham and left two daughters. 

In 1710 the widow and daughters sold the house to David 
Pol hill, so it again passed into the possession of this family. 

David Polhill was M.P. for the county in 1708 and Sheriff in 
1715., He died January 15th, 1754, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son Charles, born May 8th, 1725, succeeded in 1754, and 
died in 1805. 

Charles Polhill married twice. By his first wife, Tryphena, 
daughter of Sir John Shelley, he had one daughter. I shew a view 
of this period with the roof altered. 

His second wife was Patience Haswell, by whom he had six 
sons and one daughter. His eldest son George Polhill succeeded ; 
he was born March 2nd, 1767, and died in 1839. 

In 1829 he sold Chipstead House to Frederick Perkins, and 
I shew a print of the house dated 1838 by which you will see 
that the upper story has been rebuilt and a number of rooms 
added under the roof. 

Mr. George Perkins, son of Frederick, next held Chipstead 
House and let it about 1864 to Sir Samuel Morton Peto, Bart, 
M.P., who had a famous library of books and a collection of 
valuable pictures. 

In 1911 Mr. John Duveen became the tenant. 


This concluded the excursions of the first day, and the party 
motored back to.Sevenoaks, where the Annual Dinner took place at 
the Royal Crown Hotel in the evening, with the Presidentin the Chair. 

Before the company took their seats for dinner, Lord 
Northbourne made a presentation to the Rev. W. Gardner- 
Waterman, Vicar of Loose, of a chest of handsome silver plate, 
consisting of silver teapot, coffee pot, sugar basin and cream 
jug. Upon each is engraved the arms of the Society, and there is 
an inscription on the teapot as follows : — 

"Kent Archseological Society to the Rev. W. Gardner- Waterman, 
Prceierita grate recordantcs, July 1913," 



The President, in making the presentation, said: I beg you, 
Mr. Gardner- Waterman, to accept this small chest of plate which 
I have placed on the table, and I hope it will remind you during 
your whole life, and your successors after you, of the many useful 
offices you have discharged and the many friendships you have 
formed. I have much pleasure in handing you the key with our 
very best wishes (applause). 

The Rev. W. Gardner- Waterman acknowledged the gift in suit- 
able terms. 

Dinner then proceeded, and two toasts, the King and the K.A.S., 
proposed by the President, followed. 

At the evening Meeting the Rev. H. L. Somers Cocks read the 
following Paper on " Edenbridge," of which parish he is Vicar. 

This picturesque and old-world little market-town is situated 
in the valley of the Eden, across which, even in British times, there 
must have been considerable intercourse, as it lies midway between 
the camps at Squerries to the north and that of Dry hill to the 
south. In 1840 some urns, probably British, were unearthed at 
Skeynes, within a mile of the present village. In 1912 a''fragment 
of British pottery was discovered during the digging of a grave in 
the burial ground which adjoins the bridge. No traces of Roman 
occupation have been found. 

About half-a-mile above the town on the left bank of the river 
Eden is an island surrounded by a moat. It has been suggested 
that this was an earthwork thrown up by Aesc, King of Kent, as a 
defence against the South Saxons ; other conjectures also exist to 
explain the origin of what is now known as " Devil's Den." It is 
therefore hoped that means may be forthcoming to make such 
excavations on the spot as may throw light on this subject. 

In 862 King Ethelbert, brother of Alfred the Great, granted to 
his Thane, Dryhtwald, ten ploughlands at Bromley, and with the 
land five denes in the weald. Of these, four (Broceesham, Bille- 
mora, and two* on Glep pan fields) appear to be on the outskirts of 
Edenbridge, the fifth being Sundridge. 

In 966 Eadgar the Peaceable granted these denes to the church 
at Rochester ; they formed roughly a ring in the weald. In the 
centre lay Sundridge. 

Edenbridge is not mentioned in Domesday, but in Textus 

The unnamed dene was probably Crippenden. 



Boffin sis it is returned as a church paying chrism fee of nine- 
pence. In 1114 the so-called " Chapel " of Edenbridge was paying 
the chrism fee of a parish church. 

The first parson of Westerham with Edenbridge whose name 
has yet been discovered is that of Clement, styled the Chaplain. 
He held the living in 1199 and was still holding it in 1213. From 
1270 onwards there appear to be few if any gaps in the list of 
incumbents. At the death of the Eev. Eichard Board in 1859 the 
two parishes were separated. He and his successor, the Eev. C. F. 
G-ore, held the living for 111 years between them. 

The living was impropriate in the hands of the de Camvilles ; 
appropriate after 1290 for nearly three centuries ; then, after the 
dissolution of Christ Church, Canterbury, impropriate to the 
present day. 

Within the parish are five manors. That of Edenbridge, or as 
it was called later Stangrave, occupies about half the parish. The 
manor must have been one of the smallest, as well as one of the 
latest formed in the weald. It was held together with Westerham 
until about 1263, when it was granted to John de Camville. Gil- 
bert de Clare held it for a few years, but relinquished it to 
Edward I. when he married the latter's daughter in 1290. The 
same year Edward granted it to St. Peter's, Westminster. Until 
the dissolution of the greater monasteries, Westminster Abbey 
held the manor, and Christ Church, Canterbury, the advowson. 

The manor house stood a few yards west of the present High 
Street, but a part of the moat is all that can now be seen. Those 
who held the manor from the Abbey were the De Stangraves, John 
Dynley, the Staffords and the Dukes of Buckingham. John 
Grresham, mercer, of London, bought the manor in 1540, and it 
remained with his family until 1714, when it was purchased by 
Eichard Still of Cowden. From the Stills it passed to the Streat- 
feilds of Oxted and of Chiddingstone. Broxliam, which now lies 
within the ecclesiastical parish of Four Elms, was held from 1260 
onwards by three Henry de Appuldrefelds. Margery de Appul- 
drefeld married John de Nelde, whose daughter Margaret married 
Stephen de Ashway. The next lord was John Brocas, who inherited 
it by marriage. Eichard Whytyngton, mercer of London, and 
Lord Mayor, held it with others in trust in 1391.* The first Lord 
Clinton and Say died possessed of it in 1432. It then passed to 

* For this fact I acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. H. W. Knocker, 



the Squerryes of Westerham, and changed hands frequently until 
1906, when it was bought by Mr. Herbert Whitmore of Limps- 

Shernden lies to the south of the parish. It figures in charters 
of Saxon kings, when, as part of Bromley Manor, it was made over 
to the See of Rochester. It is mentioned in a charter of William 
the Conqueror, when, as part of the manor of Lewisham, it was 
granted to the Abbey of Ghent. Later, the Cobhams held it from 
the lords of Lewisham Manor. The little cottage called " Cob- 
hambury " is the only name in the district which recalls the once 
famous lords of Prinkham alias Sterbo rough. 

Browns, which lay on the west side of the parish, occupied 
almost as many acres of Eclenbridge parish as the manor of Eden- 
bridge. It took its name from owners who held it for three cen- 
turies. About the middle of the seventeenth century it passed 
from the Brown family, and after several changes it came in 1860 
to the Leveson- Growers of Titsey. 

Marsh Green belonged to the manor of Cudham, and for its 
history that of the latter manor must be studied. 

The following buildings in Edenbridge are of interest : — 

The Church. — Its early history will be explained to-morrow 
by the Rev. G-. M. Livett. It is sufficient here to say that the 
whole edifice has been thoroughly restored during the past seven 
years, the walls and buttresses being underpinned and rebuilt when 
necessary. In 1912 the oak roof of the chapel was exposed to view, 
the staircase to the rood loft was discovered, and a fourteenth- 
century aumbry was found close to the south end of the altar. 
Oak panelling and a screen of Jacobean design were erected on 
the north and east walls of the sanctuary, and between the arches 
which divide the chancel from the chapel. An attempt made to 
repair the south pier of the chancel arch led to the discovery of an 
Early English respond embedded within it. The lower part of 
this respond was exposed in a recess, and a large squint was cut 
through the pier. 

The timbered house just outside the lychgate is said to have 
been the residence of the chantry priest. It is worth examination 
for those interested in what are known as "crucks" {crux) 

The Crown is an ancient hostelry. In it is a concealed passage 
where could be kept casks from which pipes ran secretly to the 
taproom, to be quickly disconnected if an exciseman appeared. 
YOh. xxra, . f 



The Taylor House dates from the fifteenth century, if not 
earlier. During alterations in 1900 three floors, one of bricks, 
two of tiles of different dates, were found in one of the rooms. 
Part of the house was built by Sir William Taylour, Lord Mayor 
of London, and the arms of the Grocers Company were carved 
within the spandrels of the doorway. In the house (now occupied 
by a dealer in antiques) may still be seen some of the stair-treads, 
each hewn from one solid block of wood, and a very handsome 

Gabriels, which lies about three-quarters of a mile south of 
Edenbridge, is a fine Jacobean house, now going fast to decay. It 
has a panelled hall and carved oak fireplace, and carved stairway, 
and would well repay a visit. Some illustrations of the carved 
work may be seen in Archoeologia Cantiana (Vol. XXI., p. 103). 

The Stone Bridge records date from 1595, but it is known that 
there once existed much earlier deeds and accounts which have 
been lost. As early as 1447 Matthew Mowshurst left " to the 
highway between the bridge of Edynbrig and the tenement 
formerly Henry atte Hookes 6s. Sd. ; to the repair of the bridge 
6s. 8d" The present bridge was built in 1833. The income of 
the Great Stone Bridge Trust amounts to £209 4s. Od. per annum. 

The Vicarage, which was formerly a public-house, is an old 
timbered building. In the garden is a very fine yew tree, well 
worth inspection. 

The Tannery employs about 70 men, and the owners possess 
deeds which shew a continuous title since 1673. The office is part 
of a very ancient house. Tradition says that it possessed a central 
hearth, with an opening in the roof through which the smoke 

The Parish Registers, which have been well preserved, date 
from 1545. The earliest book consists of the original entries on 
paper. If, as Convocation ordered, these were copied on to parch- 
ment at Edenbridge, as in other parishes, the copy has disappeared. 

This register has a vellum cover, which once formed part " of a 
manual of the 14th or beginning of the 15th century." The 
last two leaves of the earliest register, which are very much 
torn, contain extraneous matter. The first entry appears to 
be a recipe or charm, but only the following words can be 
deciphered : " myngle .... with the .... the .... and .... 
wafe(rs ?) from the Ho(st ?).... and stampe them at ... . then 
, , . . halfe pennyworth .... and myngle yt Avith iii spoonfulls of 



the juce (this word has been erased) .... and give so much to one 
man or a beast that . . . . yt must be taken fastynge and the erea 
.... must fast two houres after." 

The remaining portions of these leaves are filled with over 70 
entries, each of two lines, with the name of a place in the left 
margin. These places, for the most part, are in or near Kent. 
The following are examples : — 

Strand. Thomas Brand ye xxix of June a Regini. 

Elizabeth 25 begynninge ye xxvth of mdie a dom. 1583. 

Grillford. John Thomas the firste daie of maye ad. Regni. 

Elizabeth 28 endithe the 20th daie of Aprill adorn. 1586. 
Can anyone present explain these entries ? 

A Paper on the "Vale of Homesdale " was then read by 
Mr. H. W. Knocker. Mr. Knocker's Paper will be found in a 
subsequent page of the present volume. 


The party again met at Sevenoaks on the morning of Tuesday, 
July 29th, and enjoyed a fourteen miles motor-drive to Edenbridge, 
where the church was described by the Rev. Gr. M. Livett, who 
said : Edenbridge was until quite recently a chapelry of Wester- 
ham ; and the parish of Westerham, like all the parishes on the 
north fringe of the old Andred's Weald, is a very ancient parish. 
Like its fellows it extends in a long strip from the chalk downs 
right across the Lower Greensand down into the weald. Eden- 
bridge, five miles south of Westerham, was a chapelry of 
Westerham. Probably all these parishes had their churches of 
wood in Saxon days, and most of them were rebuilt in stone in the 
Norman period. Most of them are mentioned in Domesday, but 
not so Westerham and Edenbridge. An article in the Rochester 
Diocesan Chronicle for March says : ' The earliest incumbents of 
the benefice of Westerham-cum-Edenbridge were rectors, not 
vicars. The first name that is now known is that of " Clement the 
Chaplain," who held the two churches, and enjoyed tithes and 
other emoluments accruing to them by the presentation of Hugh 
de Camvill, Lord of the Manor, early in the thirteenth century. 
Late in the same century we have apparently an unbroken succes- 
sion of rectors, namely, Ealph de Tytbesye, William Burnell, and 
John de Raddinggate. John's successor was one Richard de 




Haute, in whose incumbency an important change was made in the 
status of the holder of the cure of souls. Previously the advow- 
sons or patronage of the churches of Westerham and Dover with 
the chapels appendent thereto, with one acre of land in each vill, 
had been given by Queen Eleanor to the prior and convent of 
Christchurch, Canterbury. The grant was confirmed by the King 
in 1291. In 1327 Hamo, Bishop of Rochester, on the petition of 
the prior and chapter of Christchurch, granted to them the church 
of Westerham with the chapel of Edulwesbrogge, the gift to take 
effect on the resignation or decease of the then rector, Richard de 
Haute. In this grant the bishop reserved a " perpetual vicarage " 
in the said church with a " suitable endowment " (congrua porcio), 
not to mention a pension of ten shillings which the church had 
always paid to the bishop himself, and certain other burdens 
amounting in all to forty marcs, which the monks were to pay. The 
perpetual vicarage was created by a separate deed, executed by the 
bishop, which provided the " suitable portion " of the vicar, subject 
to certain burdens amounting to ten marcs. The advowson was 
put into the hands of the monks, who became the rectors, and were 
to receive for their own use the rectorial or great tithes (of 
corn, etc.), while the vicar was endowed with the small tithes 
(of hay, hemp, wool, milk, lambs and calves, fruit, etc.) and 

This is merely an example of the way in which vicarages came 
into existence, and the rectory (or "parsonage" as it was often 
called) was diverted from a benefice having the cure of souls and 
placed in the possession of a monastery, passing at its suppression 
later on into lay hands. In the Taxatio of 1291, before the appro- 
priation of the rectory to Christchurch, the entry referring to it 
runs simply, Ecclesia de Westerham cum capellis .... £33 6s. Sd. 
In the Valor of Henry VIII. the distinction between the rectory 
and the vicarage is clearly marked under the provisions of Christ- 
church, Canterbury. There is an entry referring to the "farm of 
the rectory," that is of the great tithes which were let by the 
monks for a fixed annual rent of about £13. From the same docu- 
ment we learn that the Vicar of Westerham with its chapelry of 
Edenbridge received £16 5s. as the value of the vicarage of 
Westerham, and £10 15s. 4>d. from Edenbridge, making in all 
£27 0s. 4d., out of which he had to pay for procurations to the i 
Archdeacon of Rochester 7s. 6d., and stipend of a chaplain for the 
chapel of Edenbridge £6 13s, 4d., leaving the total, after deductions. 



£19 19s. 6d., the tenth thereof being £1 19s. Hid u to be 

levied to the Kyng's use according to the statute made and pro- 
vidyd of the graunte thereof." 

Though in the heart of the forest of Andred, yet Edenbridge 
was inhabited at a very early period, owing probably to the patch 
of gravel that occurs here on the bank of the river. A sherd of 
the early Celtic or Roman British pottery has recently been found 
in the churchyard. But history is silent about the place until the 
tenth century, when rights of pannage in certain denes here, that 
can be identified, attached to the manor of Bromley in the posses- 
sion of the church of Eochester. The next bit of evidence is the 
bit of an unmistakable little Norman window, seen only on the 
exterior and blocked up, near the Early English lancet towards the 
west end of the north aisle of the church. That there was a 
Norman church here is confirmed by mention of it in the Textus 
Boffiensis, which is dated about 1120. No doubt the north and 
west walls of the existing nave lie on the lines of, and incorporate 
some of the original walling of that original Norman church. The 
rest of the Norman church has disappeared, and we must leave the 
recovery of its probable dimensions until we have studied the 
building which we see, and have traced its growth from the Early 
English building which took the place of the Norman church. 
But first of all I would like to run through the successive restora- 
tions which the church has recently undergone. In 1906, under 
the supervision of Mr. Maberly Smith, the gable-wall and buttress 
of the south transept chapel were entirely rebuilt and the tracery 
of the Perpendicular window was renewed. In 1908-9, under 
Mr. A. S. W. Elder, A.M.I.C.E., the walls of the north chancel 
chapel aisle and tower were underpinned. The walls and buttresses 
of* the chancel were taken down in small portions, made good to the 
inside, and the stones taken from the face replaced as far as 
possible in their original position (of course this work necessarily 
destroyed the character of the original walling). Portions of the 
mullions and tracery were renewed in sandstone. The stone work 
of the east window is a modern reproduction of the Decorated 
window that formerly existed here. The old window was taken 
out and replaced by something indescribable in 1859-60. For- 
tunately in 1848 Sir Gilbert Scott had visited the church and 
made a sketch of the original, which is now in the hands of the 
vicar. Erom that sketch the .present window was inserted four 
years ago. The original was doubtless intended for glazing, repre- 



senting the Crucifixion. On the south aide of the chapel a buttress, 
immediately to the west of the two-light window, was taken down 
and rebuilt a few feet further west — i.e., about the centre of the 
wall. The wall here is said to have contained indications of an 
opening which had been blocked, and when it was being treated a 
large portion of the blocking fell out. A new door was inserted 
further to the west, the little lancet light to the west of it being at 
the same time taken out and re-inserted some inches from its 
original position. The aisle wall was found to be about thirteen 
inches out of plumb, and its face and windows were brought 
forward to make them vertical, the inner face of the wall being left 
untouched. The aisle roof was made secure, and the stone work 
of the tower was repaired. In 1912 internal repairs were carried 
out and the chapel roof was unsealed and its beams exposed. The 
stairway to the roodloft, blocked in 1860, was reopened. jN"ew 
oak screens and panelling made from the old bell cage, from 
designs by Mr. Gr. E. S. Streatfeild, were put up in the chancel. 
The south respond of the Early English chancel arch was discovered 
behind that of the Decorated successor, and a rough squint was 
made so that it might be left exposed. In 1895 the altar-tomb of 
Bichard Martyn and his wife (1499) was removed from the middle 
of the side wall of the chapel to make room for the new organ. A 
portion of the tomb has been rebuilt into the east wall (another 
panel lies in the churchyard). According to the E,ev. H. R. 
Hubbard, the late vicar, a recess for the altar of St. John the 
Baptist was seen in the east wall prior to 1905. In 1875 the 
buttresses at the north-west corner of the nave were rebuilt. In 
1859-60 the font (apparently Decorated work, with square sand- 
stone bowl adorned with slightly raised trefoiled arcading. on a 
central shaft with four small corner shafts with bases and caps 
having round mouldings, all in firestone on a square plinth) was 
found in a square pew. A pillar piscina was removed from the 
south wall of the chapel to the north wall of the chancel (replaced 
in 1912), and communion rails made in 1670 and placed round the 
three free sides of the table were removed. The tower screen 
containing, it is said, the old rood beam was erected. These are 
all the points of restoration I need dwell upon. 

The church, as we see it, took its final shape in the Perpendicular 
period (fifteenth century), when all its parts were re-roofed, 
though probably not all at one time, the roof of the south chancel 
chapel being probably somewhat later than the rest of the roofs. 

IpkOCEEBltfGS, 1913. 


The roof of the nave, with its fine woodwork and the curiously 
carved corbels of its wall posts, are worth observation. In the 
same period (Perpendicular) the tower arch and all the windows in 
the north wall of the nave (excepting the little Early English light 
near the west end) were inserted, and the south aisle of the nave 
was rebuilt with all its windows, the Early English lancet towards 
the west end evidently coming from some position in the walls of 
an earlier aisle. 

Leaving for a moment the question of the south chancel chapel, 
we now go back one step further, and notice that the nave arcade 
on the south side has all the appearance of fourteenth -century 
Decorated work. You note the bases of the piers with mouldings 
consisting of two rounds, and the capitals with scroll mouldings 
in the abacus, all characteristic of the fourteenth century. 
The chancel work is of the same period, and the windows of 
the chancel beautiful examples of tracery of the early years of the 
fourteenth century. I believe that the south chancel chapel was 
built at the same time, but the east window of this chapel is clearly 
a fifteenth-century insertion, and the arcade of three arches separa- 
ting the chapel from the chancel is also fifteenth-century work. 
The little Early English lancet to which I shall refer again later 
is near the west end of the side wall of the chapel, and must have 
come from some earlier chapel which has disappeared. In all this 
work we have to look very closely to discover signs of the remains 
of Early English work ; but signs there are, and sufficient to enable 
us to recover the dimensions of the Early English church. Look 
at the little opening recently made behind the south respond of the 
chancel arch. From the west it looks rough, as it is ; but on the 
other side one may see an Early English chamfered quoin ending 
above at the height of about seven feet in a small line of undercut 
string-course of characteristic Early English moulding. This is 
without doubt a portion of the jamb of the original Early English 
chancel arch. Look again at the west respond of the nave arcade, 
and you will find its base and capital differ from all those of the 
rest of the arcade. They are mutilated Early English mouldings. 
The abacus is exactly like the little bit of the string already 
described. The rest of the capital I have carefully examined and 
measured ; the round of the bell of the capital and also the round 
of the necking have both been sheared off ; the restoration gives a 
perfect capital of Early English design. The base mouldings, I 
believe, consisted of hollow between rounds of a form of Early 



English work, but slightly removed from Norman ; the date may 
be about 1200. Here then in this respond we have a sure sign of 
the existence of an Early English arcade, betokening an Early 
English aisle of narrower dimensions of course than the present 
broad aisle. The Early English people never designed so wide an 
aisle as the present one. Now if we look at the four columns of 
the arcade and notice the material and the coursing we are struck 
with the fact that in every case the uppermost two or three 
courses, occupying about two feet of the columns under the 
capitals, are longer than the courses below, and the material is 
different. The explanation of this doubtless is that in the lower 
part of the columns we have remains of the original Ea.rly English 
arcade, which the Decorated or fourteenth -century builders altered 
by heightening the columns and raising (of course by rebuilding) 
the arches above them. Lower the columns by two feet, and you 
would have the springing of the arches exactly on a level with the 
top of the bit of string-course recently discovered, which (as we 
have seen) formed the impost of the Early English chancel arch. 
The Decorated builders, in altering the arcade, inserted new bases 
and new capitals. In recent restoration some fragments of 
octagonal columns of firestone (the material of the capitals of the 
west respond) were found ; they may be seen in the porch. They 
shew leaf foliage of early thirteenth or late twelfth-century type. 
One of them has a pointed design very like that of the early 
thirteenth -century capitals of the nave of Battle Church. I have 
no doubt these capitals belonged to the Early English nave arcade. 
I am sure you will agree with me that the study of this arcade 
gives results of a most interesting character. The raising of the 
height of an arcade was a device practised occasionally by four- 
teenth and fifteenth-century builders. A good example may be 
seen in the nave of Selling Church, near Eaversham, in which the 
Perpendicular builders made use of the old Early English voussoirs 
for the inferior order of their new arch, and cut fresh voussoirs for 
the superior order. 

The height of the plates of the Early English nave roof is 
indicated by the two square masses of masonry in the western 
angles of the nave ; they doubtless supported the main tie beam at 
that end. A similar mass in the angles of the aisle indicates the 
height of the sloping roof of the narrow Early English aisle which 
has vanished. The next sign of the Early English design is in a 
small splay, cut off the southern face of the south pier of the 

t^OCftEDINfrS, 1918. 


chancel [arch, i.e., the south-east quoin of the nave. The work 
above and below this little splay belongs to the Perpendicular arch 
which spans this line of division between the aisle and the chancel 
chapel. But the stones of this splay shew the characteristic Early 
English chisel tooling, and I have no doubt the splay originally 
formed one side of a narrow squint, through which a priest, 
serving a side altar at the east end of the narrow Early English 
aisle, could view the host reserved in the pyx hanging over the 
high altar. This again gives us approximately the position of the 
high altar in the Early English chancel, which position corre- 
sponds with that of the existing altar. In fact, I have no doubt 
that, in spite of the fact that all its windows are fourteenth- 
century work, the chancel of the thirteenth-century church is that 
which we now see. The size and plan correspond well with that of 
the Early English chancel which (as we saw yesterday) once 
existed at Westerhain, and also with that which once existed 
at Chiddingstone. 

In the east wall of the present chancel, behind the wooden 
panelling on the south side of the altar, is an aumbry, which may 
be seen by opening a door in the panelling. I am not sure of its 
date, but if it be Early English, it is a further confirmation of the 
supposition that the east wall is the original east wall of the Early 
English chancel. I will not weary you with details, otherwise I 
could give further reasons from a study of the buttresses. 

No doubt the sanctuary of the Early English church was 
bounded on the south by a blank wall, as at Westerhain, and west 
of it there was a short arcade of two arches communicating with 
the side chapel. On the plan you will notice that I have run the 
lines of the destroyed aisle and chapel right through straight from 
east to west, with an arch of communication on the cross line of 
the chancel arch. This is in accordance with the plan of enlarge- 
ment which (as we saw yesterday) was adopted at Sundridge, and 
also probably at Westerham. Further evolution of the aisle and 
chapel is easily traced. First, the Chapel was enlarged in the 
fourteenth century, aud then in the fifteenth century the aisle was 
widened so that its side wall runs in line with the previously 
enlarged chapel. 

A note on the little Early English window towards the west end 
of the chapel. The proof of its removal is seen in the quoins of 
the rear arch, which have been re-cast to fit a slightly narrower 
splay than it had in its original position. The Early English 


tooling is left on one face of each stone, but the other face has 
been cut back. This window was removed a second time in 
190S-9 and placed a few inches further west, when the doorway 
beside it was inserted. Also note the position of the buttress 
midway — this was built in 1908-9 out of old materials, falsifying 
histor\r. It was originally further east, and doubtless there was 
another, further west, and a window between the two. 

These changes made in 1499, when the chapel was remodelled 
and re-roofed, and this arcade rebuilt and the west arch inserted, 
were all in connection with the tomb of Richard Martin, whose 
altar-tomb was placed where the organ now stands. It remained 
there till it was removed in 1890 to make room for this organ. 
Portions of the tomb were then rebuilt into the east wall of the 
chapel, which previously had an altar recess, then filled up. All 
this is falsifying history. 

We are now able to approximate the evidence, such as it is, for 
the form and dimensions of the early Norman church. "We have 
seen that the existing north and west walls are incorporated in the 
present walls. The Early English nave, however, is too broad for 
an early Norman nave, and I have no doubt that (as we saw 
at Aldington last year) in the Early English enlargement of the 
nave the Norman lines of the south side were disregarded, and the 
new Early English arcade built just outside the south work of the 
earlier church. Now, if we give to the Norman church a length 
about the same as that of Sundridge, and also as that of Westerham 
(deduced from the present plan of that church), we get a chancel 
whose east wall falls on the line of the Early English chancel arch. 
This accords with the plan of enlargement which I have recently 
deduced from a study of the evolution of Hythe Church. 

There are one or two other things mentioned in the book by 
the Rev. II . L. Somers Cocks : " The Clock, which possesses an 
hour hand only, was brought from the church of St. Greorge the 
Martyr, Southwark, in 1795 — 96. The stone coffin and lid of 
marble, discovered under the flooring of the nave in 1860, are 
unusually, line. The year they date from is unknown. The old 
tiles in the tower and in the chapel were found in various parts of 
the church in 1860. The font has a square bowl, which is 
supported on an octagonal stem with shafts at the angles. The 
mouldings on the capitals and bases of the shafts perhaps belong to 
the Transition period between Norman and Early English, A.D. 
1180. The pulpit is early Jacobean work. The church chest is of 


the oldest known form, being dug out of the solid oak trunk. Its 
original length was 5 feet 6 inches, width 16^ inches, depth 14 
inches. The lid was in one piece and without hinges." 

Now, lastly we go to the lower. This has remains of Early 
English windows in its middle stage interior, and I have no doubt 
that it is an Early English tower, like Westerham and Sundridge. 
A glance at the plan proves that it could not have belonged to the 
Norman church ; it seems to run too far to the south. The great 
buttress and the newel staircase are Perpendicular additions. 


Luncheon was served in the Oddfellows 1 Hall, and then the 
party divided, the hundred who had first made application left for 
Hever Castle, and those who were not so fortunate as to be able to 
accompany them started iii two cars, under the guidance of the 
Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff, for Cowden, Chiddingstone and Hever 
churches, which were to be described by the Rev. CM. Livett. In 
a preliminary examination of the church of Cowden, Mr. Livett 
pointed to the south-eastern quoin of the nave as containing squared 
stones which looked like Norman work. The church is not men- 
tioned in Domesday, but appears in the Taccatio of 1291. It con- 
sists of chancel, nave, north aisle erected in 1837, Perpendicular 
south porch, and modern organ chamber at the north side of the 

It has a shingled spire which rises through the nave roof 
towards its west end, a few feet from the west gable, from a mas- 
sive framework of wooden beams which are exposed at the end of 
the nave interior. The main uprights stand on modern brick 
footings which stand on the tloor of the nave, and no doubt indicate 
some decay of the beams at the bottom. The curved braces of the 
lowest stage form arches on the four sides of the framework, and 
also diagonal arches. 

The church contains no visible sign (other than the quoin 
mentioned) of date earlier than the fourteenth century, when 
square-headed windows were inserted, in the south wall of the nave, 
one of them shewing a peculiar label, over the very slightly pointed 
nave arch, consisting of a scroll moulding turned over at the ends. 
At the same time, as indicated by the fine mouldings of the tie 
beams and wall-plates shewing triple-filleted rounds, the nave was 
covered with a new king-post roof. The stops of the mouldings of 



the wall-plates shew that the timber tower and spire must have 
been erected either previously to, or at the same time as the 
Decorated nave roof. The roof of the chancel seems slightly later 
in date, but the east end contains a modern window which may very 
well be a fairly good representation of its Decorated predecessor, 
and on the north side of the chancel, near the east end, is a two- 
light square-headed window of the same period. On the opposite 
side there is a similar opening, transformed into a modern single 
foiled light of ungraceful proportions, and underneath is a mutilated 
piscina with a crocheted hood-mould of Decorated date. 

The south wall of the chancel also contains two delightful two- 
light Perpendicular windows of very small dimensions. The most 
remarkable feature of the church consists of two piscinas opposite 
to one another, one on either side of the chancel close to the west 
end. They lie on the line of the destroyed chancel arch, which 
was probably removed in the fourteenth century. The width of the 
chancel arch wall is indicated by the eastward extension of the nave 
roof about three feet beyond the chancel step and the quoins of the 
chancel side-walls which rise therefrom. The piscinas have trefoiled 
heads of the fifteenth-century date. They indicate that the 
fifteenth -century rood screen crossed the chancel to the east of 
them, and that on the west side of the screen there were two altars, 
one on either side of the screen door. The close proximity of one 
of the two Perpendicular windows in the south wall seems to leave 
very little room for the screen, which of course has disappeared. 
The difficulty was explained by the Parish Clerk when he told the 
members of the Society that this window formerly existed on the 
north side, opposite the second of these two windows, and that it 
was removed thence and placed in its present position when the 
organ chamber was erected on the north side. The screen which 
Grlynne, writing in 1853, described as " modern Grothic, set a little 
eastward of the entrance to the chancel," was taken down at the 
same time. No doubt this modern screen occupied the position of 
the fifteenth-century screen, crossing the chancel some five feet or 
six feet to the east of the chancel step, and allowing ample room 
for the two altars. Altars were very commonly placed on the west 
side of the screen in its normal' position at the east end of the nave, 
but the position of the screen in this case, some feet within the 
chancel, was very unusual. The rood loft, the entrance to which is 
still visible, was doubtless bracketed in the usual way, so as to 
extend westwards over the altar. The west door is Perpendicular, 



and above it is a two-light window of the same date, while high up 
in the gable is a circular cinquefoiled window of Decorated date, 
singularly placed a little to the right of the centre. The pulpit is 
Jacobean, and has the old hour-glass stand attached. 

Both church and churchyard contain grave slabs of local iron- 
stone, one of which in the floor of the church, dated 1620, has some 
curious divisions of words, such as the " wh " of "who" being in 
one line and the " o " in the next, and the " da " of " day " finish- 
ing in one line, and the " y " commencing the following one. Iron- 
works appear to have existed formerly in this parish. 


Half an hour was all too short a time for a close inspection of 
the church of Chiddingstone and the picturesque timber-houses oppo- 
site the church. Moreover the chauffeur of one of the cars unfor- 
tunately missed his way and arrived late. Like Cowden, Chidding- 
stone is mentioned in the Taxatio but not in Doomsday. It is a 
fine building with a notable Perpendicular west tower, which has a 
stair-turret running up its full height, and is capped with four dumpy 
crocketed pinnacles. The eastern face has three gables, and under 
the central one there are slight signs of the Early English triplet of 
lancets, which existed before the insertion of the late fourteenth 
century three-light window. The Early English church must have 
been very similar in plan to that of Westerham, with nave a little 
longer, and probably with south aisle to nave and chancel. The 
first alterations belong to the Decorated period, dating about 1320 
or 1330, to which date are to be assigned the east and west win- 
dows of the south chapel and aisle, and also the west window of 
the north aisle, indicating that the north aisle was built at that 
period. The principal remodelling of the church whereby, as at 
Westerham, the arcades of the nave and chancel were made con- 
tinuous from west to east, seems to have been carried out at an 
earlier date, but in more drastic manner than at Westerham, no 
signs of the earlier work or of its walling above the arcade being 
left. The whole of the old arcades and walls above them were 
taken down and rebuilt. The only indication of the original width 
of the Early English chancel is seen on either side in a little bit of 
walling, to which the responds are attached at the extreme east 
end. A peculiar feature is seen in the angle-buttress which these 
builders erected at the south-east angle of the chancel. Instead 



of placing at the usual angle of 45°, they inclined it a little to the 
cast, presumably to avoid interfering with the light of the fine 
Decorated window at the east end of the adjoining chapel. The 
date of all this work, Mr. Livett, with some hesitation, placed in 
the latter part of the fourteenth century. The scroll mouldings 
of the abaci of the capitals of the arcades, and the roll -mouldings 
of the bases, suggest Decorated influence. The north chapel, 
originally built in the earlier part of the fourteenth century, was 
enlarged in the Tudor period, and to the same period belong the 
four centred roofs of the nave and its aisles and all the windows 
in the side walls. The weather-course of the earlier roof of higher 
pitch is plainly visible on the east w r all of the tower exterior. The 
south chapel retains its earlier roof. The south porch is probably 
of the date of its sun-dial, 1626, and forms an interesting example 
of a mixture of Eenaissance and Gothic forms. The pulpit and 
font, with its cover, are Jacobean. The communion rails date 
from the time of Archbishop Laud probably. A brass chandelier 
is dated 1726, and there are grave slabs of ironstone, one of which 
is inscribed as follows : — 

" Loe here the copes of Richard Streatfeilde Greene in 
yeres But ripe in faith and fruits yet eene God hath his 
ISovle. This towne his fame, the poor a portion large of all 
his worldly stoore. Vivit Post Funera virtus. Obiit 15 die 
Septembris anno 1601, cetatis sue 40." 

By the courtesy of the tenants, Mr. and Mrs. Chandler, the 
members were enabled to view the old timber-houses opposite the 
church, and a few paid a hasty visit to the " chidingstone " in 
the park. This mass of rock is a natural feature, belonging to 
the Tunbridge Wells sands (the highest stratum of the Hastings 
sands), very similar in formation to Harrison's Rocks and Toad 
Rock, near Tunbridge Wells. The hand of man seems to have cut 
some rude steps upon it, and a hole in the top, and many legends 
have become attached to it. There is nothing to support the 
local belief that it was planted here by Druids, but it is not 
unlikely that our heathen forefathers regarded it with reverence. 
The Jaws of King Edgar enjoined " that every priest zealously 
promote Christianity and totally extinguish every heathenism, and 
forbade w r ell-worshipings, tree- worshipings and stone-worshipings." 
The belief that prominent natural features were invested with 
spirits died hard. Moreover, such objects continued for many 



centuries to form the meeting places for the administration of 
local affairs. It may be conjectured that the first part of the 
place-name is the patronymic of the early settlers. 


The two parties met at Hever Church. This is a small but 
interesting church, mentioned in the " Textus Roffensis," but 
bearing no signs of Norman date other than in its simple plan. A 
narrow north aisle was added apparently in the thirteenth century 
there is a small window at the west end which has been blocked up. 
The arcade of three arches has plain circular columns. The tooling, 
however, of the voussoirs seems to point to the fourteenth century, 
and there is a fourteenth century square-headed two-light window. 
The existing chancel-chapel on the same side, separated from the 
chancel by two four-centred arches, is of the Tudor period, and 
contains a pre-Reformation fire-place. The chancel arch, as in 
so many other churches, was removed probably in connection 
with the erection of the rood loft, of which the staircase 
remains on the south side, or in connection with the re- 
building of the roofs in the Perpendicular period, to which also 
the west tower seems to belong. The chief interest of the church 
lies in its memorials. In the chancel-floor is a beautiful brass to 
Margaret, the wife of William Cheyne (1419), which shews the 
head with mitred head-dress resting upon a richly embroidered 
cushion, supported by two angels. In the north chapel an altar- 
tomb bears a brass to Sir Thomas Bullen, who died in 1538, two 
years after the execution of his daughter Anne Boleyn. The 
inscription describes him as " Knight of the Order of the Garter, 
Erie of Wilscher and Erie of Ormunde." The head rests upon a 
tilting helm and crest, a falcon, and the feet on a griffin. The 
Knight wears the blue mantle, hood and collar of the Order, and 
the Garter buckled round the left knee outside the armour. Both 
these brasses are figured in Archceologia Cantiana, Vol. I. 

A beautiful drive took the members over Ide Hill to Sevenoaks 
Station, which was reached at 5.30. 

September 11th, 1913. The Council met this day at the Bridge 
"Wardens' Chambers in Rochester. Nine members present. 
I\ F. Giraud, Esq.. in the Chair. On the motion of Mr. H. W. 
Knocker, the following resolution was passed : " This Society 



deprecates any statutory enactment which will abolish Gavelkind 
tenure in Kent." 

New Members. — The following persons were elected Members 
of the Society : Mrs. Scarlett, Messrs. De Parri Crawhay, G-. Eliot, 
T. C. Hughes, E. Kraftmeier, and Dr. Harbord. 

A grant of £20 was made to the British Record Society towards 
the cost of publishing an Index to the Ancient Wills and Adminis- 
trations preserved in the District Probate Office at Canterbury. 

December 12th, 1913. The Council met at St. Martin's Priory, 
Canterbury, by the invitation of H. Mapleton Chapman, Esq., who 
also kindly entertained them to lunch. Eighteen members present. 
Lord Northbourne in the Chair. 

Bichborough Castle. — The President drew attention to the 
desirability of preserving such objects of antiquity as had been or 
should be discovered during the excavations now in progress under 
the auspices of H.M. Office of Works, in the neighbourhood of the 
Castle. It was decided to communicate with the Office of Works 
suggesting that the objects in question should be entrusted to the 
custody of the Municipal Authorities of Sandwich. 

St. Austin's Abbey. — Dr. Cotton made a brief report of the 
progress of the excavations on the site of the Abbey Church, and 
drew attention to what he believed to be a portion of the original 
boundary wall of the precincts on the southern side. This piece 
of walling, which is built of red tiles laid in mortar similar to that 
used at St. Pancras' Church, has hitherto escaped notice owing to 
its southern face being visible only from a garden, which until 
recently was attached to the private dwelling house formed out of 
the cemetery gate. Dr. Cotton said that Sir William St. John 
Hope had seen this piece of walling, and had pronounced it to be 
of Saxon date. 

The Secretary read a letter from the Eev. G-. M. Livett tendering 
his resignation of the Editorship of Arcliceologia Cantiatia, on 
account of ill-health and the claims of parochial work. 

Mr. Livett's resignation was accepted with much regret. 

A small Committee consisting of the President, Mr. Leland 
Duncan, and the Revs. W. Gardner Waterman and C. Eveleigh 
Woodruff were appointed to go into the matter of the Editorship 
and the punctual production of Arcliceologia Gantiana, and to report 
to the Council at their next meeting. 

The following were elected Members of the Society : Rev. GL 



Le Bosquet, Colonel W. Eliot, R. Griffin, Esq., Wentworth Huyshe, 
Esq., Rev. R. Pyper, Mrs. Blois Turner, Miss Eurle, and St. 
Augustine's College, Canterbury. 

Pass books were produced and cheques drawn. 

March 12th, 1914. The Council met at Allington Castle by 
invitation of Sir Martin and Lady Conway, who also entertained 
the members to luncheon. Eighteen members were present. Lord 
Northbourne in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Mr. C. R. Peers, F.S.A. (on behalf of 
H.M. Office of Works), in reply to the Council's letter relating to 
antiquities discovered at Richborongh. Mr. Peers, after thanking 
the Society for their communication, proceeded as follows : " The 
insufficient storage at Richborough is much on my mind, though I 
should regret having to take them away from the site, as it is much 
better on all grounds that they should remain there to be seen by 
visitors. I shall certainly consider the Sandwich proposition if 
other things fail me." 

Mr. W. J. Mercer wrote resigning the local secretaryship of 
the Margate district. Mr. Mercer had filled the office for many 
years, and his resignation was accepted with much regret. 

The announcement of the death of Mr. A. H. Gardner, a 
member of Council and Local Secretary for Folkestone district, 
was received with profound regret. 

The Secretary announced that he had received a communication 
from the British Archaeological Association inviting- the Kent 
Archaeological Society to co-operate with them in their Congress to 
be held at Canterbury July 13th— 19th. 

The Council decided unanimously to accept the invitation. 

The following were appointed to act as a Committee to make 
arrangements with the British Archaeological Association : The 
President, Messrs. H. Mapleton Chapman, C. Cotton, R. Cooke 
and the Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff. 

The Committee appointed for the purpose of going into the 
question of the Editorship reported in favour of the appointment, 
as joint Editors, of Mr. Leland L. Duncan, E.S.A., and Major 
E. Lambarde, E.S.A. The names of these gentlemen were adopted 
by the Council as those they would submit to the General Meeting 
for election. 

A grant of £2 2s. was made to the Rev. J. S. ff. Chamberlain to- 
wards the cost of printing the ancient parish registers of Staplehurst. 



The Hon. H. Hannen drew attention to the dilapidated condition 
of a fine set of eighteenth -century chairs in the Society's rooms at 
Maidstone. The chairs, he said, were of very considerable value, 
and should be either sold or entrusted to a competent workman for 
repair. After some discussion, in which the general opinion 
appeared to be that on no account should the chairs be alienated, 
the Council decided that the chairs should be submitted to an expert 
for advice as to the best methods for their preservation and repair. 

A Eeport was presented by the Joint Committee of the Kent 
Archaeological Society and British Records Society, in which the 
cost of compiling and printing the first volume of a Calendar of 
the ancient Wills preserved in the District Probate Office was 
estimated at £80, towards which £54 14.§. had been promised. 
The Council agreed to make the second moiety of their grant of 
£20, namely, £10 payable in 1914, contingent on the work being 
completed and the whole of the said sum of £80 being in hand. 

The following new members were elected : Right Hon. Earl 
Beauchamp, K.Gr., Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, General Sir 
Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., Miss A. Hammond, Miss T. Kosher, 
Miss Gibson, Rev. J. A. Forrest, Messrs. S. A. Clarke, W. H. 
MacMahon and J. ~N. T. Vachell. Pass books were produced and 
cheques drawn. 

June 3rd, 1914. The Council met at the Coburg Hotel, 
London, after luncheon kindly provided by the President. Lord 
Northbourne was in the Chair. Eighteen members were present. 

Mr. Leland Duncan reported that he had received from the 
authorities of the Victoria and Albert Museum copies of photo- 
graphs of the Stodmarsh wall paintings, with permission to 
reproduce the same in Arcliceologia Cantiana. 'The Hon. Secretary 
was directed to, convey to the Museum authorities the thanks of the 
Society. The Dean of Canterbury, V.P., said that the Cathedral 
would be open to the inspection of the members of the British and 
Kent Archaeological Societies on the occasion of their proposed 
joint Congress in July ; and further drew attention to the 
dilapidated condition of the Christ Church gate, and expressed 
the hope that the Societies might help the work of repair both by 
contributing to the Chapter fund and by giving expert advice. 

The President proposed that Mr. Strange of South Kensington 
be asked to come to Maidstone for the purpose of inspecting the 
eighteenth -century chairs in the Society's rooms, and advising as to 



the best method of repairing the same. This was agreed to, and 
the matter was left in the hands of Lord JNTorthbourne and Mr. H. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of Council : 
Messrs. H. W. Knocker, H. Western Plumptre, H. L. Cowper,E.S. A., 
and E. Griffin, F.S.A. And the following ladies and gentlemen 
were elected members of the Society : Lady Sargent, Mrs. ¥. W. 
parley, Mrs. S. Williamson, Mrs. H. M. Pritchard, The Very Eev. 
the Dean of Eochester, Eev. C. E. L. MacDowall, Eev. E. Staple, 
Eev. C. M. Tudor, Messrs. W. W. Blest, L. Cast, P. Godwin and 
E. E. M. Wheeler. 

Pass books were produced and cheques drawn. 

The Eifty-seventh Annual Meeting was held at Canterbury, 
July 13th — 18th, in conjunction with the Congress of the British 
Archaeological Association. A full report of the proceedings has 
been published in the Journal of the latter Society (September 
1914), but as much of the ground traversed has been gone over 
by the Kent Society at a recent date, the following abridged account 
of the meeting may suffice here. 

Monday, July 13th. — After luncheon the members of the two 
societies visited St. Augustine's College, where they were welcomed 
by the Eight Eev. the Warden (Bishop Knight) and were then 
conducted to the site of the Abbey Church of SS. Peter and Paul 
by the Eev. E. U. Potts, Subwarden, w r ho explained the work that 
had been carried on during the last two years, as well as the earlier 
excavations which had revealed the Norman crypt. After visiting 
the ruins of St. Pancras' Church the party proceeded to St. Martin's 
Church, which was described by the Eev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff. 
Mr. Woodruff said that a careful examination of the fabric led 
undoubtedly to the conclusion that the western half of the chancel 
was the oldest part of the church ; here the walls were built very 
much after the Eoman manner, and were probably the very walls 
of the oratory erected for Queen Bertha. The nave represented 
an enlargement made subsequently, but still in early Saxon times. 
Bede's statement that the church had been built during the Eoman 
occupation of Britain could not be accepted for the following 
reasons : first, because we should expect to find the Eomano-British 
church just outside the city walls, as at Silchester — and as a matter 
of fact such a church did exist at Durovernum, for Bede states that 
when Augustine set up his Cathedra at Canterbury he did so in a 

S 2 



church which had been erected during the Ho man occupation on 
the north side of the city, and which he rescued from desecration 
and rehallowed for divine worship. A second reason was the fact 
that the material, workmanship and ground plan — as far as the latter 
has been recovered at St. Martin's — conform closely with that of 
the early Saxon churches of St. Andrew, Rochester, St. Mary 
Lyminge and St. Pancras, Canterbury, all of which were built by 
King Ethelbert or members of his family. 

After some observations by the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, F.S.A., 
and -Canon Minns, the visitors adjourned to St. Martin's " Priory," 
where they were entertained to tea by Mr. and Mrs. Mapleton 

In the evening after dinner a reception was given by the local 
committee in the Guildhall. In the unavoidable absence of the 
Mayor the Chair was taken by the Dean of Canterbury, who after 
offering to the members present a hearty welcome in the name of 
the Mayor and the Reception Committee, called upon Mr. Charles 
E. Keyser, E.S.A., President of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion, to deliver his Presidential Address. 

Mr. Keyser, after mentioning the fact that it was seventy years 
ago since the Association last visited Canterbury, expressed his 
satisfaction that the present Congress was being held in partner- 
ship with the Kent Archaeological Society, whose services in elucida- 
ting and protecting the various objects of archaeological interest 
throughout the county had been invaluable. It could not be 
expected that on the present occasion any attempt should be made 
to propound new theories or to lecture those who were more 
intimately acquainted with the antiquities of the county than the 
visiting society could be. He would, however, tender one word of 
advice to the Council of the local society, namely, to keep a vigilant 
eye upon what was going on in the south-east corner of the county. 
It might be a long time before the coal-fields of Kent were 
developed, but he shuddered to think of the possibility of the quiet 
and secluded little country parishes, with their interesting churches, 
mainly erected during the Norman period, becoming the centres of 
a large mining population. Heaven forbid that Barfreston, for 
instance, should ever be transformed into one of these communities, 
with the accompanying danger of a wealthy coalowner desiring to 
restore and enlarge the little gem of a church which at present is 
sufficient for the spiritual needs of its agricultural population. 
One had only to travel through Lancashire, West Yorkshire and 

Proceedings, 1914. Ixxxv 

Staffordshire, and other great industrial centres, to observe how 
the ancient churches and. other monuments of antiquity have dis- 
appeared, or been restored beyond recognition by the wave of 
utilitarianism which had followed on the material prosperity of the 
several districts. He ventured to hope that constant vigilance 
might be observed, and that the Kent Archaeological Society might 
in the future as in the past be the means of preserving uninjured 
for the benefit of posterity the numerous monuments of antiquity 
in the county which had survived to the present clay. Mr. Keyser 
concluded his address by expressing his approval of the careful 
repairs carried out recently on the three towers of the cathedral, 
and of the systematic excavations undertaken at St. Austin's 
for the purpose of recovering the ground plan of the Abbey church. 
Unfortunately it had been impossible to explore the site of the 
south transept, which was at present occupied by a laundry attached 
to the adjoining hospital ; at some future time, however, it might be 
possible to remove the laundry to another site and so complete the 

The Dean of Canterbury, in thanking Mr. Keyser for 
his address, said that he regarded the work of an archaeological 
society such as the British Association as having an object much 
more important than merely artistic or historical. The work that 
a society of that sort was doing, perhaps to some extent uncon- 
sciously, was that of maintaining in the minds of the people a sense 
of the continuity of English life from first to last. He ventured 
to say that there was nothing more important for the welfare of a 
country, for the soundness of patriotic feeling, than the sense of 
continuity. It was one of the means of teaching, as it were by eye- 
sight, that the country at this time, and all that we valued in it at 
this moment, was due not to the work of this generation or a 
generation or two before, but to the work of all generations which 
have preceded us from the beginning of civilized life in this country. 
That was a feeling which needed to be cultivated for the general 
good of the community — moral, and even political. "We were apt 
sometimes in these days to think that there were no other wants 
but those of the present ; but there were always other wants than 
those of a particular generation. The history and the monuments 
of the past were a witness of those wants, and the work of their 
Association in calling attention to them was rendering a very 
valuable service in maintaining that feeling throughout the com- 
munity. So he desired to welcome them there not merely as a 



body of archaeologists, but also as a society which was promoting 
the very best national and public sentiment. 

The proceedings closed with a vote of 1 hanks to the Dean for 

Tuesday, July 14th. The members made an excursion by 
motor-cars to Dover, stopping en route at Patrixbourne, Bridge and 
Barfreston. At Patrixbourne Church the visitors were welcomed 
by the Eector (Rev. H. Knight), and Mr. Keyser described the 
chief , features of the church, drawing especial attention to the 
beautiful south doorway of late Norman work, with its elaborately 
carved tympanum and richly wrought mouldings. 

The next stopping-place was Bridge Church, which, although 
rebuilt in 1859, still retains some relics of the earlier church, 
notably the two Norman doorways, now inserted respectively at the 
west end and on the east side of the vestry. 

Within the chancel and on the north wall there is a very 
remarkable series of figure subjects carved in stone. These are 
arranged in two tiers, and appear to represent Our Lord in Majesty, 
with the symbols of the Evangelists in the upper row, while below 
are the following scenes from Old Testament history, viz., the 
temptation of Adam and Eve, in which the serpent is shewn 
with a human head, the expulsion from Paradise, the sacrifices 
of Cain and Abel, and Cain killing Abel. There is an inscribed 
label beneath each subject, but in the defective light these could 
not be read except in the case of the subject representing the 
Sacrifices, Dolor Cane. Vestiges of colour remain, and the whole 
series of carvings are surmounted by a semi-circular moulding, 
which gives the appearance of a tympanum to the carved work 
within. It is, however, perhaps more likely that the figures once 
formed part of an altar-piece, and that in the days of the 
Reformation they were removed from their original position, but 
on account of their Biblical character were saved from destruction . 
They do not antedate the fifteenth century. 

The motors then conveyed the party to Barfreston Church, 
where the Rector (Rev. A. W. Dowse), after briefly describing the 
chief architectural features, made way for Mr. Keyser, who gave a 
detailed account of the carvings of the magnificent south doorway, 
which he characterised as one of the finest specimens of late 
Norman work in the country. Mr. Keyser stated that when the 
church was restored in 1840 some very early mural paintings were 

Proceedings, 191A 


discovered in the chancel ; these had since disappeared, but 
drawings of them were preserved in the librae of the Society of 
Antiquaries at Burlington House. 

Progress was then made to Dover, where, after a very brief inspec- 
tion of the Maison Dieu, the party proceeded to Dover College, 
where the Rev. R de W. Lushington, the headmaster, described the 
remains of the Beuedictine Priory of St. Martin, now forming part 
of the school buildings. 

After luncheon the castle, and church of St. Mary-in-Castro 
were visited, the latter under the guidance of General Sir Charles 
Warren, Gr.C.M.Gr., F.R.S., who described it as a Saxon building, 
with additions made in Norman times. From the castle the motors 
conveyed the party to the church of St. Margaret at Cliffe, which 
was described by Colonel Kavanagh. The church is of late Norman 
date. Traces, however, of an earlier church were revealed in the 
course of excavations carried out in 1913, when large blocks of 
masonry — possibly of Saxon date — were found below the wall 
of the sanctuary. That a church was in existence here in the 
eleventh century is testified to by the Domesday Survey, which 
mentions the church Sancta Margareta. The fine western door- 
way, with its thirteen sculptured figures arranged in groups of 
three and two, representing Our Lord and the twelve Apostles, was 
described by Mr. Keyser. 

After partaking of tea in the vicarage garden by kind invitation 
of the Rev. R. B. and Mrs. Smythe, the party returned to 
Canterbury via Mongeham, Staple and Wingham. 

Wednesday, July 15th. Richborough and Sandwich were the 
objectives on this day, a halt being made en route at the church of 
St. Nicholas at Ash, where Mr. R. H. Groodsall read the following 
paper : — 

Mr. Groodsall said: The parish church of St. Nicholas, Ash 
next Sandwich, is of generous proportion. As will be seen, it con- 
sists of a nave, choir, with a large side chapel on the north, 
northern and southern transepts, and a lofty tower over the 

Before considering the architectural details of the building 
it may be well to give a brief historical introduction. The church 
doubtless occupied a site used for divine worship at a very early date. 
Locally there is a tradition that on the site originally stood an 
altar or temple of the Druids, but as far as one can gather 



there is not the slightest scrap of evidence to support this theory. 
At the same time, of course, this does not prove that the tradition 
is wrong; indeed the spot overlooking the surrounding plain of 
marsh is just the position one would expect to find pre-historic 

The original church was built probably in Norman or possibly 
in late Saxon times. Of this earlier church nothing now remains 
above ground, but extensive remains of foundations, apparently of 
early date, have been found on the north side of the Molland chancel. 
The earliest parts of the present building date from the latter 
part of' the twelfth century or perhaps the early years of the 

The plan shews the building as it now stands, with the walls 
hatched or blacked in to indicate the various periods, as far as one 
is able to judge, to which they belong. Comparing this with the 
building you will notice that the church contains a nave, divided by 
an arcade from the northern aisle, north and south transepts 
divided by the tower, and a choir, which be it noted is inclined to 
the south, and a north-eastern chapel. The inclination of the choir 
to the remaining part of the building is an interesting but not 
uncommon feature. For example, it may be noticed to a very 
marked degree in Canterbury Cathedral, especially when standing 
in the Triforium gallery at the extreme east of the church. That 
the arrangement was intentional on the part of the workers there 
can be no doubt ; probably it was symbolical. The inclination is 
always towards the right or south, and often, particularly here at 
Ash, of such marked extent that it cannot be accounted for by 
assuming that it represents an error in setting out the buildings. 

In addition to the monuments, brasses, and other features of 
architectural interest, there are one or two points about the plan 
which demand very careful consideration. In the first place there 
is evidence that a tower stood at the north-west angle of the nave, 
and secondly, quite a casual inspection of the south wall of the nave 
will shew that at some time it has taken the place of an arcade, in 
other words that the arches have been walled up. 

The question naturally arises, when were these alterations made 
and why, and what was the plan of the former building, and to this 
consideration I propose to devote a few words. The walling 
externally is of flint, and it is difficult to differentiate between 
examples of this work of varying dates, consequently it is impossible 
to apply this test as to the age of various parts of the building. 

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Nevertheless there are indications, which will be apparent to those 
who have studied this question of walling, that the north-west augle, 
above which the old tower stood, is probably the oldest part of the 
present structure. As the exterior does not greatly help us to 
determine the date, we have perforce to turn to the interior for 
information. In places we notice Caen-stone has been used. This 
is an indication of early date, probably Norman, and one may ten- 
tatively assign to this part of the work a date not later than 1180. 

After a careful examination I am inclined to think that the 
walling of the original tower sub -structure, that is to say, the 
north-west angle, is the oldest part of the work, and probably the 
walling of the north transept is of similar date. 

At various times the flint work has been refaced, but neverthe- 
less there is a marked similarity between the two parts. In both 
the use of complete stones and not knapped flints will be remarked, 
and the very characteristic use of narrow bricks, or more correctly 
thick tiles, possibly Roman, here and there throughout the work. 
It is hardly necessary for me to say that the vestry and room over 
are modern additions, carried out, I understand, about sixty or 
seventy years ago. 

To the north the Molland chancel, or chapel, appears from a 
survey of the flint work outside to be of somewhat later date than 
the transept and western end of the present north aisle. The 
south wall of the nave has the appearance of later work ; and it 
will be noticed when outside that two arches with their supports, 
piers, or columns have been built up or into the wall. This can 
only suggest one thing, namely, that at some period there was a 
building beyond the present south wall divided by this arcading 
from the present nave. I shall speak of this, however, more in 
detail later. I might just mention, however, that the two windows 
in the spaces below these arches are modern, and not restorations. 
In the south transept we are confronted with another difficulty, 
namely, that this part of the building was apparently restored 
during the early seventeenth century, for it will be noticed that 
on the external walls, built into the flintwork, are a number of 
stones bearing inscriptions and dates of this period, doubtless the 
attempts of worthy churchwardens to commemorate their own 
names in connection with repairs to the fabric. As the walls of 
the south transept have been almost entirely rebuilt, we can learn 
nothing as to the nature of the adjoining part of the church, which 
must have existed to the westward. The fine central tower was 



put into the building bodily from the foundation late in the fifteenth 
century, and its erection probably extended over a considerable 
number of years. Even in mediaeval times there was often difficulty 
in obtaining church funds, hence building operations were often 
held up. 

We will now consider a point of some difficulty, namely, the 
substructure of a tower at the western end of the present north 
aisle. Assuming that this was the site of the original tower, what 
was its relation to the church? Did the original building follow 
the general rule of tower, nave, chancel, narrow and long, as found 
in churches of early date ? 

It is, I think, not improbable that the present archway between 
the north aisle and the northern transept represents the original 
chancel arch, at any rate the site if not the actual work. If such 
be the case, the present northern transept stands on the position 
of the original chancel, and the Molland chapel is a later addition. 

Subsequently, when the needs of the parish increased and funds 
were forthcoming, the present nave and chancel were added, and 
the original nave and chancel became aisle and transept. This 
would be quite a reasonable evolution were it not for the fact that 
the remains of arcading in the southern wall point to a different 
conclusion altogether. 

As far as can be seen from the outside, the pier and shaft 
supporting the two pointed arches are of the same date as the 
similar shafts between the north aisle and nave ; consequently the 
building beyond, whatever it may have been, must have dated from 
the same period. 

If the original church followed the simple plan mentioned, it is 
impossible for it to have had a southern transept or chapel, such as 
this must have been, extending across the present nave to the 
extremity of the present south transept. 

A much more possible theory is that the original church was 
entirely demolished with the exception of the western tower, and a 
late Norman or transitional Early English structure took its place, 
the date being about 1200 A.D. This would mean that the north 
aisle, nave and the demolished south chapel were all of the same 
period . 

The pointed arches of the nave are of this date, and they are of 
the same size and shape, with hood mouldings on both faces. It 
will be noticed that there are responds at either abutments, and 
that the western end has a corbel in place of a shaft. The two 



shafts are dissimilar below the cap mouldings, which are alike, 
except that the material in each case is Kentish rag ; the small one, 
however, has certainly been inserted probably at the time the 
central tower was built. The larger stones correspond in size to 
those used elsewhere in the alteration. In passing, it is interesting 
to note the small niches and corbels on each pier, which probably 
contained small images. 

On the south wall at the west there is a fifteenth -century 
window and two modern ones in the built-up arcade. The stone 
inside, as before mentioned, is Caen, a sign of early date. If this be 
correct it will be apparent that the Norman church must have 
been of considerable size — larger than one would expect to find. 
Possibly the church was cruciform in plan and had a central tower 
— an expedient not infrequently resorted to, to overcome the 
difficulties of roofing the intersection. The fifteenth-century tower 
has, of course, entirely eliminated all traces of this if it ever 

A third suggestion that has been put forward to account for the 
substructure of the north-west tower, is that the work was com- 
menced, and then for some reason never completed. It may have 
been for lack of funds or a desire to make a more pretentious 
addition in the shape of a central tower. 

I have previously referred to the arch between the aisle and the 
north transept. The late Mr. J. E. Planche, in his History of the 
parish (A Corner of Kent), suggests that the arch is, perhaps, 
thirty years later than those in the nave. Personally I am inclined to 
think it contemporary. If it be later, the transept which formerly 
went by the name of the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr must 
have been an addition to the aisle. The south pier was rebuilt with 
a different impost moulding, probably at the time that the central 
tower was inserted, and this alteration converted the chapel into a 
Northern transept proper. 

Until 1863 the organ stood in the transept. When it was 
removed, traces of fresco paintings were found on the walls ; 
unfortunately owing to damp these were in a very bad state. 
During the restoration of the transept a stone coffin of the 
thirteenth century was discovered, having an overlapping lid of 
great weight. This is now in the north chancel. The arch between 
the north transept and the north or Molland chancel is of 
fourteenth-century workmanship. 

Prior to 1840 this chapel was used as a schoolroom, and was 



divided From the transept by a wooden partition. This accounts 
for the shameful mutilation of the two corbels above the wood 
screen on either side of the arch. The corbels are in the shape of 
human heads, and the hair is arranged in a manner peculiar to the 
time of King Edward I, and II. 

The fine oak screen now occupying the open space has 
apparently been removed from some other part of the church. 
Originally it must have been rather higher, and was cut down to 
its present size to fit the opening. It will be noticed that each 
mullion is cut through above the bar panelling ; the doors which 
occupied the central bay are now in the tower. These of course 
are larger in height than the present opening, and were apparently 
discarded when the remainder of the screen was mutilated. 
Probably the original site of the screen was under the rood loft. 
Its date is apparently of the sixteenth century. In 1663 an entry 
in the church accounts records that a painter was paid for work on 
the " screenes." 

The north chancel was originally called St. Nicholas Chancel, 
and the remains of early thirteenth-century work, e.g., the string- 
courses, etc., shew that part of the original walling is incorporated 
in the later work. At the east end the string-courses are sur- 
mounted by a modern window. The windows on the north side 
are copies of the original ones. 

The fine tomb of fifteenth-century work I shall speak about 
later. The piscina is of similar date and of good design. The 
restored priest's door communicates with the main or southern 
chance], sometimes called the Guilton Chancel. On either side of 
the small door the wall is pierced with arches, those on the west 
being the most important. The quoins, jambs, mouldings, etc., are 
of ragstone. In the south wall is a trefoil-headed piscina with 
rounded corbels of early thirteenth -century workmanship. Above 
is a lancet-headed window of the same period, beside it an aumbry 
and two other windows of later dates, one on each side of the 
priest's door, which is modern. 

The south transept appears to have undergone considerable 
repairs in the year 1675, as the stone on the external walls bear 
witness. At one time there may have been a gallery in this 
transept, for there is evidence of a built-up doorway from the 
turret staircase to the tower about twelve feet up, to be seen on 
the inside. 

I have remarked previously that the tower is of fifteenth-century 



workmanship, and not a particularly good example of the late 
Perpendicular style. It was apparently built at three different 
periods, one stage at a time, and was inserted in the building from 
the foundation upwards. The south chapel or aisle had been 
demolished prior to this. The piers are unique for the size of the 
stones, which in some cases are as much as six feet long, four feet 
wide, and two feet thick. These dimensions for Kent ragstone are 
abnormal, and truly remarkable. A particularly interesting point 
not hitherto noticed, I believe, is the remarkable series of masons' 
marks to be found on these stones. They are particularly numerous 
on the south-west pier, and in this case they take the form of an 
arrow with only half the head, which alternates on one side and 
then the other on different stones. 

On the north-east pier the marks are more difficult to find, but 
are more elaborate, and often consist of a cross within a circle. 
The present ring of bells in the tower only date from 1791, when 
£161 Is. 9d. was paid for casting a new peal; but Bryan Eausett, 
the antiquary, has recorded that in 1760 he found five bells in the 
belfry dated from 1581 to 1641. With regard to the tombs and 
brasses, the most ancient monumental effigy in the church (marked 
H on the accompanying plan) is that which occupies the arch 
between the chancel and the Molland chapel. It is that of a 
knight cross-legged, and is supposed to represent Sir John de 
Groshall, who Jived during the reign of Edward III. From the 
character of the costume, however, one would be inclined to ascribe 
it to the time of the first Edward, and it may be that it should be 
attributed to Sir Henry de Groshall. Below the effigy of the knight 
is one of his lady, and in this case also the costume bears out the 
assumption of the earlier date. 

The female effigy is of ruder workmanship than that of the 
knight, and it has suffered considerably from ill-treatment as well 
as time. The distinctive features of the costume are of the 
thirteenth or early fourteenth century. The other monument in the 
north wall of the chancel (B on plan) is probably that of Sir 
John Leverick, Knight, c. 1350, who is represented in a highly 
ornamental suit of plate armour. The legs of the figure are 
crossed and rest on a lion, the head of which is remarkable for its 
lifelike expression. There is a great similarity between this effigy 
and one in St. Peter's Church, Sandwich. 

A remarkable feature of the Molland or St. Nicholas chancel is 
the fine altar- tomb at the angle of the building (C on plan). 



It is of characteristic fifteenth-century workmanship, and the 
edifies represent John Septvans, Esq., who served under King 
Henry VI., and his wife Catherine. 

The male figure is in full military costume of the middle of the 
fifteenth century, consisting of a complete suit of plate armour, 
with elegantly-designed knee and elbow pieces. Round his neck is 
a collar of SS denoting his mark of Esquire of the body of the 
Sovereign. The hair is cut close above the ears, a fashion intro- 
duced at the beginning of the fifteenth century. The head, 
represented partially bald, reposes on a tilting helmet supported 
by angels and surmounted by a torse or wreath. The feet of the 
effigy rest upon a couchant lion. 

The lady is represented in the dress of a noble widow, barbed 
above the chin with an angle veil and wearing a kirtle with, tight 
sleeves buttoned at the wrist, over which is a very full-skirted 
surcoat, reaching in graceful folds to the feet, and itself surmounted 
by a mantle of state with cords and tassels dependent. There is 
some uncertainty about this memorial, for all traces of armorial 
bearings have disappeared. 

It has been suggested that these effigies do not belong to the 
altar-tomb on which they are placed ; and from the awkward 
manner in which the tomb is built into the wall it is not improbable 
that it originally occupied some other position in the church. 
Another theory suggested, not without reason, is that this memorial 
was originally in Sittingbourne Church. 

The church is particularly rich in brasses. In the high chancel, 
almost in the centre of the floor, a fine brass, now much mutilated, 
of the fifteenth century commemorates Eichard Clitherow of Ash 
and his wife. Only the upper part of the figure of the lady now 
remains. Next the above is another good brass in a better state of 
preservation representing Jane Kerriel. On the floor of the 
Molland chapel is a large brass in tolerable state of preservation 
commemorating Christopher Septvans, alias Harfleet, of Molland 
and his wife, and the well-preserved effigies of Walter their son, 
and his wife. In the south transept there are two brasses, one of 
which represents the figures of a man and woman in the costume 
of the early part of the sixteenth century, but the inscription is 
imperfect, the Christian names William and Anne his wife only 
being preserved. 

Bjchborough. Castle. — A heavy shower of rain made the 
inspection of this famous Roinan station somewhat difficult ; few 



of the ladies attempted the wet and muddy walk along the track- 
way leading to the castle. Nevertheless a certain number of 
stalwarts assembled within the walls and listened to a brief descrip- 
tive address delivered by Lord Northbourne. The adverse 
conditions made a prolonged stay impossible, a circumstance the 
more regrettable owing to the fact that the recent excavations 
conducted under the auspices of the Board of Works have revealed 
much that has hitherto been concealed from view. 

Sandwich. — After luncheon at the Bell Hotel the pilgrims 
divided into two parties, the first under the conductorship of 
Mr. Keyser visiting the churches, and the second, with the Bev. 
P. H. Ditchfield as guide, making an inspection of the " Old 
House " in Strand Street by kind permission of the owner, W. F. 
Mackmirkan, Esq., and of Manwood Court, formerly the Free 
Grammar School of the town, where they were received by Mr. 
and Mrs. Baggett, the present owners. Mr. Baggett said that 
the house was built in 1563-4 by Boger Manwood, a native of 
Sandwich, who became one of the Barons of the Exchequer, and 
died at Hales Place in the parish of Hackington, where his effigy 
may still be seen in the church of St. Stephen near Canterbury. 

The site was given by the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, 
and the school endowed with lands by Manwood, who obtained the 
royal licence for his foundation and leave to call it by his own 
name. New school buildings have been erected on the eastern 
side of the town within recent memory, but the fabric of the old 
school-house has been repaired and all vestiges of antiquity rever- 
ently preserved. 

Those of the visitors who made a tour to the three churches 
were received at St. Peter's by the Bector, Eev. B. W. Day, who 
read some notes on the architecture and monumental effigies of the 
building prepared by Dr. C. Cotton, who unfortunately was unable 
to be present. At St. Clement's and St. Mary's the Bev. O. D. 
Bruce Payne, Bector, acted as guide, and the same gentleman 
acted in a like capacity at the chapel attached to the hospital of 
St. Bartholomew. The members then drove to Betteshanger, 
where they were entertained to tea by Lord and Lady North- 
bourne before returning to Canterbury. 

Thursday, July 16th. — The members motored to Hythe, paying 
a visit en route to the church of SS. Mary and Ethelburga, 
Lyminge, where the Bev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff described the 



church and the foundations of the earlier Saxon church in the 
churchyard (see Archceologia Cantiana, Vol. XXX., p. Ivi). 

The next place visited was Saltwood Castle, by kind permission 
of Mrs. Deedes. At very short notice it was ably described by the 
Rev. Canon A. J. Gralpin, Rector of Saltwood, who also acted as 
guide at Saltwood Church. 

Progress was then made to the church of St. Leonard, Hythe, 
where the Vicar, the Rev. H. D. Dale, gave a lucid description of 
the building. [Mr. Dale's notes on the church, and the Rev. 
Gr. M. Livett's exhaustive description of its architecture, are pub- 
lished in Arcliceologia Cantiana, Vol. XXX.] 

Lympne Castle and the Roman remains at Studfall were also 

The return journey to Canterbury was then undertaken, and 
after dinner the members were hospitably entertained by E. 
Bennett Groldney, Esq., M.P., F.S.A., at the County Hotel, where 
a concert party performed sweet music. 

Friday, July 17th. — This day was devoted to Canterbury. 
Making an early start at 9 a.m. the members, after visiting East- 
bridge Hospital, where they were received by the Master (Rev. P. L. 
Clarke), and the West-gate of the City, under the conductorship of 
Mr. S. Mead, assembled in the crypt of the Cathedral, where the 
Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff: described the history and architecture 
of the great metropolitical church. A perambulation of the Cathe- 
dral followed, the visitors being divided into three parties, con- 
ducted respectively by the Dean, Col. Hegan, and Mr. Woodruff. 
In the afternoon the remains of the conventual buildings, and 
the chapter library, were inspected, Mr. Woodruff again acting 
as guide. By the kind invitation of the Dean and Mrs. Wace 
half the party then partook of tea in the Deanery gardens, and the 
rest were similarly entertained by Canon and Mrs. Mason. After 
tea a few enthusiasts paid a visit to Eordwich, St. John's Hospital, 
and the remains of the Dominican Priory. 

The Annual General Meeting of the Kent Archaeological Society 
was held at St. Augustine's College, by kind permission of the 
Warden, on Friday evening, .July 17th. 

The President, Lord Northbourne, occupied the chair, and there 
were present in addition : The Dean of Canterbury and Mrs. Wace, 
the Warden and Sub- Warden of St. Augustine's College, Sir Charles 



Warren, F.R.S., and Mr. Keyser, E.S.A. (President of the British 
Archaeological Association), together with the following members 
of the Council of the Kent Archaeological Society : Revs. W. Gr. 
Waterman, C. H. Wilkie, C. Eveleigh Woodruff, Mr. H. W. 
Knocker, Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., and the Hon. Secretary, 
Mr. Richard Cooke ; while representing the British Archaeological 
Association were the Hon. Editor, Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, F.S.A., 
and Messrs. R. Bagster, W. A. Cater, W. Derham, M.A., and S. W. 
Kershaw. F.S.A. The seats in the Museum were mostly occupied. 

The Hon. Secretary read the annual report. Mr. Cooke said : 
" The Society would wish me to commence by expressing their regret 
for the loss the Society has sustained by the death of Mr. A. H. 
Gardner, who was both on the Council and also the local Secretary 
for the Folkestone district ; and also by the death of Mr. Green- 
sted, the local Secretary for the Sittingbourne districts. Both of 
these gentlemen were always most anxious to promote by all 
means in their power the interests of archaeology. 

A second meeting of the hon. local secretaries was held this 
year in the month of June at Canterbury, when the new rules 
relating to local secretaries' districts were further discussed ; more 
frequent meetings of members were advocated, and after discussion 
it was arranged that a general meeting of the Society should be 
held in May, 1915, at Tonbridge, after the meeting of the hon. 
local secretaries ; that Tonbridge Castle should be visited and 
described ; and, if possible, someone should be requested to explain 
to the members present what it was the Town Council wished to 
prove or disprove some two years ago, when the Society made a 
grant towards the expense of excavations. 

The subject for discussion at the spring meeting in March at 
Maidstone has not yet been fixed upon, though a paper on the 
so-called Pilgrims' Road, its origin and history, has been suggested. 

Records Branch. — This branch already numbers some 150 
members, and it is hoped that on the issue of its first publication, 
which will be ready shortly, its numbers will be largely augmented. 
The work of calendaring the wills and administrations of the Probate 
Court at Canterbury, undertaken in conjunction with the British 
Record Society, is also proceeding. 

The Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff is continuing his work upon 
the Parish and Diocesan Records of the Diocese of Canterbury. 
It will thus be evident that though late in the field in comparison 
with some other county societies, the Kent Archaeological Society 
vol. xxxr, h 



is now devoting attention to what is a very important part of 
archaeological work, with a view to the enumeration and better 
preservation of these valuable documents scattered about through- 
out the county. 

Your thanks are due to the local Hon. Sec. for Sandwich, 
Mr. Manser, for the care he has taken in keeping us informed as 
to the progress of the excavations lately carried out by the Office 
of Works inside the walls of Kichborough Castle. The Council are 
sorry to learn that this work will now soon be discontinued, and 
hopes that this stoppage, if it takes place, may be only temporary. 
Tour Council suggest that any antiquities found may be pre- 
served near the place of discovery, provided suitable accommodation 
can be obtained. The Office of Works have accepted this suggestion 

The thirtieth volume of Arclueologia Cantiana was issued early 
in June ; those members who had paid their subscriptions for the 
year 1913 and are not in arrear in a previous year are entitled to 
receive this volume, but not those members who have only paid for 
the year 1914. 

The Council agreed last September, on the motion of the 
Rev. C. H. Wilkie, to the appointment of an honorary librarian, 
but as this requires an alteration of one of the Society's rules, and 
notice of the alteration of the said rule was not given in time to 
bring the question before this annual meeting, the matter still 
remains in abeyance. 

During the year there has been but slight alteration in the 
number of members of the Society ; it is hoped all members will do 
their utmost to secure an important increase. 

That portion of the Caley MSS. which relates to the county of 
Kent will, I have reason to believe, be presented to your library 
within the next few months. The letters relate chiefly to queries 
made to Mr. Caley respecting the endowments of rectories and 
vicarages in the county of Kent." 

The Eeport was adopted. 

Owing to the presence of many of the members of the British 
Archaeological Association, the business portion was shortened as 
much as possible, but Mr. Keyser, on behalf of the British 
Archaeological Association, took the opportunity of warmly thanking 
the Council, the members, and the Local Committee of the Kent 
Archaeological Society for the help and assistance given in making 
their meeting a success, particularly referring to the very valuable 



help given by the Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff, not only in the 
formation of plans and routes, but also in undertaking the descrip- 
tion of several buildings visited, notwithstanding that he had at the 
time a large amount of work on his hands. 

Lord Northbourne replied on behalf of the Kent Archaeological 

General Sir Charles Warren then read a very interesting Paper 
on " The Highways of Primitive Man in Kent." After some pre- 
liminary remarks on the physical features and geological for- 
mations of East Kent, Sir Charles Warren classed the primitive 
highways of the county under two heads : (1) Thoroughfares — main 
highways leading from centre ; and (2) Local highways. Iu Kent 
the highways were subordinate to three special local influences : 
(1) the forests of the weald of B lean 5 (2) the estuaries and flats 
about the rivers and the islands about the coast ; (3) the line of 
chalk cliff, the lip of the crater surrounding the weald, which was 
used as the great highway east and west through Kent. The 
geological map shewed that the chalk ridge ran in nearly a straight 
line from Folkestone to Hailing, and from Hailing to Dorking, 
and along that line was the British east and west highway, part of 
which was subsequently used as the Pilgrims' Way in Christian 
times. The arguments that went to shew that the road was used 
by the Christian pilgrims journeying from Winchester to Canter- 
bury in a great measure applied to its use by primitive races. 

A hearty vote of thanks to Sir Charles Warren for his in- 
structive Paper closed the proceedings. 

September 10th, 1914.— The Council met at the Bridge Wardens' 
Chambers, Rochester, after lunching together at Oriel House by the 
kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs. P. H. Day. Mr. F. F. Griraud in 
the Chair. Twelve members present. 

Letters were read from Mr. F. Lambert, Hon. Secretary of the 
British Archaeological Society, thanking the Kent Society for their 
co-operation at the joint congress in July last ; from Mr. Aldridge 
reporting the discovery of Roman foundations and pottery at North 
Ash, near Wrotham ; from Mr. C. Peers, expressing satisfaction 
that it was proposed to mark the site of Shepway Cross, and the 
tree at Kingsborough in Sheppey, where the courts of the Ferry 
Wardens were formerly held ; and from Mr. A. A. Arnold drawing 
attention to the statements made in the first volume of Kent 
Records (Parochial Records in the Diocese of Rochester) that the 

h 2 



earliest register book of the parish of Aylesford had been "lent to 
an exhibition and never returned." Mr. Arnold wrote that the 
exhibition referred to was the " Temporary Museum " arranged for 
the annual meeting of the Kent Archaeological Society in the Corn 
Exchange at Rochester in 1886 ; that he remembered the loan of the 
Aylesford book, and that it was duly returned to the vicar's 
messenger after the meeting. In confirmation of this statement 
Mr. Arnold was able to state that he had recently inspected the 
loan book, which is still preserved in the office of the town clerk, 
wherein he found an entiy in his own handwriting relating to the 
book, and a signed receipt for the same from the messenger of the 
Vicar of Aylesford, dated July 24th, 1886. The Council expressed 
their gratitude to Mr. Arnold for his prompt action, which has 
altogether exculpated the Society from complicity in the loss of 
this valuable record. 

The following new members were elected : Dr. R. J. Dick, 
Dr. Gordon Ward, Mr. J. H. Sikes and Mr. W. J. Wilson. 

Passbooks were produced and cheques drawn, 

December 9th, 1914. — The Council met this day in the Cathedral 
Library at Canterbury by permission of the Dean and Chapter. 
Lord Northbourne in the Chair. Eighteen members present. 

A letter was read from Mr. H. Elgar giving a description of a 
gold sceatta, and some other coins found on Mr. De Uppaugh's estate 
at Hollingbourne, and placed by that gentleman, on loan, in the 
Society's rooms at Maidstone. Thanks were accorded to Mr. De 
Uppaugh ; to Mr. Bosanquet for the gift to the Society's library of a 
privately printed copy of the MS. of William Demster ; and to the 
Rev. C. Eveleigh Woodruff for his offer to edit Archceologia 
Cantiana, Vol. XXXI., Mr. Leland Duncan and Major Lambarde, 
the Society's editors, at the present time being fully engaged in 
His Majesty's service. Mr. H. Mapleton Chapman was re-elected 
the Society's representative on the Fordwich Town Hall Trust. 

An application having been made by Mr. Boulter of Ramsgate 
for the loan of objects of antiquity, of which the Society possessed 
duplicates, for exhibition in the museum at Ramsgate, the Council 
decided to accede to the request under the following conditions : — 

1. That all expenses of removal and return be paid by the 

2. That the articles be fully insured. 

3. That all loans be made by the Council in writing. 



4. That the Society's label be attached to all articles, and that 
the said articles be kept in a case under lock and key. 

5. That no article of great intrinsic value or of special fragility 
be included in any loan. 

Major Powell Cotton of Quex, Thanet, was elected a member of 

Passbooks were produced and cheques drawn. 


We regret to have to record the death, on the 13th of March last, 
of Mr. W. Essington Hughes, the senior partner of the firm 
of Mitchell Hughes and Clarke, the publishers and printers of 
Archceologia Cantiana. Mr. Hughes, who was 83 years of age, 
joined the above firm in 1856, and since 1874, when his firm 
took over the printing and publishing of Arcliceologia Cantiana, 
has taken the keenest interest in the affairs of the Kent Archaeo- 
logical Society. For the past thirty-three years he had acted as 
Hon. Local Secretary for the London District, and was a regular 
attendant at the Summer Excursions of the Society. 

Mr. Hughes was a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, and 
a Member of the Council of the British Archaeological Association. 

( cii ) 

Owing to the fact that the Society have a large number of 
certain Volumes of Akch^ologia Cantiana in stock at Maidstone, 
the Council — in order to save space on their shelves— have decided 
to offer the surplus stock to Members at the following prices : — 
Vols. VIII. . . . . 2s. Qd. per Vol. 
Vols. IX. . . . , ~ . 2s. Qd. „ „ 
Vols. XIII 10s. Od. „ „ 

The other Volumes in stock, up to and including : — 

Vol. XXIII. .... 5s. Od. per Vol. 
All Vols, later than Vol. XXIIL . 10s. Od. „ „ : ' 




From 1st January 1912 to 31st December 1913. 


£ d. £ *. X 

To Rent of Library and Council Chamber at Maid- 
stone 20 0 0 

Curator's Salary 40 0 0 

,, Porter's Wages 6 12 0 

, ? Fire and Employers' Liability Insurance 5 19 0 

,, Printing - , Stationery, etc., including- Honorary 

Secretary's Postages and Stationery 30 18 9 

,, Archasological Congress 2 0 0 

Accountancy : — 

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1911 5 12 6 

„ Honorary Local Secretaries' Disbursements 0 14 6 

„ Grant in aid of Excavations at Tonbridge Castle . 20 0 0 

„ Miscellaneous Expenses : — 

Turner re Kent Churches 11 11 0 

Constable, Kent * 1 11 6 

13 2 6 

„ Expenses re Annual Meetings 8 17 0 

„ Rochester Records : — 

Payments 87 19 6 

Less Receipts 56 2 6 

31 17 0 

,, Balance, as per Balance Sheet 96 0 1 

£281 13 4 

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Chartered A ccountants. 


'for Year ended ?>\st December 1912. 

£ a. d. £ *. d. 

By Annual Subscriptions : — 

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„ Dividends on Consols 41 14 4 

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£281 13 4 


J3X\ Balance Sheet at 


& *. d. & s. d. 

Sundry Creditors : — 

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accrued 15 0 0 

Accountancy. 1911 5 12 6 

Mitchell Hughes and Clarke 20 17 6 

W. H. Keeley and Son 3 15 3 

Provision for other outstanding Accounts 5 0 0 

50 5 3 

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Research Fund, as per last Balance Sheet 39 6 9 

Accumulated Fund : — 

Balance as per last Balance Sheet 2814 1 6 

Add Excess of Income over Expenditure for 

the year 96 0 1 

2910 1 7 

£3006 3 7 

W. J. KING and SON. 

Cha rtered Ace mi n ta n tg > 




Slst December 1912. &t\ 


£ .<r. £ *. rf. 

Gash in hands of Honorary Secretary 0 4 2 

,, at Maidstone Bank : — 

Current Account 239 2 ]l 

Deposit Account 200 0 0 

,, at Canterbury Bank : — 

Current Account 168 19 6 

608 6 7 

Investment in Consols : — 

£1756 9*. 8d. taken 'at 75 1317 0 0 

Dividends accrued to 5th October 1912, not 

collected 70 7 0 

Library and Collection at the Maidstone Museum 1000 0 0 

Sundry Debtors : — 

Rochester Records 3 0 0 

Sale of Publications 7 10 0 

10 10 0 

£3006 3 7 


Kent akch^ologIcaL 

Income and Expenditure Account 

A s. d. £ d. 

To Rent of Library and Council Chamber at Maid- 
stone 20 0 0 

„ Curator's Salary 40 0 0 

., Porter's Wages 6 12 0 

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Secretary's disbursements for Postages, 

Stationery, etc. 36 2 3 

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W. J. King and Son, Fee and Disbursements, 

1912 5 12 6 

„ Honorary Local Secretaries' Disbursements 104 

„ Mitchell Hughes and Clarke, on account of 

Volume XXX 200 0 0 

,, Miscellaneous Expenses :— 

Subscription to Harleian Society 4 4 0 

Transfer of Consols 1 14 0 

5 18 0 

„ Expenses re Annual Meetings 12 5 6 

£334 19 7 

W. J. KING and SON, 

Chartered Accountants*, 




for Tear ended 31s* December 1913. €Tr. 

£ x. d. & s. d. 

By Annual Subscriptions : — 

Arrears to 1912 47 10 0 

381 Members at 10*. (1918) 190 10 0 

238 0 0 

„ Entrance Fees 19 10 0 

., Sale of Publications 11 12 0 

., Rochester Records 1 10 0 

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,, Dividends on Consols 11 12 6 

„ Miscellaneous Receipts : — 

Subscriptions overpaid 0 7 6 

Sale of Paper 0 13 6 

1 1 0 

,, Balance, as per Balance Sheet 16 14 1 

£334 19 7 

c\ r 

13 r. 


Balance Sheet at 


£ .<?. d. C d. 

Sundry Creditors : — 

Corporation of Maidstone for rent of Library 

accrued 15 0 0 

Accountancy, 1912 5 12 6 

Due to Honorary Secretary for Disbursements 2 5 10 

Mitchell Hughes and Clarke 22 2 0 

Local Records 0 10 0 

Provision for other outstanding Accounts 5 0 0 

50 10 4 

Annual Subscriptions paid in advance 10 0 0 

Research Fund, as per last Balance Sheet 39 6 9 

Accumulated Fund : — 

Balance, as per last Balance Sheet 2910 1 7 

Less Excess of Expenditure over Income for 

the year 16 14 1 

2893 7 6 

£2993 4 7 

W. J. KING and SON, 

Chart ered A ccou nta ntx. 


Slst December 1913. ©V. 


£ a. d. £ s. d. 

Cash at Maidstone Bank : — 

Current Account 169 S 5 

Deposit Account 200 0 0 

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571 10 2 

Investment in Consols : — 

£1756 9.?. M. taken at 75 1317 0 0 

Dividends accrued to 5th October 1913, not col- 
lected 101 6 11 

Library and Collection at the Maidstone Museum ... 1000 0 0 

Fire Insurance paid in advance 3 7 6 

£2993 4 7 

^rrh^ab|[ia Cantiann 



In" the quiet seclusion of Otford two notable witnesses to 
the new impulses in art, life, and religion, called the 
Renaissance, saw the light — the House built by Archbishop 
Warham, and the Prayer Book compiled by Crannier.* The 
latter lives to speak for itself, and with it we are no further 
concerned in this article ; but the former has almost passed 
away, and that part which remains serves quite different 
purposes than for which designed, though still a mute 
testimony to that glorious youth of the modern world when 
the dead hand of the Middle Ages was yielding to the pres- 
sure of the new learning and the desire for a fuller and 
more pleasurable life. 

The Wars of the Roses had destroyed the old intractable 
baronage, and the resulting greater security of life having 
released the designer from the mainly military considera- 
tions which had hitherto absorbed his powers of invention, 
enabled him to use his site so as to give expression to the 
new demand for houses which might be homes, and which 
should also testify to the ideals of culture and refinement 
that characterize the new age. Under this impulse there 
came into existence those grand Tudor mansions of long 

* J. R, Green. Stray Studies. 




galleries, great windows, parapetted towers and towerettes, 
and fantastic chimneys, that afford so much pleasure 
to the inquisitive antiquary and the artist in search of 

War ham proved himself a true child of his age in giving 
expression to the new social and artistic ideals when building 
his manor house, which in area alone seems to have covered 
some two acres of land, and which — but a description of 
the house may prove of greater interest if viewed in the 
long perspective of the connection of the archbishops with 

The mastery acquired by the Normans was signified in 
many notable acts, and significant amongst their number, 
and one which played an important role in subsequent 
ecclesiastical history, was the division of the property of 
Christ Church, Canterbury, between the monastery and the 
archbishopric. This policy was initiated by Lanfranc. 

Otford fell to the archbishopric, and the connection so 
established was maintained until 1537. It was the richest 
of the Archbishop's manors in Kent, and although it is not 
at present possible to state accurately the area of land 
embraced in the manor, certainly it was most extensive. 
According to the Red Book of the Exchequer, a.d. 1214, 
the following manors were held of the Archbishop as of his 
Manor of Otford: Eynesford, Lullingstone, Aldeham, Pres- 
ton, Vielestone, Sundridge, Ch evening, Shipbourne, and 
Orpington. From other records, Tonbridge, Penshurst, 
Brasted, Sevenoaks, and Shoreham can be added, and thus 
the area embraced would extend from TOnbridge through 
Penshurst to Chevening, thence to Eynesford, back through 
Shoreham and Otford to Tonbridge, with Shipbourne and 
Orpington as offshoots. 

Lancfranc appears to have had a home at Otford, and 
it is recorded that Archbishop Theobald ordained Richard 
de Belmeis priest at Otford on September 20, 1152, but 
definite traditions of building a manor house commence 
with Becket, whose memory is kept green by quite a shower 
of curses that he rained down upon the place. Their 


abundance was, however, no measure of their strength, 
and all fell iin potently upon the land. That with which we 
are alone concerned had reference to a want of water for 
building. Upon making this discovery Becket drove his 
staff passionately into the soil, and lo ! water flowed. The 
site of this memorable event is called " Becket's Well," and 
characteristically used to be reputed as possessing curative 
properties, but the good sense of the age declares it to be 
a plain Roman bath. Certainly something must be wrong 
with the form in which the tradition has reached us, for 
dame Nature seems to have been ever more than liberal with 
her endowment of water at Otford. The house figured in 
the quarrel between Henry II. and Becket, one Alanus 
recording that after Becket had been apprehended " the 
Bishop of London came to him, declaring that if he would 
surrender up to the King his mansion at Otford and Winge- 
ham, there was hope that he would recover the King's 
favour and that all would be forgiven " (Old Qtford, by 
Dr. Hunt, and Foxe's Booh of Martyrs) . From Becket down 
to Cranmer there is almost continuous record of the resi- 
dence of the archbishops at Otford. No description of the 
house of the Middle Ages is, however, known to exist, but 
some light is thrown upon it by Archbishop Peckham's 
Eegister, 1279 — 1292, where it is recorded that, in giving 
directions for the erection of the present church,* he remarked 
of the manor house that "it is an offence that for so solemn 
a hall or palace as that which stands there, there should be 
nothing but a wooden chapel." The site of the old house 
may have been in the rectangular-shaped meadow whose 
north-west corner abuts upon the south-east of the present 
cemetery, and the " Castle Farm " house in the southern end 
of this field is in part probably the only existing relic of the 
pre-Tudor house. 

Archbishop Dene (1501—1503) is reputed to have 
repaired the old house, yet notwithstanding Warham (1503 
—1533) erected a new one at the cost of £33,000. The manor 

* This statement may be questioned, but there are good reasons for making 
it, although too long for a footnote. 

B 2 


rolls, although very numerous for the period, are quite 
silent as to the building of the house. According 
to Somner (Antiquities of Canterbury) he first proposed to 
build at Canterbury, but failing to compose differences with 
the citizens for a site, built at Otford. Here he entertained 
Cardinal Campeggio on his first visit to England (July 1518), 
when, met by Warham at Sandwich, he travelled through 
Kent with 1000 horse, many in armour and gold chains, and 
came to Otford, remaining two days, during which time 
the Archbishop " made him good and real cheer and divers 
pleasures and goodly pastimes,' 5 and also Henry VIII., when 
in 1520, with a retinue of 4000, and his Queen with 1000, he 
rested at Otford en route to the Field of the Cloth of Gold. 
That such hosts could be entertained at Otford affords at once 
some idea of the resources of the house and manor, and of 
Warham's wealth ; but it is Erasmus who supplies the best 
general idea of both the old and the new houses. Erasmus, 
who visited Warham at what the latter called his "power 
house," speaking first of the old manor house, says it was 
"A place more meet for a religious man's meditation than 
for a prince's pleasure, with which I myself could not have 
been greatly in love, till such time as William Warham 
bestowed so great cost upon it that he thought better to 
have raised a new house in the place than to have repaired 
the old, for he left nothing of the first work but merely the 
walls of a hall and a chapell." During the erection of this 
building Warham received news from Erasmus that he was 
suffering from stone, and facetiously replied: "What busi- 
ness, have you with such a superfluous load of stones in 
your small body, or what do you propose to build super hanc 
petram ? Stones are heavy carriage, as I know to my cost 
when I want them for building purposes. I presume you 
do not contemplate building a palace, so have them carted 
away, and I send ten angels to help you rid yourself of the 

This pleasantry finds no counterpart, however, in Lam- 
bard e, to whom the palace was well known (see Appendix 
II.), for he wrote rather bitterly that, "William Warham, 


AT OTFORD. I5I6 (circa) 


This Plan is based partly upon the existing remains of the House, and 
partly upon information detailed in the Survey made in 1573 (Appendix II.). 

(1) Existing remains are shewn blocked in. The lower portion and founda- 

tions of the South end are, however, still partly in sitti, but are omitted 
from plan as too fragmentary to enable a fair representation of this end 
of the building to be drawn. 

(2) The portions hatched in are detailed in the Survey, but the length of the 

East and West galleries and the positions of the Gate Houses are pure 

(3) The portions not shaded are also pure conjecture, but are based upon an 

examination of the Site, and are supported by the Survey (Appendix 
IX), and serve to indicate the general dimensions of the plan of the 
original building, 


wishing to leave to posteritie some glorious monument of 
his worldly wealth and misbegotten treasure, determined to 
have raised a gorgeous palace for himself." 

Warham himself furnishes a slight account of the old 
and new houses when he raised the wages of George Guston, 
keeper of the manor, from two pence to four pence daily, 
because the former wage was granted when the i( buildings 
were ruinous by neglect, but now sufficiently repaired and 
the great buildings with also the enclosure with towers new 
built and the various gardens new enclosed." 

The general impression imparted by these extracts from 
the writings of eye-witnesses is reinforced by two detailed 
surveys of the house in decay, made in 1547 and 1573 
respectively (see Appendices I. and II.), and these, together 
with the fragment that remains, enable a fairly complete 
picture of the building to be constructed. The description 
must, however, be conjectural to some extent, as the infor- 
mation in the surveys does not permit of each part being identi- 
fied in its place, although, from the fragment that remains, 
the external appearance of the fabric can be accurately 
stated and the plan of the house built up with some certainty. 

The shape was rectangular, the longer side facing west. 
The Great Gate House stood on the north side, and was 
connected by galleries to tall towers at the north-west and 
north-east' corners respectively, and from each of these towers 
long galleries extended southwards. It is not satisfactorily 
established whether these galleries were connected by other 
galleries on the south, separated by the Lesser Gate House, 
but it is conjectured* that such was the case, and also that 
towers stood at the south-west and south-east corners. The 
rectangular area thus enclosed appears to have been divided 
into two quads or courts by the great hall and the leades or 
smaller galleries which extended east and west from it to 
the north and south galleries. 

North and south courts were thus formed, the latter 

* That there is warrant for this conjecture is shewn by the fragments 
that remain and Symondson's map, which has been recently reproduced in 
Archceologia Cantiana, Vol. XXX. ■■ 


containing the living portion of the house with open gal- 
leries, and in it were the Great Chamber of Presence, The 
King's Privy Chamber, My Lady Mary's Chamber (subse- 
quently Queen Mary), My Lady of Southf oik's Lodging, 
and the New Gallery. (These names were applied to the 
rooms, etc., after the Archbishop had exchanged the pro- 
perty.) Also the kitchen, the buttery, and the serving 
chambers at the east end of the hall, and close at hand was 
a school-room and chapel. 

Two stone conduits, one in each court, conveyed water 
from east to west right through the house; these still exist. 
On the south side was the Privy Walk, a name which 
adheres to this day. The accompanying sketch plan, num- 
bered 1, illustrates the foregoing remarks. 

Such was the plan, which measures on the 25-inch Ord- 
nance Survey about 440 ft. by 220 ft. The mansion would 
present the appearance of a long rectangular mass of red 
bricks of two floors resting upon a plinth of stone, a cluster 
of tall towers at each corner, a tiled roof, and projecting 
above a forest of those charming pieces of fancy, the twisted 
and graceful chimney of the Tudor period. The surface 
brickwork, in old English bond, was diversified by stone 
quoins and by a diamond-shaped network of dark brick 
relieved by two horizontal lines of stone-framed windows. 
The deficiency of 200 keys at the survey of 1573 affords 
some idea of the number of rooms in the house. 

Of this stately house only the north-west tower, the 
lower floor of the north-west gallery, a small hall, and a 
portion of the outer wall of the south end are now in 
position. Illustration No. 2 is reproduced from a drawing 
made by Mr. H. Petrie about end of 18th century, and pre- 
sents an excellent view of the actual remains of the house 
existing in his day, and No. 3 the ruin as it is to-day, an upper 
floor having been imposed upon the ground floor of the old 
gallery to form three cottages. The beautiful north end of 
a small hall at the end of the gallery is illustrated by picture 
No. 4. This hall is now used as a barn. Annexed to its 
south end is a small five-side tower, which was originally 

.No. 5. — Shewing Lnteuiok of the existing Main Towek. 

one of the towerettes mentioned in the survey, and probably 
gave access to the galleries from the north quad by means 
of a spiral staircase. 

The main tower has been gutted (illustration No. 5), 
but still shews traces of having contained three floors with 
doorways leading to the galleries. It is seven sided, with 
two towers adjoining, one which contained a spiral staircase 
leading, to the various floors of the main tower and also 
giving access to the galleries, the other being apparently 
used as a " garde robe. 5 ' 

Of the artistry of the house there is not much evidence. 
The windows in stone are typical of the Tudor period, square 
hoods with plain lights (see illustration No. 4), and in 
illustration No. 2 the rubbed-brick windows which opened 
on to the north quad are shewn. 

The tower still testifies to the oak panelling it once con- 
tained, and it is surmised that some of the panelling taken 
from the palace can be seen in the " Bull Inn " in the 
village. The same hostelry contains two Tudor fireplaces, 
and it is also possible that two more from the same source 
are preserved in the " Old Parsonage " in the village. 

Above the fireplace in the " Bull Inn " are panels con- 
taining roundels of heads supposed to represent Henry VIII. 
and Ann Boleyn. I should rather suppose that if the carving 
of the lady was ever intended to represent a royal person it 
is more likely to have been Katherine of Arragon, both on 
the ground of the likeness, and because it is hardly likely 
that Warham, who was Katherine's counsellor, would have 
" hung" a portrait of her rival on his walls. They are also 
interesting, as they seem to bear witness to Germans or 
Italians having been employed on the ornamental work of 
the house, as was usual during the Renaissance period (see 
illustration No. 6). 

As late as 1820 there was also in the same inn a chest 
with obscene carvings upon it, also said to have come out of 
the palace, and the late vicar (Dr. Hunt) possessed two 
fire dogs and an oak door (the latter he found in use as 
a garden frame), but all have been taken away. 


The tower was gradually being disintegrated by ivy, but 
as this has now been cut it is hoped that the process has 
been stayed and that the 400 years of its existence will in 
consequence be further lengthened. 

Such then is an account of the old house and its present 
condition, and it is curious that it never seems to have been 
mentioned in works on architecture, although in size, and 
especially its galleries, it would seem to have been a notable 
work of art in its period. 

We now pass to the history of its decline. 

Warham died in 1533 and the house passed to Cranmer, 
one of whose earliest duties there being to examine the 
famous "Nun of Kent," Elizabeth Barton. Later, when 
the exchange of the property with Henry VIII. had been 
mooted, he wrote to Wolsey on the 31st August 1537 : — 

" And concerning such lands of mine as the King's 
Highness is minded to have by exchange at Maidstone and 
Otford ; Eorsomuch as I am the man that has small 
experience in such causes, and have no mistrust at all in 
mine prince in that behalf, I wholly commit unto you to do 
therein for me as you shall be thought expedient, not doubt- 
ing that you forsee as much for my commodity, as you 
would that I should do for you in such -a like matter" 
(Letters of Thomas Cranmer, Parker Society, Edited by Cox). 

The exchange was effected in 1537, and the following 
words of an eye-witness of the transaction exhibit so nice 
a picture of self-assertion and colossal selfishness on the 
part of Henry VIII. that it deserves extensive quotation : — 

" I was by when Otteforde and Knole was gyven him 
(Henry VIII.)," wrote Ralph Morice. "My Lord Cranmer 
mynding to have retayned Knole unto himself, saied, that it 
is too small a house for his Ma/jestie. 6 Marye (saied the 
King), I had rather to have it than this house (meaning 
Otteforde), for it standith of a better soile. This house 
standith lowe and is rewmatike like unto Croydon where 
I colde never be without syeknes. And as for Knole it 
standith on a sounde parfaite holsome grounde. And if I 
should make myne abode here as I do suerlie minde to do nowe 

Xo. 6.— Shewing Fireplace and Oak Panelling in Parlour 
of the "Bull" Inn, Oxford. 
Note roundels of carved heads in top panels. 


and then, I myself will lye at Knole and most of my house 
shall lye at Otteforde.' And so by this means bothe these 
houses were delivered upp unto the Kinges handes, and as f or 
Ofctforde it is a notable greate and ample house, whose repara- 
tions yerlie stode my Lorde in more than wolde thinke." 

The sequence shewed quite the opposite : he did rest at 
Otford, but never at Knole. Within ten years of Henry 
receiving the palace it was well advanced in decay, as is 
shewn in detail in Appendix I. 

The next record is dated 1573, when Sir Henry Sydney 
(father of Sir Philip Sydney) made application to Elizabeth 
for possession of the palace. 

Sydney desired to have in fee farm the Capital Mansion 
House, and was prepared to " enter into bonde and assurance 
to repayre, at his own charges, the said Mansion House and 
edifices thereto belonging which ys esteemed by the Survey 
will cost £1,868 16s. 2d., and the same by him so repayred 
to maintain for ever at his own charges for Hyr Majestie's 
access. So as he may be licensed to take down the Este 
Gallery and in place thereof to make two faire brick walls 
or stone walls " (Archceotogia Gantiana, Vol. V., p. 328). 

This offer was based on a special survey made no doubt 
at the instance of Sydney in 1573 (see Appendix II. for 
survey). Nothing came of it. 

The desire of Henry Sydney to possess the palace was 
inherited by his son Robert, and in 1596 another survey was 
made. Unfortunately, except the following, the entries 
regarding the house are illegible. The commissioners, Sir 
Thomas Fludde, Knight, Samson Lenord, Esq., George 
Goring, William Baylham, Robert Bosvile, and (name illegi- 
ble) Willoughby, Esq., certified " in our opinions that if the 
saide house shoulde be repayred that nevertbeles the same 
woylde not be fytt for Her Majestie to lye iu, for that yt 
standeth, in a very wett soyle uppon springes and vantes of 
water contynually ronninge under yt. And comonly the 
flowers (floors) and walls thereof in the winter are hoary 
and mustie. And besydes there are no woodes to any 
purpose uppon the saide manor. And they nothing nere 


sufficente to ayer the saide house" (Exchequer K.R. Special 
Commission, No. 1165). 

From this time it is clear that the place had deteriorated 
considerably, yet, notwithstanding, the eagerness of Sir 
Robert Sydney to possess the place was displayed in a 
regular outburst of epistolary appeal, thus — 

On June 21, 1596, he wrote to Lord Burghley (Calendar 
of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1595 — 1597) : — 

"Pray move Her Majestie concerninge the ruinous con- 
dition of her Manor House at Otford. It will be seen by 
the certificate of Sir Thomas Pludde .... in what state it 
then was, and it has since grown worse. I fear her Majestie 
will not be at the charge of repairing it, as your lordship 
thinks it is not worth it. If she were to bestow £1000 upon 
it, it would be but money lost ; that sum would not make it 
fit for her to live in, and two or three years hence it would 
require inendinge again. If it is not wanted, it would be 
better to sell it to her use, while the timber and other things 
will yield money, than let it fall into utter ruin ; in that case 
I and some friends would buy it. 

" Otford being so near my house, I have long desired to 
have some estate in it, and once moved you in the matter 
and you wished I had it. I will buy it of the Queen, and 
rather than not satisfy her Majestie, if I may have a good 
estate in the Park, I will build a pretty house at my own 
charge, and keep it in repair so that she may dine there as 
she passes by. She is at nearly £20 a year charge as fees 
for the house and park. I would discharge her of that sum 
and give her a rent of £30 a year, so that Otford would be 
£50 more yearly to her more than before and she would 
save the money for the repairs which cannot be less than 
4000 marks — £200 at least for the repair of the pales and 
rails of the park, and a £100 to keep it in order, the site 
being so wet and damp. I would take the timber in the 
Park at a valuation. I am in debt and must sell land if 
Her Majestie does not relieve me, although my greatest 
debts are merely growing from her service ; yet I will not 
move anything unfit for her to give, for one to ask ; or for 


your Lordship to favour. I need help and desire some grace 
at Her Majestie's hands as living in her service, yet will not 
crave your Lordship to profer my name herein. I know it 
is not fit for you to move such suits, and that if you begin 
with me, you must end with a great many. I only beseech 
you to let Her Majestie know in what state her house is in, 
and g*ive her your opinion what ought to be done/' 

On July 7, 1596, he wrote to Sir R. Cecil :— 

*"I humbly beseech you that it will please you to 
remember the matter of Otford to my Lord, your father, 
because I greately desire that your Honour had spoken with 
him of it before his going into the country.-" 

Again on October 22, 1596, he "reminds Cecil to further 
his suit for the lease of Otford. Has procured Sir John 
Fortescue to move it. The Queen likes well enough of it, 
and only stands to be certified of the decay of the house, the 
value of the Park, and the value of his offers ; knowledge of 
which she has willed Fortescue to give her. Prays Cecil to 
second the suit." 

The begging failed, as on August 16, 1601, Lord Buck- 
hurst wrote to Lord Cobham u that Her Majestie has utterly 
refused to pass Otford, and with much ado was your 
purchase obtained, i.e., Canterbury Park " (State Papers, 
Dom. Series). 

These matters remained at an apparent standstill; but 
other events were at work in the interest of the Sydneys, 
and that which their eloquence and importunity failed to 
produce was forthcoming owing to the Irish question of that 
age. It is an interesting point in the story of the old village 
of Otford and its manor that they should have played 
a not unimportant role in the Irish question 300 years 
ago. Two thousand soldiers were to be sent to Ireland, 
and as they would want food the problem of supply arose. 
It is not to be wondered at that in view of the lively 
activities of the Sydneys the Treasury of the day could 
forget that Otford might be utilized in obtaining the 

* Cecil MS., Part vi., Hist. MS. Com. 

12 THE MAttOft HOXJSE AND Grit !E AT PAttK Of 

necessary funds, and so we find Lord Buckhurst recommend- 
ing* Cecil to " move her Majestie, if it please you, as from 
me, for the sale of Otford and Dartford Houses, which 
brings £3000 of present money and saves £3000 more to 
Her Majestie. For this victualling requires great sums " 
(Salisbury MS., vol. xi.) f 

The necessities of the State thus gave the Sydneys their 
chance, and the old manor and its house passed permanently 
into private hands. 

Thereupon the property was transferred to Sir Robert 
Sydney by Patent on November 5, 1601. Already he was 
the keeper of the chief messuage or mansion of the manor 
and of the Great Park, receiving 

As Keeper of the house 2d. daily, 
„ „ „ gardens 4d. daily, 
„ „ „ Great Park £6 13s. 4d. yearly, 
and upon payment of £2000 the Queen granted to him the 
capital messuage or mansion, all buildings, barns, stables, 
etc., adjacent thereto, the soil on which the premises stood, 
etc., the Great Park, the herbage, pannage, and soil thereof, 
three lodges therein, the deer and wild animals, etc., to be 
held of the Crown in chief for the 40th part of a knight's 
fee and the yearly rent of £30. The fees for the keepership 
were no longer to be paid, though again granted to the 
Sydney family by Patent, 11 Jas. I., Pt. 30. Further par- 
ticulars regarding the keepership are detailed in Appen- 
dix III. 

Sometime between 1601 and 1625 the Sydneys, having 
disparked the Great Park, transferred their own interests 
and also those of the Crown to Sir Thomas Smith and one 
Nicholas Crispe and to the heirs of the former for ever, 
" comveying and assuring the scite of the manor of Otford 
with the appurtenances, 3 messuages, 2 tofts, a dovecote, 
3 gardens, 300 acres of land, 200 acres of meadow, 500 acres 
of pasture, and 100 acres of wood, with appurtenances in 
Otford." By his will, January 31, 19 Jas. I., Sir T. Smith 
bequeathed the property to his nephews Thomas Smith, Sir 
John Smith, John Smith, and Thomas Fanshawe (Inquisi- 


tions Post-mortem, Charles I., Chancery Series, vol. ii., p. 154). 
Hasted's statement that this property was conveyed by 
James I. in his 12th year to Sir Thos. Smith is apparently 
incorrect, as in the document quoted it is definitely stated 
that the Sydneys conveyed to Smith. Moreover, one Crut- 
tenden, steward of the Sydney family, records the sum of 
£9000 as having* been received from Smith by the sale 
(see Antiquarian Repertory). 

The extent of land covered by this transaction is not 
quite clear, but a glance at Symond son's map, referred to 
above, shews that a paling fence enclosed a large area of 
land. By the survey of 1596 this must have represented the 
Great Park, or that part of it which was enclosed, the con- 
tents being 70 antler deer, 236 raskale deer, and 150 does, 
and the area in sandy ground 180 acres, woodland and 
bush 60 acres, chalk lands on the north-east 80 acres, 
moorish ground 40 acres, meadow ground 5 acres, and the 
land about the house and lodge 60 acres. 

At this point the public records cease to convey further 
information, and I am indebted to Mr. Herbert Knocker 
for writing the following particulars, drawn, by the kind 
permission of the Earl Amherst, from the Amherst muni- 
ments, bringing the story, so far as concerns the mutations 
in the ownership of the manor and Great Park are concerned, 
down to the present day. 

In the year 1705 Henry Smythe, who had then become 
possessed of the whole estate, after his marriage with his 
wife Elizabeth, conveyed the property to trustees with a 
view to securing the enjoyment of the property for himself 
for life, thereafter to his wife if she should survive him, the 
ultimate trust being in favour of their son Sidney Stafford 
Smythe in strict settlement. In this deed we get a good 
detailed description of the property, which by this time had 
been split up into three farms, called the Great Lodge of 
Otford Park in Otford and Kemsing 207 acres, the Place 
Farm in Otford and Kemsing 190 acres, and Greatness Farm 
in Sevenoaks, Seal, and Kemsing 257 acres. The total is 
734 acres, and doubtless approximately represented the 


Original Great Park of Otford surrendered by Cranmer to 
the Crown as above stated. The whole lay practically in 
a ring fence, the boundaries being : on the north Otford 
Village Street, on the east the road known as the Pilgrims' 
Road, on the west the main road from Sevenoaks to Otford, 
while the southern boundary lay along the Maidstone Road, 
continuing to within a short distance to the north of Seal 
Church and the Back Lane leading over Childs Bridge to 
Kemsing Village. 

In 1732 Sidney Stafford Smythe acquired his mother's 
life interest, and shortly afterwards married Sarah, the elder 
daughter of Sir Charles Farnaby of Kippington, the whole 
estate being in 1735 strictly settled on the husband and wife 
and the issue of the marriage. 

By his will, made in 1733 and proved, with many codicils, 
on November 18, 1778, Sir Sidney, as he then was, devised 
the estate to his wife Lady Sarah, he having died a childless 
man. Lady Sarah died in 1790, having by her will 
bequeathed the estate to trustees upon trust for sale. It is 
interesting to note that she expressly left £300 to her late 
husband's heir-at-law, Lionel Smythe, Lord Viscount Strang- 
ford, on condition that he should release her late husband's 
estates from any claim he might have. This he did the 
same year. 

In the meanwhile the trustees had offered the property 
for sale by public auction, and shortly after, by deed dated 
December 9, 1790, they conveyed the two northern farms to 
Robert Parker for £20,128, the Greatness portion going to 
a separate purchaser. The property is described as "the 
Farm commonly called The Great Lodge of Otford Park" 
and "the Farm called The Place Farm," with 48 fields, 
of which the most suggestive names seem to be " The Green 
Deer Lodge," the Knave's Corner, Morton Mead, the 
Privy Walk, Beckett's Well Piece, and Great Butt Field. 
The total acreage given is 439, and this lay in Otford, 
Kemsing, Seal, and Sevenoaks parishes. " The Ruins of the 
Ancient Castle and Palace of Otford " are expressly included 
in the Place Farm. 


Robert Parker died in 1837, and under his will and 
partial intestacy the property devolved on his widow's death 
upon his cousins of the Marchant and Knight families, 
amongst whom it became split up into a considerable number 
of different interests, and who in the year 1844 sold the 
whole to The Eight Hon. William Pitt, Earl Amherst. The 
estate was described as amounting to 439 acres, and, as 
before,, expressly included " the ruins of the ancient Castle 
and Palace of Otford." 

Thereafter the construction of the Chatham Railway and 
its branch to Sevenoaks somewhat cut up the estate, with 
the not unnatural result that the portions to the east of 
the Chatham Line have now been added to the Beechy Lees 
Estate, while other portions to the southward have passed 
into other hands. The ruins, however, and that portion of 
the farm which immediately surrounds them, continue to 
remain in the ownership of the successive Earls Amherst, 
and are now in the ownership of The Right Hon. Hugh, the 
present Earl, who is also Lord of the Manor or Prepositure 
of Otford and the owner of the outlying estate called Whitley 
Forest in the parishes of Chevening and Sevenoaks, which 
from the very earliest existing records appears to have 
always formed part of the demesne lands of the Manor of 

Such then is the story of the palace and the Great Park. 
Two noticeable features connected with it are : — 

(1) The relatively few hands through which it has 
passed from the eighth century, when it constituted part 
of a kind of" conscience money " paid by the conquering 
King Offa of Mercia to Christ Church, Canterbury, for 
the lives slaughtered in the battle at Ottanford in 773. 
Then about 1070 Lanfranc attached it to the Arch- 
bishopric until 1537, when the Crown resumed possession 
by exchange for other property. With a slight exception 
of a few years during the time of Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI., when the Duke of Northumberland possessed 
it, the State retained its hold until 1601, when, under 
the pressure of the Irish question, the property passed 


finally into private hands. Thus during a period of 
1221 years it had been transferred only ten times. 

(2) The ruins are known as "The Castle." The 
origin of this term cannot be traced, but it is an 
interesting speculation whether the name is purely 
fanciful in origin because of the castellar appearance 
of an ivy-mantled ruin, or whether it does not possess 
a more solid basis, tracing its descent from primitive 
times when a defensive mound or earthwork may have 
existed, and especially during the anarchical struggle 
of our Saxon forefathers for an unified England. At 
that time Otford was an important strategic point in 
the defence of Kent, and especially from attack from 
the west, and the existence of a defensive work is not 

I am indebted to Mr. Youens, Dartford, for the photographs reproduced, 
except No. 2. 


Extract from a Survey made by William Hyde 
2 Edward VI. (Exchequer Records, Bundle ^-.) 

The greate Halle being stated to be greatly yn decaye, 
in defaulte of leade for coveryinge of the same, by reason 
whereof the timber is rotten and the stone work yn many 
places ready e to fall downe. 

Also one gallerye at the upper end of the same halle 
besyde the seller, being all in decaye, so that the tymber 
and the stone worke thereof are fallen downe and nothing 

Also, two Chambers there, th'one called the Greate 
Chamber of Presence, and the other the King's Privye 
Chamber, being in greate decay in default of leade for the 
coveryinge and pypes of spouts of the same, so that the 
timber and stonework thereof are rotten, and ready to fall ; 
and also the glass about the same is broken and fallen 


Also, the Queen's Privy Chamber and the other lodging 
thereto adjoining, being in like decay in default of leade for 
coveryinge by reason whereof the timber work in most places 
is rotten and ready to fall and the glass of the same chamber 
is rotten and fallen downe. 

Also, two other chambers of lodging there, the one 
called "My Ladye Mary's Chamber" and the other "My 
Lady of Southfolk's lodging," being likewise yn decay yn 
default of leade for the coveringe and spouts and pypes for 
the same. 

Also, the Pages' Chambers being in like decay yn default 
of leade for the coveryinge and also pypes and spouts for the 
same and the glass of the same chamber broken and fallen 

Also, one gallery called the "Newe Gallery" being 
likewise yn decaye yn default of leade for coveringe and 
pypes for the same. 

Also, one little gallery between the great gallery and the 
kitchen being yn like decay in defaulte of leade for the gut- 
ters and also on the south part of the same building so that 
the timbers and stones there are rotten and like to fall downe. 

Also, between the Greate Kitchen and the Privy Kitchen 
are divers small gutters much in decay and ruin in default 
of leade for the same. 

Also, one gallery at the South East end of the Great 
Gate House is also in decay in default of leade for coveryinge 
of the same so that the timber work is rotton and the glasse 
thereof broken and fallen in pieces. 

Also, one Gallery at the South West end of the Great 
Gate House, this being likewise in decay in default of leade 
for the coverying of the same so that the timber work there 
is rotton and the glass thereof broken and fallen yn pieces. 

Also, one Little Gate House there, containing in length 
46 feet, in breadth 28 feet, being almost, uncovered in default 
of tyling, etc. 

Also, one Barn, containing in length viii feet and breadth 
40 feet, being uncovered in default of tyle. 

Estimate for all repairs £106 14s. Od. 
vol. xxxi, c 



Exchequer K.R. Special Commissions, Kent, No. 1100. 
Date April 1573. 

By virtue of a Royal Commission to Thomas Wotton, 
Esquire, George Multon, Esquire, William Lambarde, Esquire, 
Lewis Stock with, Surveyor of the Works, and Thomas 
Fludde, Surveyor of all the Royal Honours, Castles, etc., in 
Kent, to survey the Mansion House of the Manor of Otford 
and the adjoining buildings, and to consider the necessary 
repairs, their statement to be sent in to the exchequer by 
the morrow of the Holy Trinity next, dated 21st April 
15 Elizabeth. Inquest taken at Otford on 27 and 29 April 
15 Elizabeth on the oath of David Polhill, John Wolffe, 
Richard . . . se (?), Robert Kywyn, John Browne, John 
Gylman, William Chapman, Sen., William Chapman, junior, 
John Walter, William Evesdowne, Henry Boston, Roland 
Christian, John Christian, Richard Fylder, Paul Walter, 
John Campe, James Wood, William Mylles, Thomas Wolfe, 
John Sone, and John Wickenden. 

Fyrst, we fynde and present the pryncypall £ *• d. 
Gatehouse being the north side of the house con- 
teyninge three Rouffes and a small gallerye on 
either side. The decays thereof .... of chymneys, 
Doores, halpaces and stayers, mendinge of flowers 
(floors), plasteringe and other necessaries, the 
repare thereof will cost . . . . . 23 14 0 

Item, from the saide gatehouse .... small gal- 
lery es uppon the westsyde, one Towre conteyning 
three story es. The decay therein ys the leades, 
coynes, vent (loophole in embattled wall), and crest 
(ridge of roof or ornament on top), chymney, stayers, 
halpaces (landing on stairs), soyles of wyndowes, 
plastering and other necessaries, the repare thereof 
will cost 1368 

Item, one longe gallerye from the said Towre 
southwards with lodgings adjoining uppon the west 
side of the same. The decays is gutters and pypes 


of leade, tylinge, plasteringe, pavinge and new £ s - 

beams and ankers with other necessaries, the repare 

will cost . 150 0 

But rather yf hyr Highness so please to have yt 
taken downe and newe buylded. 

Item, from the gatehouse and small galleries 
estward one Towre three stories high, the decaies 
thereof is leade, vent and crest, plastering and 
other necessaries. The repair thereof will cost . 2 10 

Item, one longe gallerye from the sayde Towre 
southward with ix lightes uppon the estsyde thereof. 
The decays thereof ys gutters, pypes of leade, 
tylinge, newe beames and flowers to be layde, 
plasteringe and other necessaryes. The repair 
thereof will cost 100 0 

Item, one gallery leadinge from the foresaid 
gallerye to the estende of the Hall, with the leades 
between yfc and the grene gallerye, and under that 
ys the Buttrye, prevye kitchen, surveying place, 
scullerye and larder. The decays ys the leads, 
pypes, tylinge, vent and crest plasteringe and other 
necessaryes. The repaire thereof will cost . 100 0 

Item, the Hall, the extende thereof, the wall to 
be taken downe to the grownde and newe made. 
The Buttresses uppon the south syde being iiii 
whereof iii ys to be coped, taken downe and enlarged 
to the jame of a wyndow, with a beame and ankers 
for the staye of the west end and a stone wyndow 
in the same end. Tylinge, Shinglinge, plasterynge 
and other necessaries. The repair thereof will 

cost 108 0 

Item, the leads over the Grete Chamber, with 
leades south and north from the same over sondrye 
lodgings and iii Towers adjoining thereunto with 
leade rouffes. The decays thereof ys the leads, 
gutters, pypes, and crest shaftes of chymneis, and 
setting new postes under the flowers of the Grete 
Chamber, plasteringe and other necessaries will cost 52 0 

c 2 


Item, the leades over the presence and privye £ s. d. 
Chamber with ii Towrettes adjoining thereunto 
with sundry lodgings under them. The decays 
thereof ys the gutters, the leades and pypes, shaftes 
of chymneis, lyntells and soyles of wyndowe, 
pavynge, plasteringe, flowers and partions with 
other necessaries, will cost .... 250 0 0 

Item, the leades of the Grene Gallery e and leads 
adjoining to the Hall at the West ende with cer- 
teyne lodginges under them. The decays thereof ys 
leade gutters, pypes, vent and crest, goyste and 
burdinge, plastering and other necessaryes. The 
repare thereof will cost . . . . . 70 0 0 

Item, a schole house buttinge uppon the Grete 
Chamber, the Grounde to be levelled and pavyd 
will cost . . . . . . .500 

Item, the lodgynge at the est end of the Hall 
over the scull erye, pantyre and surveyinge place, 
two stone walls to be taken downe and newe made. 
The decays ys the leads, gutters and pypes, tylinge 
and bourdinge of flowers, plasteringe and other 
necessaryes with a new buttress will cost . 70 0 0 

Item, the Chappell Ruffe, moste part thereof to 
be newe shingled, the wardrobe under yt to be new 
joisted, burded and a new pry eke poste, a stone 
hall with a wyndow to be newe made, plasteringe 
with other necessaryes will cost . . . 50 0 0 

Item, a flatte Ruffe with a Towret uppon the 
South syde of the Chappell and the lodginge under 
the same. The decaies thereof ys leads, gutters, 
pypes, vent, and crest, lyntelles and soyles of 
wyndowes, plasteringe with other necessaryes will 
cost . 20 0 0 

Item, uppon the south parte of the Hall a courte 
wheryn ys soul! rye lodginges with open galleries, 
and a Towre of thre storyes highe. The decays ys 
the leades, ruffes, gutters and pypes, vent and creste, 
shaftes of chymneis, halpaces, underpynninges of 


particions, levelynge of flowers, plasteringe and £ *. an- 
other necessarys. The repare thereof will coste 200 0 0 

Item, the Great Kytchyn, the Pastrye, two 
weate larders and iii drye with chambers over 
them, the decayes of the walles, tylinge, plastering 
and other necessaryes the repayre thereof will 
coste 50 0 0 

Item, the pale about the wood yarde beeing 
viii rodds with a shade over the roninge (?) to be 
newe repayred will cost . . . . . 13 0 0 

Item, the plate, lockes and keys lackinge aboute 
the pryvye lodginges and galleryes to the nomber of 
two hundred with bolttes, handles and cassementes 
will cost 100 0 0 

Item, there wanteth of newe glasse aboute the 
whole house m'm'viic and new settinge of olde 
with leade will coste . . . . . 19 0 6 

Item, there wanteth in the other lodgyinges and 
offices, shuttinges of doores and windowes, hookes, 
hynges, bolttes, upright barres and lockettes for 
wyndowe with stocke lockes and other yron workes 
will cost 7 18 4 

Item, the vaultes of stone and bricke that con- 
veyeth the water frome the house to be repayred 
with newe sluces, square curbes, newe shuttinges 
and the paving of ... . with a synke for the waste 
water. The repayre thereof will cost . . 25 0 0 

Item, the pale about the privy walkes some 
rayles and pale wantith with .... postes and new 
gates. The repayre thereof will cost . . 22 0 0 

Item, the conduyte house or well conteyning 
in length xxxvi foote and in breadeth xix fote to 
be taken downe and newe sett upp will coste . 30 0 0 

Item, the pypes conveyinge the water from thence 
to the offices and small sestrens to be amended will 
cost 13 0 4 

Item, a colehouse and poultrye to be newe buylded 
beinge more decayed will coste , . . 30 0 0 



Item, a barne conteyninge in length ciiii foote, £ *• d - 
in breaclthe xl foote, wantith Postes, groundselles, 
underpyiining, rafter bourds, tylinge, and other 
necessaries. Tbe repayre thereof will coste . 35 0 0 

Item, a gatehouse of tymber and a stable on the 
west syde wantith tylinge, plasteringe, gystes and 
plankes. The repayre thereof will coste . 20 0 0 

Item, a stable on the est syde of the same gate- 
house to be li ewe buylded, very lyttle remayneth 
but the fowndacion. The buyldinge thereof will 
coste 50 0 0 

Then follow the signatures of the Commissioners :— 


William Lambarde, 
Lewys Stockwith, 
Thomas Fludde. 


The Keepeeship of the Park and Manor. 

These offices, with that of Bailiff of the Manor, was of old 
standing, and with the kind help of Mr. Arthur Hussey 
numerous appointments during the mediaeval period can be 

The first record available dates from 1385, with the 
appointment of Henry Parker " for his good services as 
the Keeper of our Park of Otteford, during the life of 
the same Henry Parker, having for the same 2 d daily from 
the rent and income of the Manor of Otteford, and one robe 
of livery at the Feast of Nowel of the suite of our yeoman 
from us and our successors." 

Such were the terms of the appointment, and which held 
their ground right down to the last appointment made by 
the last Archbishop holding the property, except that in a 
later appointment it is made clear that the two pence daily 


was made up of one penny from the Archbishop's 
revenues and one penny from " the fermer of our Manor of 

Besides the keepership of the park, there was also a 
keepership of the manor, held usually by a different person, 
but also with a wage of 2 d daily. In this case, however, 
some detail of the duties were given in the brevet of appoint- 
ment, thus : Robert Butt villeyn "our sergeant or servient" 
(one part of the manor was known as Sergeants Otf ord or 
Otford Stuyens) " for his good services to us and our Church 
of Canterbury, the office of Keeper of our Manor of Otte- 
ford, with the fish ponds, gardens, and pigeon house there 
belonging to the same manor." This functionary was, 
apparently, the manager or bailiff of the estate. The wage 
remained at 2 d daily until the time of Archbishop Warham, 
who raised it to 4 d daily in consequence of the increased 
responsibility arising out of his enlargement of the build- 
ings and extension of the grounds. 

One curious feature of these appointments, as also of 
leases of the property of the demesne, was that the consent 
of the Prior and Monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, 
was required for each transaction, but why this was so is 
not quite clear. 

The following is a list of holders of these appointments 
between 1385 and the first appointment made by Henry VIII. 
The word in brackets signifies whether the holder was 
keeper of the park or of the manor : — 

1385. Henry Parker [Park] . 
1412. John Rougsthawke [Park] . 

1441. John More [Manor] 
1461. Robert Butt villeyn \ 

The same man apparently held 
both appointment for some 
time concurrently. 

1467. Robert But vilen 

1479. Peter Parker [Park] 

1486. John Bosum [Manor] . 

1495. Peter Parker [Manor] . 

1500. John Michill [Park]/ 



1500. George Guston [Manor] . 
1505. Anthony Sentleger [Park]. 
1518. John Palmer [Park]. 

1526. G eorge Gnston [Manor] . On this occasion wages 
increased to 4 d daily because of increased 
responsibilities as noted above. 

1530. Reginald Peckham [Park] . 

In addition to the officers named there was also a bailiff, 
John Alfegh occupying the post in 1475, and in 1500 Edward 
Ferrers was named bailiff of " Hotf ord in Kent by himself 
or efficient deputy during his life at wages of 4 d daily 
and the other accustomed fees of that Office." In 1527 no 
less a person than Thomas Boleyn, knight, Viscount Eoche- 
fordj and father of Anne Boleyn, wife of Henry VIII., is 
recorded as bailiff with 4 d per diem wages. In 1537, when 
Henry VIII. became possessor and the Manor an " Honor," 
it would appear that these offices all merged in a quite 
grandiose appointment of a Court Official, as, according to 
Hasted, Sir Richard Longe was' granted by especial favour 
of Henry VIII. the offices of Keeper of his capital messuage 
or mansion of Otford, and the offices of High Steward and 
Bailiff of the honor of Otford, and Keeper of his woods and 
other profits belonging to the same, during his natural life ; 
with the power of appointing deputies of the said several 
offices ; as also the separate fees and wages following, 
viz. : — 

Keeper of the said capital messuage . 2 d per day. 

Keeper of the gardens and orchards . 4 d per day. 

High Steward of the honor . . . £6 13 4 

Bailiff of the manor and Keeper of the 
woods 2 d per day. 

Keeper of the King's two parks . . 4 d per day. 

Under Steward of the honor, view of 
frankpledge and the courts land law days 
of the same . . . . . . £6 per annum. 

( 25 ) 



In the following Notes I have collected together some 
additional information from the Wills registered at Canter- 
bury, and for convenience have arranged them in three 
sections : — 

(a) Bequests for Church building in the diocese of 


(b) References to Christ Church, Canterbury. 

(c) References to St. Augustine's Abbey. 

The first (a) is supplementary to the Notes in Testamenta 
Cantiana, and will, it is hoped, be useful to those compiling 
parochial histories — happily an ever-increasing class. 

No references were given in Testamenta Cantiana to 
Christ Church and St. Augustine's, and the extracts from 
the Wills on these two important monastic establishments 
will be of general interest. 


Chapel of St. James (on the Heath or Common). 

To the Hermit of the Hoth 4sd. — Joan, widow of Edmund 
Kelet, 1496. (A. 6, 4.) 

That my Eeoffiees shall enfeoff e the Wardens of the Church of 
Appuldoore and the other efficient men of that parish, of and in 
my messuage at Appuldoore, to the fish-shamell (or shed) there 
north, and a lane called Andirkynlane west ; and the yearly profit 
therefrom to the use of the Chapel of St. James in the Hoth 
(Heath) at Appuldore 12d. ; yearly in amending bad roads between 
the same chapel and church of Appuldore V2d. ; and the residue of 



the profits to the work of the church by the Wardens there. — 
Thomas BJakborne of Ebbeney, 1498. (A. 7, 2.) 

To the Chapel of Blessed James in the parish 3s. 4<d. — John 
Combe, 1509. (A. 11, 3.) 


The Tower. — To the work of the Tower of the church 16d. — 
John Watts, 1462. (A. 1, 6.) 


The Roodloft. — To the Northrodelof 16d. — Alice, widow of 
Richard Igolynden, 1475. (A. 2, 17.) 


The Roodloft. — To the making of the Roodloft, if the parish- 
ioners will a new make, or else to some other necessary work of 
the church, 66s. Sd. — John Crispe, senior, 1504. (Con. 8, fol. 9.) 


To the selyng of the chancel 20s. ; and to the making of a 
window in the choir on the southside, and the glazing, 26s. 8d. — 
William Kynett, 1452. (Con. 1, fol. 58.) 



That the steeple of the church be overcast with sand and lime, 
forwith a boterace.— John Whitlock, 1503. (Con. 7, fol. 70.) 

To the making of a window in the high chancel of St. Alphege, 
Canterbury, 13s. 4td. — John Crispe, senior, of Thanet, 1504. 
(Con. 8, fol. 9.) 


To the reparation of the church where most needed £10. — 
Richard Berne, 1461. (Con. 2, fol. 36.) 




To the new building of the Rood-loft 40s., if it be begun within 
the next six years after my death. — Ralph Lynch, 1473. (A. % 9.) 


To the Steeple when it is begun 13s. 4al. — Richard Cromer, 
1495. (A. 6, 2.) 


To the necessary work of the Nave of the church of Crane- 
broke, by the discretion of my Ex'or (John Stoks of London), with 
Thomas Hendle and Ralph Bever, 40s. — Thomas Cok of Tenterden, 
1473. (A. 2, 6.) 


To the roofing of the Church of Estbregg 53s. 4<d. — "William 
Kynett of Bonington, 1452. (Con. 1, fol. 58.) 


To the new Roodloft 26s. 8^.— Thomas Herrys, 1485. (Con. 3, 
fol. 50.) 

The church of Ebney have 20s. ; to the shingling 20s. ; to the 
pewing 20s. ; and for an altar-cloth of St. Michael 5s., from the 
money which is in the hands of Stephen Hicotts for ferme. — Joan 
Rolff, widow, 1493. (A. 5, 16.) 


To the work of the parish church of Folkestone 40s., out of 
special devotion to St. Enswith the Virgin. Also to the paving of 
the aisle where my father lies in the aforesaid church 20s. — Richard 
Pargate of Canterbury, 1457. (A. 1, 1.) 


To the making of a new Roodloft 13s. 4<d., if the parishioners go 
forward with it, but if not, then the money to a priest to sing for 
my soul.— Dunstan Home, 1496. (A. 6, 6.) 



To the repair of the Eoodloi't 40*-. — Lawrence Erognall, 1494. 
(Con. 4, fol. 23.) 


To the new making of the Eoodloft in the church, three ewes. 
—Thomas Banny, 1467. (A. 1, 4.) 


To the roofing of the church 6s. Sd. — William Osbarne, 1464. 
(A. 1, 3.) ^ 


To the work of the parish church of Halden, namely, for certain 
work called syelyng (ceiling) in the Tower of the church, £5. 
That my son Thomas in the south part of the church of Halden 
make one window of stone work and suitably glazed. — John Hales, 
senior, of Canterbury, 1518. (A. 13, 4.) 


After the death of Marione my wife, five acres of land to be 
sold, and part of the money to the fabric of the church, and the 
other part to repair of bad roads. — William Newman, 1474. 
(A. 2, 12.) ^ 


Buried in the church, and to the fabric of the church where 
necessary £5. — John Houghlin, senior, 1442. (Con. 1, fol. 57.) 

That eight acres of land be sold, and from the money received : — 
to the repair of the paiuting of the roodloft in the church 30s., and 
to the repair of the church where necessary 40*. — John Martin, 
1502. (Con. 7, fol. 30.) 

Eor a sta of heron [stay of iron] before the Eood 8^. — Steven 
Broke, 1510. (Con. 10, fol. 116.) 


To the reparation of the church 20 of the best ewes ; and the 
profit of the 20 sheep remain to the lights, unto the time that the 
church be a building.— Eichard Yong, 1497. (Con. 4, fol. 211.) 




To the building again of the parish church of Kenarton 
£6 13s. 4>d. t within a year after mv death. — Henry Home, esquire, 
1565. (A. 39, fol. 320.) 

[Note. — The church was burnt by lightning in 1559.] 


To the work (opus) of the church where most necessary 20s. — 
Thomas Home, 1471. (A. 1, 17.) 

To the making of a Tabernacle for St. Mary in the chancel 
53s. 4<d., if the same be made within the space of eight years and a 
half after my death, if not, the money about the reparation of the 
church.— Thomas Home, 1488. (A. 5, 2.) 


To the work (ad fabricam) of the Church of Ludenham, or to 
buy a chalice or vestment, £4, and to the reparation of the Rectory 
of Ludenham for its repair, not to be handed to the rector, but that 
it be expended by my Ex'ors upon the repairs most needed, £4. — 
John Bolde, Rector of Adisham, 1442. (Register G, fol. 254, 
Cathedral Library, Canterbury.) 


Chapel of St. John the Baptist : — 

To make one new window with glass in the Chapel of St. John 
the Baptist, 5 marcs (£3 6s. 8d.~). — Thomas Yong, senior, 1484. 
(Con. 2, fol. 609.) 

Chapel of St. Mary : — 

That my tenement in the parish of St. Lawrence in Romney, 
with the lands, shall be sold after the death of Juliane my 
wife, and with the money that a new window shall be made 
in the Chapel of St. Mary of Lydd ; and for a new Image 
of the same St. Mary and new painting of the same Image, 
£25. But if any one else will do this, then from the £25 to the 
making of a new window in the Chapel of St. John the Baptist in 
the church of Lydd, £10 ; so that in the middle of the same 
window shall be — Horn. Andrew Aylewyn ; and on the right part 
of the same window the names of James Aylewyn with Christiane 
and Juliane his wives; and in the left part the names of Thomas 
Aylewyn and Agnes his wife ; and in another part the names of 
John Aylewyn and Juliane his wife. — John Aylewyn of Kenard* 
ington, 1494, (Con. 4, fol. 16.) 



To the reparation of the painting of St. Mary in the Chapel of 
St. Mary, 5 marcs (£3 6s. 8d.).— John Adam, 1497. (Con. 4, 
fol. 135.) 

Chapel of St. Nicholas : — 

That the glass window in the gable of the chancel of St. 
Nicholas be broken down and made new well sufficiently and 
cleanly, and making mention of the Life of St. John the Baptist, 
as much money as necessary for the work. — John Breggs, 1501. 
(Con. 6, fol. 24.) 

The Rood Loft :— 

To the making of the Rood loft in the church of Lydd, all my 
best oaks growing about my garden at Stone in the Isle of Oxene. 
—Peter Gyot, 1511. (Con. 10, fol. 120.) 

To make a new Roodloft in the church by the disposition and 
rule of my Ex'or, Feoffees, the Bailiff and Jurats of the same town 
£20, but if they will not make a new Roodloft, then the £20 to the 
use of the church.— William Torpe, 1513. (Con. 11, fol. 84.) 

To the making of the new Rood loft 6s. 8d. — Agnes Jerveyse, 
1521. (Con. 13, fol. 71.) 

To the making of the new Rodelought, over and above my gifts 
at the first begining thereof, 20d. — "William Clarke, 1522. (Con. 
13, fol. 86.) 

To the new Rodelought 10s. — Lawrence Bekett, 1522 (Con. 13, 
fol. 89), and Simon Dodd, 1523 (Con. 13, fol. 153). 

To the Rood loft 13s. 4^.— William Makemete, 1523. (Con. 
13, fol. 153.) 

The Wave : — 

To the repair of the nave of the church 6s. Sd. — Stephen 
Wideden, 1494. (Con. 4, fol. 4.) 

To the nave of the church for reparations, 6s. Sd. — Thomas 
Ray, 1510. (Con. 11, fol. 43.) 

To the reparation of the church 40s. — John Tye, 1512. (Con. 
11, fol. 36.) 

After the death, or marriage of my wife Agnes, £4 6s. Sd. be 
delivered to the reparation of the church. — Simon Watte, 1516. 
(Con. 12, fol. 1.) 

The Tower: — 

To the reparation of the Steeple 20s. — Vincent Daniel], 1521. 
(Con. 13, fol. 32.) 

If the parishioners do any reparation of their Steeple within 
seven years after my death, then my Ex'ors pay unto the same 
6s. 8^.— William Clarke, 1522. (Con. 13, fol. 86.) 

Varia : — 

That my Ex'ors see that the Tabernacle of Allhalowyn, which I 
caused to be made and set up in the church, be gilded and finished 


according to the bargain with the gilder thereof made. — "Vincent 
Daniell, 1521. (Con. 13, fol. 32.) 

[Note. — For the Accounts of the Churchwardens of Lydd, 1520 
to 1558, see Records of Lydd, 1911.] 


To the making of the new Roodloft 5 marcs (£3 6s. 8d.), and 
to the repair of the great Bridge of Maidstone 5 marcs. — Richard 
Arnett, 1494. (Con. 4, fol. 53.) 


To the work of the nave of the church 20s. — Stephen Paytewin 
of Leysdoun in Sheppey, 1410. (Con. 1, fol. 18.) 


To the tower of Minster 3s. 4<d. — Joan Clunche, widow, 1467. 
(A. 1, 4.) 

To the work of the tower 13s. 4d. — Nicholas at Lee, 1471. 
(A. 1, 18.) 

To the reparation of the parish church 66s. 8d., and to the 
Tower of the same church 66s. 8d. — John atte Heth, 1472. (A. 2, 

To the reparation of the tower 20d. — John Faunt, 1474. (A. 2, 


To the work of le Pyllers on the north side of the church 3s. 4d. 
—John Kentworth, 1494. (A. 6, 1.) 


To the repairing of the roof of the church 10 marcs 
(£6 13s. 4d.).— Henry Martin of Ivychurch, 1476. (Con. 2, fol. 


To the reparation of the sooler (?....) in Norton church 
13s. 4id— John Downe of Faversham, 1495. (A. 6, 3.) 



To the work of the nave of Plukley church 6s. 8d. — Stephen 
Cloke of Bethersden, 1493. (A. 5, 18.) 


To be buried in St. John's chancel beside my wife, and Ex'ors 
to spend £20 in making a little Chapel about the place where he is 
buried, of timber and wainscoat, with an altar in the same, and to 
new glaze the window against which the same altar shall be made, 
and provide a priest to sing in this Chapel. — John Bloor, 1513. 
(P.C.C. 33, Eettiplace.) See Transactions of the Monumental 
Brass Society, vol. vi. 


To be buried before the Altar in the midst of my Chapel at 
Rolvinden church, called St. Anne and St. Katherine's Chancel. 
To the church in the worship of God £10, for a box of copper gilt 
with a Tabernacle to hang in God's Body above the altar. — Edward 
Guldeford, 1449. (Register of Abp. Stafford at Lambeth Palace, 
fol. 175.) 

To the church of Rolvenden £10, whereof 4 marcs (53s. 4d.) 
was of the gift of Alice Betenham, and of one Rawlyns of 
Rolvinden, the which I received. — Sir J ohn Guldeford of Tenter- 
den, 1493. (P.C.C, 29, Doggett .*) 


To the repair of the nave of the church 4 marcs (53s. 4<d~). — 
Lawrence Whatman, 1475. (A. 2, 17.) 


To the work of the church 53s. 4<d. — Alice, wife of Stephen 
White, 1474. (A. 2, 10.) 

To the work of the Nave of the church of Rokkinge 20s. — 
Stephen Paytewin of Leysdown in Sheppey, 1410. (Con. 1, fol. 

* On a brass plate at the east end of the south aisle is a Latin inscrip- 
tion—" This Chapel founded on the day of Saints Tiburcius and Valerianus 
[i.e., 14 April] by Edward Guldeford, esquire, in honor of St. Anne and 
St. Katherine the Virgins, 1444."— Information kindly supplied by A, H. 
Taylor, Esq. 



st. Clement's church. 

To Dorn. Thomas Covenor, vicar of the church, sufficient timber 
for one roof for the great chancel of the same church. — John Stille, 
1403. (Con. 1, fol. 14.) 

The Tower : — 

To the reparation of the church and tower 3s. 4c?., and to the 
same reparation the 18s. which the Wardens of the church owe to 
me for my account. — William de la Tour, 1493. (A. 5, 18.) 

That my son Richard pay to the reparation of the steeple 
£3 6s. 86?.— Richard Triseham, 1496. (Con. 4, fol. 212.) 

To the reparation of the tower of the church 5s. — Robert 
Wilson, 1498. (Con. 4, fol. 216.) 

To the reparation of the tower 2s. — Robert Matson, mariner, 
1502. (A. 8, 4.) 

To the reparation of the steeple 6s. 8c?. — Henry Glrandame, 
1516. (A. 12, 18.) 

st. mart's church. 

Buried in the churchyard over against the south door of the 
same church, in the place where the lepers begging were accustomed 
to sit. — Thomas Pinnole, draper and one of the Aldermen of the 
Town, 1494. (A. 6, 2.) 


To the repairing of one window in the south part of the church 
3s. 4c?. ; and 

To the painting of the Rood loft in the church 6s. 8c?., and to 
him that shall paint the same for to paint my name upon the Rood 
loft 12c?.— Edward Coppyn, 1497. (A. 6, 10.) 

To the reparation of the high Rood loft in the church 6s. 8c?. — 
William Copyn, junior, 1498. (Con. 4, fol. 194.) 

To the reparation of the high Rood loft in the church 20s. — 
Roger Saunder, 1499. (A. 7, 4.) 


To the church 13s. 4c?. to make a new window in the belfry, so 
it be made within a year, or else not. — William a Bere, 1498. 
(Con. 4, fol. 203.) 

Chapel of the Trinity : — 

To the reparation of the Chapel of the Trinity in the parish of 
St. Peter 10s.— Alice atte Stone, 1491. (A. 5, 14.) .11 . 



Chapel of St. Nicholas : — 

To the making of a window in the Chapel of St. Nicholas in the 
church £10.— Richard Gotisle, 1494. (A. 5, 20.) 

To the church £6 13s. 4d. to make with a window of glass in 
the chancel of St. Nicholas in the same church. — Nicholas Hauxen, 
1494. (A. 5, 20.) 

Varia : — 

To the mending and painting of the high cross in the church 
26s. 8d. ; and to make a holy-water stoppe at the north door of the 
church 13s. U.— Robert Estxlon, 1491. (A. 5, 18.) 

See Vol. 30, p. 133, for the History of this Chapel. 


After the death of my -wife Petronilla, 5 marcs (66s. 8d.) to the 
paving of the church.— John Benett, 1485. (Con. 3, fol. 31.) 


To the most necessary reparations of the church £6 13s. 4td. ; 
and to the making and repairing of the causeway adjoining to the 
way at my gate, in breadth 9 foot, £6 13s. 4d., within two years. — 
Thomas TTsbarn, 1534. (A. 20, 3.) 


Buried in the Porch of the parish church, and to the church 
6s. 8d. ; and to the reparation of the church 20s. — Michael Marte- 
son, 1518. (Con. 12, fol. 105.) 

The Tower :— 

A piece of land of two acres called Abbotisland to be sold, and 
the money to the reparation of the Steeple. — Thomas Norland, 
1473. (A. 2, 8.) 

To the helying (roofing) of the Steeple 4 marcs (53s. 4id.). — 
Nicholas Bosene, 1474. (A. 2, 11.) 

To help make the arch of the Steeple, and other things most 
needed and expedient, 13s. 4>d. — Richard Dvne, 1496. (Con. 4, 
fol. 110.) 


Varia : — 

To the work (opus) of the church £3 6s. Sd. — Robert Prall, 
1467. (A. 1, 4.) 

To the reparation of the body of the cliurch 13s. 4^. — Thomas 
Stace, 1512. (Con. 11, fol. 16.) 



The Tower .— 

To the making of the new tower 5 marcs (66s. 8^.). — William 
Cok, 1449. (A. 1, 1.) 

To the work of the new tower twelve pieces of my best 
timber, which the wardens of the same work, or the parishioners 
there, shall chuse, standing and growing at Botford in a certain 
wood there near the garden called Botfordgarden. — Henry Esteagh, 
1461. (A. 1,11.) 

To the work of the new Tower 5 marcs. — Joan, wife of William 
Pyers, 1471. (A. 2, 1.) 

For the whole of a new window in the west part of the new 
tower, namely, glased and with other work in the same, from my 
goods as my Ex'or thinks best to be done. — Thomas Cok, 1473. 
(A. 2, 6.) 

For one Chyme to be made in the Tower 5 marcs, to be received 
from the sale of my wood-land at Elnothys. — William Iden, 1476. 
(A. 3, 1.) 

The Vestry .— 

My Ex'ors at my cost and charge shall cause the vestry of the 
church to be well and workmauly sealed (ceiled). — William Borne, 
1509. (A. 11, 3.) 

Vice (or stairway) : — 

" That my son John make or do to be made and finished 
within three years next after my death on the north side of the 
church of Tenterden, in such place as by the parishioners there can 
be thought most convenient and behovable, a sufficient Vice and 
stair enclosed, of lime and stone and all other things to the same 
required, from the ground up to the lead in the same northside with 
closure and covering, according as to the same unto appertaineth, 
as a man may easily go up in the same Vice to visit and search the 
said lead, in seasons needfull and expedient." — Thomas Strekenbold, 
1496. (A. 6, 5.) 

The Wall:— 

That 26s. Sd. be bestowed on the reparation of the wall on the 
north side of the church, by my Ex'ors and the wardens of the 
church.— Stephen Smyth, fuller, 1483. (A. 3, 26.) 

School-Souse : — 

IF there be a Scole-house made in the parish of Tenterden 

P 2 


within seven years after nry death, then to the building of the same 
scole-house 20s —George Strekenbold, 1525. (A. 16, 12.) 


To the amending of the gutter between the high chancel and 
St. Sperabul's chancel 10s.*— Thomas Godfrey, 1505. (A. 9, 4.) 


To the making of a new cross called a Palm Cross in the church- 
yard of Wyttisham 20s., to be paid by Thomas Mathew 15s., and 
by James Stephin 5s.— Margarete Golding of Ebbeney, 1497. 
(A. 6,8.) 


The following Notes about the Cathedral Church are 
from the Wills. Further information about local people has 
been drawn from The Roll of the Freemen of Canterbury, 1392 
to 1800, printed by the late J. M. Cowper, F.S.A., in 1903. 

Burials in the Cathedral : — 

To be buried in Christchurch next my wives, and to each of the 
poor men that bear me to the church and to my grave 4J. To the 
reparation of Christchurch £20. — John Freninghain of St. 
Andrew's parish, 1475. (A., Vol. 2, 17.) 

(He was of the Heme family of that name (see Vol. xxvin., 
p. 109), and a butcher who in 1442 became a Freeman of 
Canterbury. Pardoned 7 July 1450 for having sided with John 
Cade. He represented the city in Parliament 1461, and became 
Mayor for the official years 1461-2 and 1467-8.) 

To be buried within the church of Christchurch where it 
pleases the Eev. father Thomas, prior of the same church. Wit- 
nesses to her will, Thomas [Goldwell], prior of Christchurch, and 
Henry Adisham, monk of the same. — Mildred Bredkyrk, widow, of 
the parish of St. Alphege, 1518. (Con., Vol. 12, fol. 81.) 

(A John Bredkyrke, ale-brewer, became a Freeman in 1502.) 

Shrine of St. Alphege : — 

Eobert the door-keeper (janitor), son of Alexander, gave for 
lights (ad luminare) in Christchurch, about the bodies of St. 
Alphege and St. Dunstan, 2s. of my free-rent in the parish of Holy 

* ? St. Spiridiou, see Arch. Cant., Vol, XXV., 88. 


Sepulchre, Canterbury. About 1240 to 1250. — Charted Antique, 
C, 1088 (Cathedral Library). 

(This shrine of St. Alphege stood on the north side of the high- 
altar, where it was placed iu 1180 when the church was rebuilt 
after the fire of 5 Sept. 1174. — Arch. Cantiana, Vol. XX., p. 278.) 

Shrine of St. Duns tan : — 

(This was placed on the south side of the high altar in 1180, 
where his bones were found 20 April 1508.) 

Shrine of St. Thomas the Martyr : — 

To the Prior and Monastery of Christchurch for my soul to be 
prayed for, £40 ; and to the Shrine of St. Thomas a ring ; to the 
sub-prior my best piece of white silver with a cover, for a chalice to 
be made and used daily upon the high altar. — Joane, widow of John 
Denys, late of Well near Littlebourne, 1442. (Con., Vol. 1, 
fol. 53.) 

(A John Denys, mason, became a Freeman 1407.) 

To be buried in the church or in the cemetery. To the Prior 
for reparation of the church 10s. ; to Dom. John Oxney, sub- 
prior, 6s. 8^. ; to Dom. William Petham, cellarer, 6s. 8d. That 
thirteen monks of the Monastery celebrate thirteen masses for 
my soul, on the day of my obit, and each have 12d. Three tapers 
of pure wax each of 1 lb. shall burn in the church for one whole 
year, viz., one before the high altar, another before the Shrine of 
St. Thomas, and one before the Image of St. Mary in the Under- 
croft, when mass shall be celebrated. — William Hawkin, chaplain 
of the Chantry Chapel of John Bokingham, 1468. (Con., Vol. 2, 
fol. 120.) 

To the reparation of the thirteen great wax tapers to burn before 
the Shrine of St. Thomas 100 lbs. of wax. — Roger Eidley of parish 
of St. Mildred, 1471. (A., Vol. 2, 3.) 

(A Roger Ridley, gentleman, of Canterbury, was pardoned 
7 July 1450 for having joined John Cade. In 1460 he represented 
the City in Parliament. Mayor 1452-3, 1459-60 and 1468-9. He 
was buried in the chancel of St. John the Baptist in the church of 
St. Mildred.) 

To the Shrine of St. Thomas at Canterbury 6s. 8^. — Elinora, 
widow of Robert Barnes of Hawkhurst, 1491. (A., Vol. 5, 12.) 

To the Shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury a ring of gold with 
a point diamond set in the same, to be delivered to the same Shrine 
after the death of my wife. — Wiiliam Chilton of St. Peter's parish, 
1503. (A., Vol. 9, 1.) 

That the Monastery of Christchurch have my land in the parish 
of Harbledown, which I bought from the Ex'ors of Thomas Morice, 
that with the yearly rent they provide two wax candles of 12 lbs., 
to burn one at the time of the celebration of the mass of St. Thomas, 
to honor the sacrament and St. Thomas, which I will to stand before 
or about the Shrine of St. Thomas ; the other to stand and burn at 
the time of the celebration of the Mass which is celebrated before 


the image of St. Mary Undercroft, in honor of the sacrament 
and St. Mary. — James Cursume, chantry -priest of Prince Edward 
in Christchurch, 1518. (Con., Vol. 12, i'oi. 86.) 

To the Shrine of St. Thomas a taper of 1 lb. of wax. — "William 
Furnour of St. Margaret's parish, 1524. (A., Vol. 16, 1.) 

(A William Furner, innholder, became a Freeman in 1504 j 
and Richard Furner, yeoman, son of William Furner, a Freeman 
'by Birth' in 1538.) 

The Gross in the Vestry : — 

John the son of Milo de Fithele granted to the Prior and 
Monastery of Christ Church in Canterbury, to maintain the Lights 
before the Cross in vestiaria, on the north side of the church, in 
pure alms for ever for my soul and all my ancestors, the 20s. of 
free rent which was wont to be paid at the Feast of St. Michael, 
from all my lands which Adam de Wanyilerste holds from me in 
Villa de Apeldere (Appuldore). No date, but 13th century. — 
Charted Antique?, A. 130. (Cathedral Library.) 

Altar of St. Edward the King and Confessor : — 

On the 1 March 1439 the Bishop of Ross (Assistant Bishop to 
the Abp. of Canterbury) dedicated the Altar in honor of St. Edward 
the King and Confessor, in the Chapel which is on the north side 
of the Shrine of St. Thomas. — Chronicle of John Stone, p. 26. 
(Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1902.) 

(This was the chantry-chapel of Henry IV., built between the 
buttresses on the north side of the tomb of that King.) 

St. Mary in the Crypt : — 

A taper of 1 lb. of pure wax shall burn before the Image of 
St. Mary in the Undercroft, when Mass shall be celebrated. — 
William Hawkin, chaplain of the Chapel of John Bokingham, 
1468. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 120.) 

To be buried in my Cathedral Church of Canterbury before the 
Image of the most blessed Virgin Mary, commonly called Our Lady 
of the Undercroft, and my body be covered with one low stone of 
marble.— Archbishop John Morten, 1500. (P.C.C., Moone, 10.) 

(He died 15 September 1500 at his Manor House of Knole, and 
was buried in the Lady Chapel in the Crypt, where he also founded 
a Chantry of two priests to say Mass daily for his soul.)* 

Also see under Shrine of St. Thomas. — James Cursume, 1518. 

Chantry -Chapel of the Black Prince : — 

To be buried in a certain Chapel in Christchurch called the 
Prince's Chapel, situated near the Chapel of St. Mary in the Crypt 
there. To the Prior and monks £L0. — Robert Walpole, chaplain, 
1473. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 248.) 

* See also Sede Vacante Wills, Kent Record Society, 1914. 


The Martyrdom : — 

Prior John Finch de "Winchelsea, who died on 9 January 1391, 
was buried in the Martyrdom. 

My body to be buried in my Cathedral church of Christchurch, 
Canterbury, in that place where the Blessed Martyr Thomas, 
formerly Archbishop of the same church, died from the swords of 
wicked men, as near as possible to the same place. — Henry Dean, 
Abp. of Canterbury, 1502. (P.C.C., 21, Blamyr.)* 

(He was enthroned 25 April 1501, and had the temporalities 
restored on the 7 August, but died at the Lambeth Manor House 
15 Feb. 1501-2.) 

Prior Thomas de Groldston, w r ho died on 16 Sept. 1517, between 
the eighth and ninth hour of the day, was buried in the Martyrdom. 

Chapel of St. Mary :— 

On the day of St. Luke the Evangelist in the year 1445, Bichard 
Bishop of Eoss consecrated the Altar in the new Chapel of St. Mary 
near the Martyrdom of St. Thomas, in honor of the Assumption of 
St. Mary and of St. Benedict. — Chronicle of John Stone, p. 65. 

(This Chapel occupies the site of the former apsidal Chapel of 
St. Benedict, but extended further east, and was finished during 
the time of Prior Thomas de Groldston (1449 — 68), who when he 
died 6 August 1468 was buried in this new Chapel. The former 
Chapel of St. Mary occupied the two eastern bays of the north 
aisle of the Nave.) 

The Central Tower : — 

On 4 August 1443 the first stone of the Angel Steeple or central 
tower was laid. — Chronicle of John Stone, p. 21. 

To be buried in the churchyard of Christchurch near the grave 
of my wife ; and to the Bell Tower called the Angel Steeple of 
the Church of Christ, £7. — Eoger Leybourne of St. Alphege 
parish, 1471. (Con., Vol. 3, fol. 224.) 

(Eoger Leybourne, esquire, was admitted a Freeman in 1460 
by his marriage with Joan the daughter of John Lynde (the first 
Mayor) ; and Thomas Laybourne, gentleman, son of Eoger, in 
1484, a Freeman by birth.) 

To the Angel Steeple at Canterbury 6s. Sd. — Margery Hardes, 
widow, of Hardres, 1499. (A., Vol. 7, 10.) 

The Nave : — 

To be buried in the Cathedral Church of Canterbury ; and to 
the work of the said church 10 marcs (£6 13s. 4d.). — Sir Thomas 
Fogge, knight, 1407. (Con., Vol. 1, fol. 16.) 

(In the Obit Book of the Priory (now at Lambeth) under date of 
13 July is commemorated — " Thomas Foge, knight, who gave to the 
building of the new Chapter House £20, and was buried in our 
church, a brother and benefactor. Also Joan Foge, wife of the same, 

* See also Sede Vacante Wills, Kent Record Society, 1914, 

40 FtriVrfiER notjss from kentish Wills. 

our sister, daughter of Stephen Valouns, knight, .... who gave to 
the monks for their present needs £20, and died in 1425.") 

In a list of Subscriptions, January 1369 to 1371, towards 
rebuilding the Nave — " The Lady Joan Fogge, for the souls of 
Isabella, Joan, and Joan," gave £5 13s. 4^. (Keg. L., fol. 101.) 

To be buried in Christ Church near Thomas Fogge ; and to the 
Prior of the same place 3s. 4d., to each of the monks 20d. — William 
Septvans, knight, of Milton, etc., 1407. (Con., Vol. 1, fol. 16.) 

(His gravestone had in Norman French — " Here lies William 
Septvans, knight, who died the last day of August 1407. On 
whose soul," etc.) 

William Sephphant [i.e., Setvans], knight, died 5 March 1447-8, 
and was buried in the Nave of Christchurch near his father. — 
Chronicle of John Stone, p. 43. 

(His gravestone had a Latin inscription — "Under this stone 
lie the bodies of William Septvans, knight, who died 4 March 1448 ; 
and Elisabeth his wife, daughter of John Peche, knight, who died 
28 March following.") 

[Note. —See the plan of the Floor of the Nave before 1787 in 
Memorials of Canterbury Cathedral, by Rev. C. E. Woodruff and 
Canon Danks, 1912.] , 

To be buried in Christchurch at Canterbury, where the Prior of 
the same shall please. To the church £10. — Edmund Haute, 1408. 
(Con., Vol. 2, fol. 17.) 

(In the Nave was formerly a Latin inscription — " Here lies .... 
Haute, son of Sir Edmund Haute, knight, who died 1408.") 

Thomas de Chillenden, who was Prior 1391 to 1411, was buried 
in the Nave, where his gravestone had the following inscription : — 
" Here lieth Thomas Chillindenne formerly Prior of this church, 
who rebuilt the Nave .... and died on the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin, in the year 1411." 

His successor, John de Wodensburgh, 1411 to 1427, also was 
buried in the Nave near the former Prior. 

Prior John de Salisbury (1437 to 1446) died on the day of 
St. Wulstan (19 January) 1445-6 in his Manor of Chartham, and 
the same day his body was brought to Canterbury, and buried in 
the Nave of the church. — Chronicle of John Stone, p. 38. 

Prior John de Elham, 1446 to 1449, was buried in the Nave, near 
Prior Wodensburgh. On the 20 Feb. 1448-9 between the hours of 
five and six in the morning died John Elham, sometime Prior of 
Canterbury at the Meister Homers, who ruled two years, eleven 
months and four days. — Register S., fol. 150 (Cathedral Library). 

To be buried in the Christchurch at Canterbury beside my 
ancestors ; and to the bell-ringers of Christchurch for the peal 
3s. 4d. — William Fogge, gentleman, of St. Alphege parish, 1535. 
(Con., Vol. 15, fol. 292.) 

The Church Gate :— 

To the Lord Prior and Monastery of Christchurch 100 marcs 
(£66 13s. 4<d.) for building the Gate of that Church, called Church 


Gate— John Nethersole of Canterbury, 1505. (P.C.C., 25, Hoi- 
grave) . 

Varia : — 

To the work of Christchurch 66s. 8d. ; to the Prior 20s. ; to 
John Goldwell a monk there 6s. 8d.; and to the other monks 26s. 8d. 
between them. — Richard Bernes of St. Paul's parish, 1461. (Con., 
Vol. 2, fol. 36.) 

(Richard Barnes, brazier, in 1431 became a Freeman by his 
marriage with Joan the daughter of John Penny, mason, and Joan 
his wife, daughter of Richard Petham.) 

To the reparation of the church of Christchurch, Canterbury, 
10 marcs (£6 13s. M.). — William Haute, senior, esquire, of 
Bishopsbourne, 1462. (Consistory, Vol. 2, fol. 80.) 

(He was the father of Sir William Haute, knight, who was 
Sheriff of Kent 1466 and 1475 ; (2) Richard Haute, Sheriff of 
Kent 1478 and 1482 ; (3) Edward ; (4) James ; and five daughters, 
Ann, Joan, Alice (wife of Sir John Fogge), Elisabeth, and 

To the Convent of Christchurch 20s. for a pittance ; to the 
Angel Steeple 13s. 4>d. ; to the Refractory [szc] a piece called a 
Bekyr, and my name to be written upon the same piece, to be had 
the more in mind. — William Bennett of St. Andrew's parish, 1463. 
(A., Vol. 1, 6.) 

To the Convent of Christchurch to hold my Obit, the day of my 
burying and month's day, for wine 16s. — "William Bigge of St. 
Peter's parish, 1471. (A., Vol. 1, 14.) 

(He was a Miller who in 1434 became a Preeman ; and 7 July 
1450 was pardoned for having sided with John Cade. Mayor for 
the official years 1459-60, 1460-1, and 1466-7. He is buried in the 
church of St. Peter.) 

To the work of Christchurch 66s. 8d.~ John Hale, senior, of 
St. George's parish, 1518. (A., Vol. 13, 4.) 

(Probably the John Hale, innholder, a Freeman in 1491. His 
daughter Agnes married John Briggs, who was Mayor in 1520-1 
and 1524-5.) 

Burials in the Cemetery : — 

To be buried in the cemetery of Christchurch at Canterbury. — 
Richard Clerk, rector of Great Mongeham, 1475. (Con., Vol. 2, 
fol. 328.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of Christchurch, and to the use 
of the same church for my burials, one of my jewels (jocalibus) to 
the value of 15s. To Dom. William Sellinge, Prior of the church, 
40s., and a payer of amber prayer beads with the gaudes of silver. 
To the sub-prior 13s. 4<d. ; to Reginald Goldstone, now Cellarer, 
20^. ; to each other monk of the upper choir {superiori chord) of 
that church 12d. ; to each other monk of the lower choir (inferiori 
choro) 8d. ; and to the use of the same church 6s. 8d.— Thomas 
Ingram of St. Margaret's parish, 1487. (Con., Vol. 3, fol. 122.) 


To be buried in the place where the other chaplains of the same 
Chantry were wont to be buried. To six chaplains of Christchurch 
12c?. each to sing Mass for my soul; to William Couge, monk, a 
maser or 20s. at his choice. That there be eight torches burning 
about my body at my burial. — Robert Barton, 1488, one of the 
chaplains of the Chantry of John Bokingham, formerly Bishop of 
Lincoln. (Con., Vol. 3, fol. 201.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of Christchurch ; and to Dom. 
Greorge of the Almonry 6s. 8d. ; to Dom. Wingham, monk, one pair 
of my best sheets. — Peter Maxey, one of the chaplains of the 
Chantry of the Lord Prince in Christchurch, 1492. (Con., Vol. 3, 
fol. 320.) 

To be buried before the door of Christchurch, nigh the burial 
place of William Hale my father. — William Hale, capper, of 
St. Margaret's parish, 1501. (A., Vol. 8, 8.) 

(William Hale became a Freeman in 1494.) 

To be buried within some holy place within the precincts of the 
same church, where my Lord Prior and the Convent shall devise. 
That a taper of 4 lbs. be made and offered before Our Lady at the 
Undercroft. That at such times as my Lord Prior and the Convent 
shall think convenient after my burial, thirteen of the maisturs 
[szc] do sing Dirige and Masses for my soul, in such a place as 
shall by them be thought necessary, and to each 12d.~ John 
Hawkins, one of the Chantry-Priests of Arundels Chantry, within 
Christchurch, 1511. (Con., Vol. 10, fol. 135.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of Christchurch ; and to the same 
church for my burying 20s. — Thomas Sy drake, chaplain of the city 
of Canterbury, 1517. (Con., Vol. 12, fol. 43.) 

To be buried within the holy ground and precincts of Christ- 
church. — Nicholas Webbe of ISt. Alphege parish, 1518. (Con., 
Vol. 12, fol. 81.) 

To be buried in a holy place, and to the Cathedral church of 
Canterbury £3 6s. 8d. Also all my books to the Prior to be 
distributed among the brethren, or to their Library (ad libraria 
sua). — Robert Eton, clerk (no place), 1518. (Con., Vol. 12, 
fol. 95.) 

To be buried in the sanctuary of Christchurch under the yough 
(yew) tree, beside Laurence Taylor. — Cristofer Taylor of St. Alphege 
parish, 1518. (Con., Vol. 12, fol. 110.) 

(Christopher Tailour, yeoman, became a Freeman in 1516.) 

To be buried in the cemetery near the tomb of Dom. Richard 
Pereson, sometime my fellow-chaplain, by permission of the Lord 
Prior and Sacristan, if I die in Canterbury. — James Cursume, one 
of the Chantry-Priests of the renowned Prince Edward, in Christ- 
church, 1518. (Con., Vol. 12, fol. 86.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of Christchurch beside my husband 
Talbott. To the children of the Ambrye of Christchurch that bring 
my body to burial 4<d. each ; to the Prior and Monastery to admit 
my sister of the Chapter, my best girdle. John Cusshon, chantry- 
priest of Braunchleys Chapel, to be overseer of my will, and have 

Further notes from Kentish Wills. 

13s. 4<d. — Agnes Vincent, widow, of St. Alphege parish, 1518. 
(Con., Vol. 12, fol. 132.) 

Names of the Monies, etc. : — 

To each monk of Christchurch 8d. ; to Doin. Thomas Halywell 
126?. ; to Dom. Robert Barton 12c?. ; to Dom. Eobert Felde 124. ; 
to Master Robert Bryn 12d. — AVilliam Walpolle, chaplain of the 
Lord Thomas Arundel], 1483 (he was buried in the Nave of the 
Church of the Augustine Friars). (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 578.) 

To the Lord Prior of Christchurch 20d. ; to the sub-prior I2d. ; 
to Dom. Thomas Umfrey, chaplain, 8c?. ; to the Treasurers 8c?. ; to 
the Sextayn 8c?. ; to the Cellerer 8c?. ; and to every monk of the 
same place 4c?., to pray for my soul. — William Bochard (or Roper) 
of St. Martin's parish, 1489. (Con., Vol. 3, fol. 215.) 

That Dom. John Salisbery of Christchurch have a laton basin 
and laver. — Margarete Castlake, widow, of St. Mildred's parish, 
1590. (A., Vol. 7, 9.) 

To the Prior of Christchurch 20c?. ; to the sub-prior 12c?. ; to 
every monk being a priest 4c?. ; and to every other monk there 
2c?. — William a Dane, mason of St. Paul's parish, 1501. (A., 
Vol. 8, 4.) 

To the Prior of Christchurch 3s. 4c?. ; to the sub-prior 3s. 4c?. ; 
to William Godmersham, a monk, 20c?. ; to Thomas Anselm, a 
monk, 20c?. ; and to the reparation of the new work of Christchurch 
13s. 4c?. — Margaret Aas, widow, of St. Margaret's parish, 1502. 
(A., Vol. 8, 14.) 

To Dom. John Marten of Christchurch a silver spoon. — Simon 
Ball of the parish of St. Clement in Sandwich, 1513. (A., 
Vol. 12, 7.) 


This church and churchyard was a favourite place of 
burial, as shewn by the following Notes from the Wills 
proved in the Archdeaconry and Consistory Courts at 

The Roll of the Freemen of Canterbury, 1392 to 1800, 
printed by the late J. M. Cowper, F.S.A., in 1903, has also 
been consulted. 

Burials in the Church <- 

To be buried in the Monastery of St. Augustine near John my 


husband. To the Abbot and Monastery 20 marcs (£13 65. 8c?.) ; 
and to the Shrine of St. Augustine my marriage ring. To the sub- 
prior 10 marcs (£6 13s. 4sd.). — Joane, widow of John Denys, late of 
Well near Littlebourne, 1442. (Con., Vol. 1, fol. 53.) 

(A John Denys, mason, became a Freeman of Canterbury in 

To be buried in the Church of St. Augustine beside Alice my 
wife ; and to the monks of the same 20s. for a pittance. To the 
Hefrectory of the same church a maser cup, with an image of Our 
Lady in the prynte of the same cup. To painting the Image of 
Our Lady where the Abbot lieth 20s. — William Benet of St. 
Andrew's parish, 1463. (A., Vol. 1, 6.) 

(William Benett, son of Robert Beneyt, became a Freeman by 
birth in 1406. He was one of the Bailiffs 1430, 1434 and 1443, 
also Mayor for the year 1450-1.) 

To be buried in the church of the Monastery of St. Augustine. 
To the same Monastery one great maser bound with a band of 
silver and gilt, also one silver box and six silver spoons after the 
death of my wife Elisabeth. To Christopher Bowman my cloak of 
murrey, and the bed with all belonging to the same in my room in 
the aforesaid Monastery. — William Bowman, gentleman, 1485. 
(A., Vol. 4, 4.) 

To be buried within the Church and Monastery of St. Augustine 
without the walls of Canterbury, or else in such place where it 
shall please (rod. To Dom. Simeon Vertue, a goblet with a cover 
parcel gilt. — Robert Vertue, citizen and Freeman of London, 1506. 
(P.O.C., 13, Adeane.) 

To be buried within the Church of the Monastery of St. 
Augustine near Canterbury. — John Boteler, knight, and one of the 
Justices in the Court of Common Pleas, and of the parish of 
St. Mary de Bredyn in the city of Canterbury, 1519. (P.C.C., 22, 

To be buried in St. Augustine's church, where it shall please 
my Lord Abbot to assign the place ; and to the seling and vawting 
of the same church £20. — James Downes, rector of Wickham- 
breux, 1529. (A., Vol. 18, 4.) 

Holy Gross in the Nave : — 

To be buried in the church of St. Augustine before the Image 
of the Holy Cross in the Nave of the church ; and to the reparation 
of the same church for my burial there 66s. Sd. — John Swan, 
senior, of St. Andrew's parish, 1498. (A., Vol. 7, 6.) 

(John Swan was Mayor of Canterbury 1491 and left a wife 
Joane and son John, who succeeded to property in Sandwich. 
John Swan, grocer, was given the Freedom in 1497, at the instance 
of John Swan, alderman, and with the consent of Thomas Compton 
and William Levyne.) 

To be buried in the church of the Monastery of St. Augustine 
near the grave of John Swan, late my husband. To the reparation 
of that church 5 marcs (66s. 86?.), and to the glazing of one window 


in the church 5 marcs. — Joane Swan, widow, of St. Andrew's 
parish, 1505. (P.C.C., 33, Holgrave.) 

To the light of Holy Cross in the Monastery of St. Augustine, 
where the Mass of the Name of Jesus shall be celebrated, 4<d. — 
Matthew Cok of St. Mary, Northgate, 1501. (A., Vol. 8, 3.) 

Chapel of St. Anne : — 

To the Chapel of St. Anne, called the Countess Chapel, in the 
Monastery of St. Austen, a chalice price 53s. 4d. — Didier Bargier, 
rector of St. Andrew's parish, 1504. (A., Vol. 9, 6.) 

(This was called the Countess Chapel after Juliana de 
Leybourne, who became wife of William de Clinton, Earl of 
Huntingdon. Juliana in 1362 made over to the Abbey her Manor 
of Dene in Thanet, and when she died the 1 Nov. 1367 at her 
Manor House of Preston next Wingham, was buried in this " new 
Chapel on the south side of the Abbey church.") 

Chapel of St. Katherine : — 

To be buried in the Chapel of St. Katherine in the Monastery 
of St. Augustine. — Agnes, wife of John Whitloke of St. Andrew's, 
1491. (A., Vol. 5, 15.) 

(John Whitlock, draper, became a Freeman in 1463, and was 
Mayor 1475-6 and 1484-5 ; died in 1503, being buried in the 
church of St. Alphege.) 

To be buried in the parish church within which parish I shall 
die, or in the Chapel of St. Katherine within the Monastery of 
St. Augustine.— John Nethersole of Canterbury, 1505. (P.C.C., 
25, Holgrave.) 

Chapel of St. Mary : — 

To be buried in the body of the church of the Monastery of St. 
Augustine, as nigh to the Chapel of St. Mary there as it may 
please my Lord Abbot of the Monastery to suffer it to be. To the 
Abbev £6 13s. 4<d. — William Pustyane of St. Paul's parish, 1524. 
(A., Vol. 16, 4.) 

St. Michael in the Wall : — 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine before the 
Image of St. Michael in the Wall ; and to the making of the new 
steeple 53s. 4i. To my Lord Dom. John Dygon, Abbot, 20d. ; to 
William Shrewsbory, priest, Gd. ; to Dom. John Brenchisle, sub- 
prior, 8d. ; to Dom. Matthew Berry, chaunter, 8d. ; and to every 
other monk 4.d. — John Underdowne of St. Paul's parish, 1497. 
(A., Vol. 6, 9.) 

(A John Underdowne, grocer, became a Freeman in 1472. He 
is probably the son of Nicholas Underdowne of St. Peter's in 
Thanet, who in 1482 left to his son John a tenement called " The 
Home" in the parish of St. Mary Bredyn in Canterbury.) 

Chapel of St. Pancras : — 

To the reparation of the Chapel of St. Pancras in the cemetery 


of St. Augustine, and to the reparation of the Chapel where St. 
Augustine first celebrated Mass in England, adjoining the said 
Chapel of St. Pancras, £3 6s. Sd. — Hamo Bele of All Saints' parish, 
1493. (A., Vol. 5, 16.) 

(Hamon Bele of Elham became a Freeman in 1458, also bis son 
John in 1469. Hamo Bele was Mayor 1464-5 and 1478-9, and 
buried in the nave of the Grrey Friars church. Isabella, one of his 
daughters, married John Caxton, mercer, of the parish of St. 
Alphege, where they are buried in the nave of that church.) 

To the Heremit of St. Pancras, within the Monastery of St. 
Augustine, yearly for three years after my death Id. — Henry 
Parker, draper, of St. Mary Magdalene parish, 1494. (A., Vol. 6, 


(John and Edmund Parker, both drapers and sons of Henry 
Parker, became Freemen, by birth, in 1486.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, and to the Image 
of St. Mary in the wall of the Chapel of St. Pancras in the 
Monastery aforesaid 2d. — Matthew Cok of St. Mary, Northgate, 
1501. (A., Vol. 8, 3.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine before the Image 
of St. Mary at the Chapel of St. Pancras. — William Kynton of St. 
George's parish, 1502. (A., Vol. 8, 8.) 

To be buried in the Chapel of St. Pancras in St. Augustine's 
under the Rood in the same chapel, and to the Abbey for lying in 
the said chapel 10s. — William Gierke of St. George's parish, 1520. 
(A., Vol. 15, . . .) 

To be buried in the Chapel of St. Pancras, next unto the grave 
of my brother Eobert. — William Casyr, 1532. (Con., Vol. 15, fol. 

To be buried in the Chapel of St. Pancras, next to the grave of 
Joan my wife. — William Rutland of St. Andrew's parish, citizen 
and Alderman, 1532. (Con., Vol. 15, fol. 177.) 

(William Rutland of London, apothecary, in 1500, and another 
William Rutland in 1509, became Freemen.) 

To be buried in St. Pancras Chapel nigh unto my wife that was ; 
and to the Monastery for a trental of Masses 10s. — Francis 
Rutland, citizen and Alderman of St. Andrew's parish, 1534. 
(Con., Vol. 16, fol. 67.) 

(Francis Rutland, grocer, became a Freeman in 1526, and had 
then two daughters, the eldest Alys aged two years, and the 
youngest Mary aged one year.) 

The Campanile: — 

To the re-building of the Bell Tower of the Monastery of 
St. Augustine £10; and to the monks of the same 26s. 8d., to 
be distributed by Richard Growtherst. — Richard Bernes of St. Paul's 
parish, 1461. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 36.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine. That seven 
acres of land at Westgate in the Isle of Thanet be sold by my son 
John, and half the money among the Convent of St. Augustine 



and the other half to their new Bell Tower. — "Walter Martin of 
St. Michael's parish, 1462. (A., Vol. 1, 6.) 

To the work of the Bell Tower of St. Augustine at Canterbury 
£3 6s. 8d.— John Hersing of Littlebourne, 1468. (A., Vol. 1, 22.) 

To the Tower of the church of the Monastery of St. Augustine, 
for two years, 40s. — James Brooke of St. Mary, Northgate, 1472. 
(A., Vol. 2, 6.) 

To the work of the Bell Tower of St. Augustine 6s. tid. — John 
Chambleyn of St. Paul's parish, 1475. (A., Vol. 2, 16.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine ; and to the 
work of the Bell Tower 6s. 8d. — William Letherar, dwelling within 
the Hospital of St. John the Baptist, outside the walls of Canter- 
bury, 1475. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 295.) 

To the work of the new Tower of the Monastery of St. 
Augustine 20s., to be paid within three years of my death. — 
William Browne (or York) of St. Mary Magdalene parish, 1478. 
(A., Vol. 3, 9.) 

To the new Bell Tower of St. Augustine 20s., whereof they 
have in their hands of my stipend 6s. 8 d. — Simon Plegard, clerk of 
St. Paul's parish, 1483. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 576.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine ; and to the new 
Bell Tower there 20s. — William Bisshope, browderer, of St. Paul's 
parish, 1491. (A., Vol. 5, 9.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine outside the 
walls of Canterbury. To the making of the new Steeple there 
twenty parcels of 46s. Sd. in the hands of Mr. Dygon, late the debts 
of John Symon, on consideration that I be rung in at the time of 
my burying. — Anne Whythe, now the wife of Edmund Mynot, late 
of the parish of St. Andrew, 1492. (A., Vol. 5, 11.) 

(Edmund Mynot, who died in 1488 and was buried in the nave 
of Bishopsbourne church, had been Town Clerk of the City and 
churchwarden of St. Andrew's.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, and to the 
making of the new Bell Tower of that Monastery 6s. Sd. ; to Dom. 
William Selling, monk of the same, 2 lbs. of grain. — Henry Parker, 
draper, of St. Mary Magdalene parish, 1494. (A., Vol. 6, 1.) 

Towards the making of the new Steeple of St. Austen's 3s. kd. 
— Thomas Groldsmethe of St. Mary Bredman parish, 1498. (A., 
Vol. 7, 3.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine, near the 
grave of my son Adrian. To the reparation of the Bell Tower 20<?. 
— Eichard Cooke, tailor, of St. Andrew's parish, 1499. (A., Vol. 
7, 5.) 

(Eichard Cooke, tailor, became a Preeman in 1489.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Austen's. To the Steeple 
40s. so that the Abbot and Convent make me a brother and my 
wife a sister of their Chapter House, and that we may be sung in 
as a brother and sister there. — John Eusshelyn of St. Mary 
Magdalene parish, 1501. (A., Vol. 8, 7.) 

£o the making of the new Steeple of St. Augustine 13s. 4<d. — 


John Whitlock of St. Alphege parish, 1503. (Cod., Vol. 7, fol. 

(John Whitlock was a draper and became a Freeman in 1463. 
Mayor 1575-6 and 1485-6.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, nigh unto the 
grave of Bennett my wife ; and to the building of the Steeple of 
the Monastery 13s. 4d., whereof Dom. Matthew Browning received 
6s. 8d. during my life. — Thomas Sparowe of St. Michael's parish, 
1516. (A., Vol. 12, 19.) 

The Charnell Souse : — 

To be buried in the cemetery of the Monastery of St. Augustine 
at Canterbury, against the hawthorn near the Charnell. — Edward 
Septvans (of Worth?), 1451. (Con., Vol. 1, fol. 56.) 

(He was probably the second son of Gilbert de Septvans by his 
wife Constance, daughter of Thomas Ellis, the founder in 1392 of 
the Hospital of St. Thomas in Sandwich.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine. One taper 
of wax to burn in the Charnell now in the cemetery of St. 
Augustine's, when Mass shall be celebrated there, 6s. 8d. — William 
Brown (or York) of St. Mary Magdalene parish, 1478. (A., Vol. 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Austen beside the 
Charnell House there, beside the image of Our Lady. To the 
Monastery a salt of silver with a cover of silver, and a piece of 
silver weighing 7| ozs. for the Hall there. To the reparation of 
the new work there 13s. 4i. ; to the monks 13s. 4d. equally to be 
divided amongst them. — Eichard Downe of St. Andrew's parish, 
1503. (A., Vol. 8, 13.) 

Chapel of St. Mary in the Cemetery : — 

To be buried in the Porch (in portion) of the Chapel of St. 
Mary within the cemetery of St. Augustine. — William Stephen, 
rector of St. Mildred, 1477. (A., Vol. 3, 8.) 

Tomb of St. Augustine : — 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine beside the 
Tomb of St. Austen, and next to my father in law John Woodouse, 
on the Charnell side 5 and to the Church of St. Augustine 3s. 4d. 
—Michael Welles of St. Paul's parish, 1516. (A., Vol. 12, 18.) 

The Water Conduit : — 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine's before the 
Water Conduit there, near my wife Joan and children. — John 
Chambleyne of St. Paul's parish, 1475. (A., Vol. 2, 16.) 

(His daughter Alice Chamberlane was the first wife of Thomas 
Propchaunt, Mayor in 1492-3, etc.) 

The Infirmary : — 

To the Eermarye of St. Augustine, a feather bed, two blankets, 
a bolster, pair of sheets, two pillows, two pillow-cotes, a coverlet, 



and red mantle. Sir William Ketylsden and Dom. John Brenchley, 
monk of St. Augustine, were Ex'ors, with Master Hailsham, Prior 
of St. Augustine, overseer. — Richard Comyn, vicar of Preston next 
Wingham, 1518. (Con., Vol. 12, fol. 112.) 

Varia : — 

My Ex'ors to buy two candlesticks, and one lectern with an 
eagle at the top (unum led rum cum aquila in capite) before the high 
altar in the Monastery of St. Augustine, to the value of £10. — 
Robert Smyth, dwelling within the Hospital of St. John the 
Baptist, outside the Northgate, 1477. (Con., Yol. 2, fol. 351.) 

To the Monastery of St. Augustine at Canterbury 40s. to pray 
for my soul, my husband, and children. — Joan, widow of "William 
Manston, esquire, of Heme, 1476. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 324.) 

(Her will is in Archceologia Cantiana, Vol. xxviii.) 

To the reparation of the Monastery of St. Augustine 10 marcs 
(£6 13s. 4>d.). — William Haute, senior, of Bishopsbourne, 1462. 
(Con., Vol. 2, fol. 80.) 

To the reparation of the Church of the Monastery of St. 
Augustine, outside the walls of Canterbury, 40s, — Thomas Ovyrtou 
of Sandwich, 1488. (Con, Vol. 3, fol. 142.) 

To St. Augustine's Abbey 26s. Sd. — Margaret Aas, widow, of 
St. Margaret's parish, 1502. ' (A., Vol. 8, 14.) 

To the new work of the church of St. Augustine 40s. — Stephen 
Barett, senior, of St. Peter's parish, 1504. (A., Vol. 9, 1.) 

(Stephen Barett became a Freeman in 1478, and was Mayor 
1487-8 and 1496-7. By his wife Joane (? Crispe) he had four sons, 
Robert, John, Thomas, Stephen, and two daughters, Elisabeth and 

To the Monastery of St. Augustine of Canterbury, 40s. — Sir 
John Saunders, Canon of Wingham, rector of Dymchurch, and 
Vicar of Ash, 1509. (Con, Vol. 11, fol. 18.) 

Burials in the Cemetery : — 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine. — Richard 
Solayn of St. Mary Bredman parish, 1397. (Con, Vol. 1, fol. 4.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine. — William 
Ringleton of St. Andrew's parish, 1450. (Con, Vol. 1, fol. 49.) 

(A William Ringleton, skinner, became a Freeman in 1442. 
He left a wife Margaret and daughter Alice.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, near my 
mother. — John Mulling of St. Alphege parish, 1457. (Con, Vol. 2, 
fol. 99.) 

(John Mulling was pardoned 7 July 1450 for having joined 
John Cade. Mayor 1453-4 and 1454-5.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine. — John Bulling 
of St. Michael's parish, 1465 (A, Vol. 1, 3). His widow, Cristine 
Bulling, also buried there in 1465 (A, Vol. 1, 3). 

(John Bullinge, chandler, became a Freeman in 1427, when he 
had a wife Cristine, son John, and daughter Alice.) 



To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine, near the 
graves of Clemence and Joan my wives. — William Hert, mason, of 
St. George's parish, 14*67. (A., Vol. 1, 9.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine near Canterbury. 
—John Eynon, vicar of Brookland, 1467. (A., Vol. 1, 20.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, near .the grave 
of Eustace Court, chaplain, on the south side of the middle path 
(via media) ; and to the Convent of St. Augustine for a pittance 
13s. 4d. ; to Laurence Grravisend, Cellarer there, 6s. Sd. ; and to the 
bell-ringers of the Bells of St. Augustine 20d. — Alan Blunt, 
chantry- chap lain of Eastbridge Hospital, 1469. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, and to the work 
of that church 10 marcs (£6 13s. 4td.) if the Abbot of the church 
or his successors, or the Treasurer of that church pay, or caused to 
be paid to my Ex'ors, all the debts which they owe to me. — John 
Harnill of St. Michael's parish, 1469. (A., Vol. 2, 1.) 

(John Harnhell, tailor, in 1430 became a Ereeman, and 
pardoned 7 July 1450 for joining with John Cade. Mayor in 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine; and to the 
work of the church of that Monastery 6s. 8d. — Isabelle (widow of 
Hugh London, and then) wife of Thomas Baron of St. Michael's 
parish, 1471. (A., Vol. 1, 14.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine ; and to the 
Bell-ringers of that church 16d. — Richard Tropham of All Saints' 
parish, 1472. (A., Vol. 2, 14.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine ; to the alms- 
chaplain 6s. 8d. ; to the ringers of the Bells of the Monastery 
3s. 4<d. ; and to the reparation of the same Monastery 6s. Sd. — 
Henry Newell, chaplain of the Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr 
at Eastbridge, 1476. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 325.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, near the grave 
of my father. — Margareta, daughter of John Wode of St. Mildred 
parish, 1487. (A., Vol. 4, 6.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine. — "William Balgey, 
citizen and glove-maker, of the parish of St. Andrew, 1488. (A., 
Vol. 5,1.) 

(William Balgay, glover, became a Ereeman in 1472 by his 
marriage with Margaret, daughter of Andrew Russell, notary, who 
had become a Freeman in 1440.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine, beside Alice 
my wife.— Richard Cram of St. Paul's parish, 1490. (Con., Vol. 3, 
fol. 276.) 

(Richard Cram, waxchandler, became a Ereeman in 1466.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine's. — John Cur- 
teis, carpenter, of the parish of St. George, 1490. (A., Vol. 5, 

(John Curteis, carpenter, became a Freeman in 1484.) 

To be buried within the Monastery of St. Augustine, and to the 



making of a new Bell there 6s. 8d. — John Exherst, brewer, of 
St. Paul's parish, 1493. (A., Vol. 5, 17.) 

(John Exherst, brewer, became a Freeman in 1478.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine. — Nicholas 
Sheldwich of St. Mary Magdalene parish, 1494. (A., Vol. 6, 

To be buried beside my husband in the churchyard of St. 
Augustine. — Agnes (Pargate), widow of Nicholas Sheldwich, 1517. 
(A., Vol. 14, 12.) 

(Nicholas Sheldwich became a Freeman by birth in 1469, and 
was Mayor 1482-3 and 1483-4, also Member of Parliament for the 
city in 1485-6 and 1487-8. His father John Sheldwich had been 
one of the Bailiffs in 1408, 1410, and 1418.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine. — Henry 
Wohoppe of St. Mary Magdalene parish, 1495. (A., Vol. 6, 3.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine, and to the new 
work of that church 6s. 8d. — Clement Hamon, barber, of St. 
Andrew's parish, 1499. (A., Vol. 7, 4.) 

(Clement Hamon, barber, became a Freeman in 1462, and his 
two sons, Christopher in 1500, and John in 1508.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of the Monastery of St. Augus- 
tine, nigh the grave of Alice my mother. — William Westborn of 
St, Alphege parish, 1500. (Con., Vol. 5, fol. 68.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine next unto the 
grave of my children there ; and to the reparation of the new work 
there for my burying 40s. — Isabelle Bele, widow, of Holy Cross 
parish, 1501. (A., Vol. 8, 4.) 

To be -buried in the cemetery near my wife at the Monastery of 
St. Augustine outside the Wall of Canterbury, or elsewhere in the 
next churchyard where my body shall die. To the Abbot 3s. 4^., 
and to every monk there, if I am buried there, 12d. — John Crispe 
of Thanet, 1501. (Consistory, Vol. 8, fol. 9.) 

(This is the first John Crispe of Thanet, whose wife was 
probably Joan Sevenoak. John Crispe was Mayor of Canterbury, 
where he had property, for the official year 1489-90. Two of his 
daughters — Agnes married Henry Groseborne, Mayor 1497-8, and 
Joan married Stephen Barrett, Mayor 1487-8 and 1496-7. His son 
John Crispe married Agnes Quex.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine outside the 
walls of Canterbury. — Thomas Knight of Faversham, 1508. 
(A., Vol. 9, 10.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine without 
Canterbury, next to the grave of my father. — Sir John Pesemed, 
vicar of Lyminge, 1514. (Con., Vol. 11, fol. 62.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine next my father, 
mother, and wife. — Thomas Whope of St. Mary Magdalene parish, 
1514. (A., Vol. 12, 13.) 

(A Thomas Woghope, hosier, became a Freeman in 1500.) 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine; and to the 
building of the new Steeple of the same church 40s. — William 

e 2 


Thompson of St. Mary Bredman parish, 1516. (Con., Vol. 12, 
fol. 20.) 

(William Thompson, tailor, became a Freeman in 1494 by his 
marriage with Joan, daughter of Thomas Cokkowe. His son James 
Thomson, draper, a Freeman by birth in 1526.) 

Names of Monks, etc. : — 

To my brother Robert, a monk of St. Augustine's, 10 marcs 
(£6 13s. 4d.) — John atte See of Heme, 1460. (Con., Vol. 2, 
fol. 25.) 

To my son Stephen, a monk in the Monastery of St. Augustine 
at Canterbury, 13s. 4i. — Henry atte Hale of Tenterden, 1465. 
(A., Vol. 1, 7.) 

To William Percyvale my son, a monk of St. Augustine's, 
10 marcs (£6 13s. 4^.). — John Percyvale of Eddington in Heme, 
1468. (Con., Vol. 2, fol. 181.) 

Thomas Trendham, who had lands in the parish of Great 
Mongeham, in 1469 desired to be buried in the church of St. 
Lawrence outside the walls of the City of Canterbury ; and gave 
to Dom. William Mongeham, monk of St. Augustine, 10 marcs 
(£6 13s. 4i.), whom he appointed supervisor of his will. (A., Vol. 2, 

To be buried in the cemetery of St. Augustine ; and to the work 
of the Church of the Monastery 6s. 8d. To John Bettenham, monk 
of that Monastery, my son, 6s. 8d. and a silver spoon. — Alice, 
formerly wife of William Cryour, now wife of John Norman of the 
parish of St. Mary Magdalene, 1475. (A., Vol. 2, 20.) 

(John Norman, draper, son of Thomas Norman, brazier, became 
a Freeman by birth in 1445.) 

To be buried in the churchyard of St. Augustine ; and to Dom. 
John Winchepe, monk there, to pray for my soul and all the faithful 
departed, 10s. To the monks of St. Augustine to be equally divided, 
the 19s. which Dom. John Sevenoaks, monk of that Monastery, 
borrowed of me twelve vears ago. — Bartholomew Tripp of St. Paul's 
parish, 1485. (Con., Vol. 3, fol. 49.) 

(Bartholomew Tripp, yeoman, became a Freeman in L467.) 

St. Augustine's Abbey : — 

All those Books which I have belonging to the Monastery of 
St. Augustine shall be delivered to the same. To the Abbot 6s. 8d. ; 
to brother William Shrowesbury, Prior, 3s. 4d. ; and to each other 
monk 12d. To be for service for ever on the table of the Cellarer 
within the Monastery, my best silver salt cellar with cover, and part 
gilt, also six silver cups with the figure of a lion on them. To serve 
for ever in adornment on the table before the one who presides 
there, my second best salt of silver, with three other cups. To 
serve in the Refectory a maser with the base of silver, and three 
silver cups. To the buying of one suite of Vestments, namely, one 
cope and chasuble with two tunicals of green, to serve for ever in 


the Monastery about divine service, £33. —Edmund Hovinden, B.L., 
vicar of St. Paul's, 1497. (A., Vol. 7, 9.) 

That Dom. William Morley of the Monastery of St. Augustine 
have a laton basin and laver, small square chest, a pillow of down 
and a coverlet. — Margarete Castlake, widow, of St. Mildred's 
parish, 1500. (A., Vol. 7, 9.) 

To John Helar, a monk of St. Augustine at Canterbury, wheu 
he shall celebrate his first Mass, 20s. — Lawrence Helar of Heme, 
1505. (Con., Vol. 8, fol. 110.) 

That my Ex'ors sell all my lands and tenements in Elmeston and 
Preston, and from the money give unto my son Dom. Richard 
Compton, monk of St. Augustine at Canterbury, £6 13s. 4c£. — 
Alexander Stonard of Elmeston, 1529. (A., Vol. 18, 4.) 

To the Abbot of St. Augustine 20d. ; to the Prior 12d. ; and to 
the monks 13s. 4d. between them. — Joan Whitlok (and widow of 
Richard Bernes), 1487. (A., Vol. 4, 6.) 

To the Abbot of St. Augustine 20d. ; to the Prior 12d. ; to the 
sub-prior 8c?. ; to the high Cellarer 8c?. ; to the Treasurer Sd. ; and 
to every other monk 4c/., to pray for my soul. — William Bochard 
(or Roper) of St. Martin's parish, 1489. (Con., Vol. 3, fol. 215.) 

To the Abbot of St. Augustine 20d. ; to the Prior 20d. ; to every 
monk being a priest 4c?. ; and to every other monk there 2d. — 
William a Dane, mason, of St. Paul's parish, 1501. (A., Vol. 8, 4.) 


John de Essex, the last Abbot of St. Augustine ] 523— 38, whose 
family name was Eoche, is said to have been brother of Henry 
Eoche of Ripple. After he and the monks surrendered the Abbey 
and its property to Henry VIII. on 31 July 1538, the Abbot 
was granted a pension and the Manor of Sturrey for life, and there 
he died (probably at Sturrey Court) and was buried, for in the 
Parish Register of Sturrey under the year 1540 is the entry, 
" M 1 * John Foche, sometime Abbot of St. Austens, who was buried 
the 4 th of October." 

X 54 ) 



As year after year passes by the number diminishes of fine 
old houses which formerly enriched the towns and country- 
side of England. The wear and tear of use, the stress of 
wind and weather, the pressure of increasing population, all 
combine in the melancholy process, and one by one interest- 
ing remains of art, so lavishly and so finely applied in old 
days to the decoration of English homes, are either destroyed 
by fire or fall under the hammer of the housebreaker. Or if 
at best some fragments are rescued from destruction it is 
only to reappear divorced from their natural and appropriate 
setting in alien houses or in the cold atmosphere of a 
museum. We can but acquiesce in this inevitable decay 
and hope that in museums at any rate, where such remains 
can be seen and studied by all, they will become seed, from 
which may be developed yet another phase of art to continue 
the splendid series that illustrate the life of the English 

Some highly interesting fragments of this nature have 
recently been secured for the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
where they form a most welcome addition to the group of 
exhibits illustrating the decoration of houses. They were 
found in a house at Stodmarsh near Canterbury, and consist 
of eight plaster panels* of various sizes, painted with mono- 
chrome designs in black on white. 

These panels, considered according to the nature of the 
designs with which they are decorated, fall into three groups. 

* The panels bear registered numbers, W. 28 to G. 1913. in tlie Museum 
collections (Department of "Woodwork). Photographs of them are on sale at 
the Museum. 


Two panels are decorated with figure subjects symbolizing 
the " planets." Four others deal with subjects connected 
with the story of Actseon, while the two remaining panels 
are each decorated with a standing female figure. The fol- 
lowing is a detailed description of the various panels, with 
their dimensions : — 

No. 1. (a) This panel is divided by a column into two 
parts. In that on the spectator's left Yenus is seated in 
a car drawn towards the left by a pair of doves; in her left 
hand she carries an arrow, and in her right an uncertain 
object resembling a ribbon, which might be a girdle. She 
wears a robe with short sleeves, decorated with horizontal 
stripes. Her hair is tired, and a pendant hangs down on her 
forehead. On the fore part of the car stands Cupid in the 
act of shooting with his bow, which he holds in his right 
and draws with his left hand ; at his side he carries a quiver 
with arrows. In the background is a globe inscribed "venvs," 
and bearing the sign of the planet, $ . The foregoing 
is surrounded by cloud-forms, below which is a garden scene 
with a table set out on the left for a feast. A lady is seated 
at it playing a lute, to the sound of which a lady and 
gentleman are treading a measure. On the right is seen a 
lake in which is a man bathing. 

(b) On the right half of the panel is Jupiter seated in a 
car drawn towards the right, probably by eagles, but the 
forms are almost obliterated. He is clad in classical armour, 
and wears a helmet with plumes, and a cloak. In his right 
hand he holds an arrow, while his left is advanced to grasp 
a cup which a kneeling man in armour presents. The cup 
is a standing cup with cover, of the type made in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century. On a globe in the background 
is the name 66 ivpiter " and the sign of the planet, %, and 
the monogram VS. Round the foregoing are clouds. 
Below is a landscape with a church or some other building 
on the left, while in the other part of the scene a man 
advances on foot hunting with a pack of five hounds. The 
man carries a spear in his right hand, and is blowing a horn. 
The panel is further decorated with an imitation cornice 


above, and below with a base ornamented with sunk roundels 
alternating with short flutings. 

Height of panel, 3 ft. 7 in. ; width, 8 ft. Of in. 

No. 2. (a)* On the spectator's left Luna is seated in a 
chariot drawn towards the right by a pair of dolphins ; in 
her left hand she holds a crescent. The dress she wears is 
decorated above with scale pattern, and below with wavy 
horizontal stripes ; on her head is a scarf arranged as a sort 
of turban with the two ends floating behind. On the one 
visible wheel of the chariot is represented an insect (? grass- 
hopper). In the background is a globe inscribed "lvna," 
with a crescent (?) and the monogram VS. below. All the 
above is surrounded by cloud-forms. Below appears a lake 
or river scene with a water-wheel (?) on the left bank, while 
on the right, between a stunted tree and a tower-like 
building with a round-arched door, is a man standing in 
the water and pointing towards a man in a boat, who is 
apparently plying between the banks. 

(b) In the other half of this panel is Mercury seated in a 
chariot, drawn by two cocks, also to the right. He is clad in 
a short closely-fitting coat decorated with scale pattern, worn 
over a rather longer loose garment. On his head is a winged 
hat, and on his feet shoes reaching half way up the calf. 
He is blowing a pipe which he holds in his right hand, while 
in his left is the caduceus with the entwined serpents, tipped 
with a fleur-de-lys. Near him in the background is a globe 
with the word "mercvrivs," the sign of Mercury, £ , and the 
monogram VS. All the foregoing is surrounded by cloud- 
forms. Below is represented a room in which, seated at a 
table, are two sages, perhaps an astrologer and an alchemist, 
for one holds up a retort (?) while the other is apparently 
measuring from a book. Between them stands an astronomical 
globe. The floor is formed of square tiles or pieces of 

These two designs are separated by a column, and the 
panel is finished off with a cornice and base similar to those 
in the first panel. 

* See accompanying Plate. 


Height of panel, 3 ft. in. ; width, 8 ft. OJ in. 

The genre scenes below the four principal subjects 
would seem to have some relation to them. For instance, 
that in the Venus panel relates to feasting and merrymaking, 
while under Mercury, who it will be remembered was the 
patron of thieves, are an astrologer and an alchemist ! The 
connection of the scenes below the other two subjects seems 
somewhat obscure. 

No. 3. Actaeon, in the fashionable dress of the end of 
the Elizabethan period, with high-crowned hat, carrying 
a spear in his right hand and holding in a leash of hounds 
with his left, stands gazing at Diana bathing with tw r o of her 
nymphs. Diana holds a bow and an arrow. One of the 
nymphs is stooping and gathering water in her right hand, 
as though about to throw it at the intruder. They stand in 
a bath which is apparently fed with water from a fountain 
close by, consisting of a column surmounted by a group of 
three nude female figures. The background to the scene is 
formed of trees and shrubs. 

Height of panel, 2 ft. 9 in. ; width, 3 ft. 9^ in. 

No. 4. In the upper part Acteeon, holding a spear hori- 
zontally in his right hand, is running towards the right 
accompanied (or pursued) by a hound. Below this, and 
occupying about half the height of the panel, is some boldly 
designed leafy scrollwork and flowers. 

Height of panel, 5 ft. 6 in. ; width, 1 ft. 11 £ in. 

No. 5. Three hounds are represented running towards 
the left. 

Height of panel, 2 ft. 10 in. ; width, 1 ft. 11| in. 

No. 6. Actseon, with his head changed into that of a 
stag, is being pulled down by four of his hounds. In the 
right-hand corner is a castle with a round-headed door of 
the same type as that in the tower shewn in the second panel. 

Height of panel, 2 ft. 9£ in. ; width, 3 ft. 10f in. 

No. 7.* On this is painted a standing female figure 
wearing a close-fitting cap and a gown with stomacher. In 

See accompanying Plate. 


her left hand she holds a besom, while her right is out- 
stretched. The figure is surrounded by boldly-designed 
leafy scrollwork. 

Height of panel, 5 ft. 4 J in. ; width, ] ft. 11£ in. 

No. 8. On this also is depicted a standing female figure 
resembling that on No. 7, but slightly smaller, and she does 
not hold a besom. The sleeves of her dress are considerably 
puffed at the shoulders, and appear to be either slashed 
crosswise or decorated with cross banding. 

Height of panel, 5 ft. 9 J in. ; width, 2 ft. 2 J in. 

The " Planet " series is plainly incomplete, for out of the 
five planets known to our ancestors before the eighteenth 
century only three are represented. At least one more panel 
with Mars and Saturn is required to make the number 
complete. Examination of the extant panels shews that 
three of the chariots containing the figures are being drawn 
towards the right, while only one, Venus, is being drawn in 
the opposite direction. It is, therefore, reasonable to sup- 
pose that the remaining two planets were represented in 
chariots proceeding to the left. It will be noticed that what 
may be called the leading lady and leading gentleman of 
this little company, Venus and Jupiter, appear on one panel, 
and lead off in opposite directions. It seems likely, there- 
fore, that this panel formed the centre of this portion of the 
scheme of ornamentation, which would thus be not less than 
twenty -four feet in length. It is not improbable then that 
this series formed the decoration, or at any rate a consider- 
able portion of it, on one wall of a room of the house, 
probably of the Long Gallery, that very usual and very 
charming feature of earlier mansions. 

The total width of the "Actseon" panels as they now 
appear in the Museum is 11 ft. and 7 in. It is scarcely 
possible to determine what length this painting originally 
occupied, though it may be conjectured that it was not much 
longer. No doubt the fine scrollwork which is seen under 
one of the panels (No. 4) was repeated also under the other 
portions of the picture, which would thus be raised some 
3 ft. or so from the floor at an agreeable height to be seen. 

Painted Plaster Panel (No. 7). 
Prom a house at Stodmarsh, near Canterbury. 


There can be but little doubt that the " Planet " series 
received somewhat similar treatment. Very similar scroll- 
work appears in another fragment in the museum, which 
came from an old house in Ipswich.* 

The character of the work makes it almost certain that 
all these eight panels were produced at the same period and 
probably for the decoration of the same house, whether the 
one in which they were found or some other. That such a 
mode of decoration for walls was not unusual appears from 
what Falstaff said to Mine Hostess of the " Boar's Head " in 
Eastcheap when he advised her to adopt some substitute for 
her threatened tapestries, 

" . . . . and for thy walls a pretty slight drollery, or the 
story of the Prodigal, or the German hunting in water- 
work" . . . .f 

In this connection the choice of a hunting subject, Actseon, 
for one series of these panels and for one scene in the 
"Planet" series, is noteworthy, as is also the characteristic 
term " waterwork," since the painting is executed in tempera. 
.Remains of such wall decoration are still to be found here 
and there in situ, as for instance on the walls of ruined 
Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire, where a hunting scene is the 
subject of a modelled and tempera-painted frieze in the 
Presence Chamber. 

The monogram VS. which appears on the "Planet" 
designs is the initials of Virgil Solis (b. 1514; d. 1562), one 
of the Little Masters, who executed many engravings, among 
others some for Alciati's Emblems and Ovid's Metamor- 
phoses. The ie Actseon " drawings in these fragments of wall 
decoration bear some resemblance to designs for the last- 
named work, but the resemblance is not close, and the 
influence is probably indirect. 

From a consideration of the costumes of some of the 
figures in the designs, notably of Actseon and the two 

* This panel was given by Thomas Partington, Junior, Esq., to the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. It is numbered W. 9 — 1913. 

f Second Part of King Henry IV., act ii., scene i., line 155. This play is 
considered to have been composed in 1596 or 1597. 



standing female figures, the date when these interesting 
examples of wall decoration were executed may safely be 
assigned to the latter years of the sixteenth century. It 
would be interesting to know who are the ladies represented 
by the two standing figures, for they have rather the air of 
portraits, and particularly what is the significance of the 
besom which one of them holds. Was she the Elizabeth 
Master who came into possession of Stodmarsh Court some 
time between 1558 and the end of the century? and was 
she perhaps a " notable housewife " ? Or perhaps the figures 
represent mistress and maid? Though it seems doubtful if 
in that aristocratic age they would be dressed so nearly 
alike. If any information were forthcoming that would 
throw light on this singular point it would add to the 
interest which these rare remains already possess. 

22nd January 1914. 

( 61 ) 



The question raised by the facts which it is the purpose of 
these notes to set forth, is to a large extent a literary one, 
and if its discussion is to claim inclusion in these pages, it 
must be that it introduces us to some Kentish families and 
tells us something of the manor and the land they held 
in the small Kentish village of Capel-le-Ferne. 

Problems respecting the authorship of anonymous works 
are among the class that can scarcely ever be finally closed, 
and though the question to be here discussed is of less 
importance than the inquiry into the authorship of the 
letters of Junius, yet in its wa,y it is not without interest, 
dealing as it does with Daniel Defoe. 

Of all Defoe's works, one of the most successful was the 
Strange Apparition of Mrs. Veal, and this curious fact is 
to be noticed about it that, pure romance as the tale is, its 
foundation rests on real people whose existence can be proved 
by outside evidence. This artifice is one more than once 
employed by Defoe in pursuance of his policy of trying to 
make his readers believe that the romance he was weaving 
was a reality. His best known work, Robinson Crusoe, is 
founded on a real Alexander Selkirk, whose story is to be 
found in Woodes Rogers ; and the same will be found true of 
other of his imaginative tales such as Captain Avery and 
Captain Singleton, and if I cite these it is because I wish 
to call attention to the fact that they are both concerned 
with Madagascar. 

It has often been a problem with those who have written 
on Defoe what share he had in a work which, on its first 



appearance in 1729, attracted much attention, and has 
frequently been republished, namely, Madagascar ; or, Robert 
Drury's Journal during fifteen years captivity on that Island. 

The framing of the story is strongly reminiscent of 
Robinson Crusoe, being that of a boy who, shipwrecked on 
the island of Madagascar, spent fifteen years, mostly as a 
slave, among the natives. That there was a Drury, and that 
he had some experience and knowledge of Madagascar is 
true beyond all doubt, though it seems equally certain that 
he would have been quite unequal to the task of recounting 
his experiences in the clear and charming style which has 
helped to make the book one of the classics of its date, and 
has prolonged its interest down to the present day. The 
preface, indeed, admits that the work as we have it was not 
written by Drury. 6 The original,' says the preface to the 
first edition, 6 was wrote by Robert Drury, which, consisting 
of eight quires in folio, each of near an hundred pages, it 
was necessary to contract it and put it in a more agreeable 
method.' This was done by the ' transcriber,' and the 
problem is, was this transcriber Daniel Defoe ? 

The last editor of the book, Captain Pasfield Oliver, R.A.,* 
has entered more fully into this question than any other 
writer. His general conclusions are that there was a Drury, 
who knew from personal experience something of Madagascar, 
but that this experience was gained in the course of 
piratical and slave-trading voyages, and that the fifteen 
years residence among the natives, with all its wealth of 
detail, is purely imaginary, and must be mainly attributed to 
the transcriber,' who derived the facts which make the 
story so lifelike and vivid from earlier French writers on the 
island. For the details of the evidence on which these 
conclusions are based the reader must be referred to Captain 
Oliver's introduction ; we are here only concerned with the 
question whether the 6 transcriber ' was Defoe, and the 
purpose of these pages is to bring forward certain evidence 
which was unknown both to Captain Oliver and to Defoe's 

* London, 1900. 


numerous biographers, evidence based on a coincidence so 
marked as, in the opinion of the writer, to establish 
Defoe's authorship beyond all question. 

The nature of the story and the style in which it is 
written have already raised question whether it were not by 
Defoe ; moreover, when we remember the success of Robinson 
Crusoe, published in 1719, nothing seems more likely than 
that the author of that work should have been anxious to 
repeat his success by another story cast in the same mould ; 
and, in following it, to hope for an equal triumph. Further, 
Defoe had already dealt with Madagascar in the two works 
named above, published respectively in 1719 and 1720, which 
affords strong evidence that he had turned his attention to 
the island, and must have known much about it, seemingly 
from de Flacourt and other French writers who, if we are to 
believe Captain Oliver, are the sources whence much of the 
graphic detail of Drury's narrative was derived. 

Coming by some chance upon Drury, and learning some- 
thing of his tales of Madagascar, Defoe may well have seen 
the opportunity of a new Robinson Crusoe, and, seizing it, 
have given us Drury's fifteen years captivity. 

The essence of Defoe's tales lies in their wonderful 
assumption of accuracy of fact. The introduction to the 
work we are considering tells us that ' it is nothing else but 
a plain honest narrative of a matter of fact/ just as the 
author of Robinson Crusoe 6 believes the thing to be a just 
history of fact,' and again in the Strange Apparition 
assures us that i this relation is a matter of fact ' — the very 
similarity of the asseveration in the three cases rouses 
suspicion. In order to support this artifice Defoe, as we 
have seen, is given to introducing real people on whom to 
found his stories, and it is the remarkable connection 
between the persons on whom Drury's Madagascar and the 
Strange Apparition of Mrs. Veal are founded which forms 
the subject of these pages. It is but little likely that when 
the two works were first published — Mrs. Yeal in 1705, 
Drury in 1729 — this connection would have been noticed, 
to-day it would be even less capable of observation ; that I 



am acquainted with it I owe to the existence of certain 
family memoranda, as well as to the fact that I am connected 
by a marriage of 1698 with both the families con- 

Let us now turn to the works themselves and see who 
are the characters appearing in them. In the Strange 
Apparition of Mrs. Veal we have Mrs. Veal herself, a lady of 
30 years of age and unmarried, for the title is merely one of 
courtesy, and her brother William Veal, Controller of the 
Customs at Dover, with whom she lived, and for whom she 
kept house. The point of the story is that Mrs. Veal 
appeared to her friend Mrs. Bargrave at Canterbury on the 
8th of September 1705, being the day after her death at 
Dover. Now as to Mrs. Veal's existence, as well as to the 
date of her death, there is no doubt, for her burial is entered 
in the Registers of St. Mary at Dover as having taken place 
on the 10th of September 1705. 

The existence of William Veal, as well as the office which 
he held, can be proved with equal, indeed with greater, 
certainty. His sister, with whom he had lived, died in 
September, and within three months we find him marrying 
Elizabeth Hughes, a widow, of Capel-le-Ferne,* a small 
hamlet some four miles from Dover, and of this marriage 
I shall have more to say later. 

I cannot prove that he was Controller of the Customs at 
this date, though it is so stated in the Strange Apparition, 
but that he held the post later appears from a note made by 
my ancestor Isaac Minet, then living at Dover, who says, 
'Mr. Nathanael Matson died at Dover, 5th 9ber, 1719, and 
was buried 7th, and had a very pompous funeral, the bearers 
being [inter alios'] Mr. William Vealle, Controller of the 
Customs.' A Mr. Henry Matson dies in 1721, when 
Mr. Vealle is again named among the bearers at the funeral, 
though on this occasion he is not said to be Controller. 
The same writer, however, again mentions him in 1724, and 
as holding the same post. 

* The marriage is found in the Capel Registers, and took place on 
December 15, 1705. 


There can therefore be no manner of doubt as to the 
existence of the Yeals, brother and sister, and that William 
held the office assigned to him by Defoe, while that his 
sister kept house for him accords well with the fact of his 
marriage very shortly after her death. Here, then, Defoe is 
found basing his story, the rest of which is, of course, 
pure romance, on real people, who are proved to have lived 
at Dover. 

Let us next turn to examine in the same way the folk 
who appear at the opening- of the Madagascar story. Drury 
embarks for the voyage which was to end so disastrously for 
him, in February 1702, on board the 4 Degrave ' of 700 tons, 
a ship belonging to the New East India Company, for the 
two companies were not then united. The Captain was one 
William Young, who had with him his son William as 
second mate. Arrived in India, both the Captain and first 
mate died of fever, so the ship sailed for home under 
command of William the son. The ' Degrave/ so the tale 
goes on, was driven on to the coast of Madagascar, and 
ultimately only Drury survived, to pass fifteen years on the 
island. With this, however, we have nothing to do here, 
our only business being to establish the reality of the 
Youngs and the existence of the ' Degrave. 5 In the early 
part of the work, from which the above facts are taken, 
there is nothing to connect the Youngs with Dover, but in 
the account of the actual shipwreck is this touch : ' The 
Captain [i.e., William Young, the son] got on shore with 
his father's heart in his hand, which, according to his 
request when dying, was put in a bottle to be brought to 
England, and buried at Dover.' 

Here, for a moment, we will leave the Youngs to prove 
the existence of their ship. This can easily be done by 
quoting from Colonel Yule's edition of the diary of William 
Hedges, where is a letter dated 4 from on board the 
" Degrave," Cap. William Young, commander, in Porta Nova 
road, July 26th 1699.' Again, in the same diary, is another 
letter of November 16th, 1600 (sic,, but clearly an error for 
1700), in which we find £ your Honour's chaplain put on board 




the "Degrave," and approved by the Bishop of London, 
ran away herefrom and left the ship. Wee understand he 
is a very lewd, drunken, swearing person, drencht in all 
manner of debaucheries.'* This establishes for us the 
reality of the ship, as of its Captain, while the story of his 
heart clearly connects him with Dover. 

Hasted will be our next guide. The Youngs were a 
Capel family he tells us, and he adds that in 1691 William 
Young bought from one Oliver Wright the manor and 
certain lands there. f This we shall find fully confirmed 
later by Captain Young's will. His wife was Alice Watson, 
who survived her husband many years, and, dying at the 
age of 96 at her grandson-in-law's house, the Rector of 
Eythorne, was buried at Capel on August 29, 1750 (Capel 
Registers). They had three children, William, killed in 
Madagascar in 1702, Nicholas, died unmarried, and Eliza- 
beth ; and this last it is who gives us the connection between 
the Youngs and the Veals. Born in 1678 (Dover Registers), 
she married Henry Hughes of Deptford before 1699, as in 
her father's will of February in that year she is mentioned 
as then married. Of Hughes nothing is known except his 
will, which shews that, like his father-in-law, he was a sea 
captain. The document, dated at Falmouth October 24, 
1702, J is in the form of a letter to his wife at Deptford, and 
runs thus : — 

My most dearest life, 

I have met with great fatigues and have had great annoyance 
with my men, six having been in prison for seven days. As for my 
will you writ me M r Shylling had orders to make is not yet come to 
my hands, and here is now a faire wind that I must saile or be 
protested against; I therefore write this as my last to you, and doe 
in case of noe heirs of mine by your body shall survive give 
the whole estate to you and the heires of your body after my 

* Hakluyt Soc, Lond., 1888, II., ccxx., ccxxv. ; III., xli. 
f Hist, of Kent, ed. 1829, ii., 129. See also Ireland. 
% P.C.C., Ash ? 108, 


This document was admitted as a will, administration of 
it being 1 granted in 1704 to the widow, Henry Hughes having 
died in ' parts beyond the seas.' There was one child only 
of this marriage, Alice, born at Deptford in 1701,* and of 
her we shall hear more presently. Certain land passed to 
this daughter, land known as Hughes' Fields, a name still 
surviving in Deptford ; left by her to her son Hughes Minet, 
it remained with him until 1810, when he sold it to one 
James Hughes, a shipwright of Broomfield Place, Deptford. 
The land must have been of some extent, as the purchase 
money amounted, in 1810, to £3,270. 

Elizabeth Hughes must have returned to Capel after her 
husband's death, no doubt to live with her mother, who 
herself had just learnt of her double loss of husband and 
son. Three years later the young widow marries William 
Yeal, Controller of the Customs, and thus we have the 
connection established between the Veals of Defoe's Strange 
Apparition and the Youngs of Drury's Madagascar. 

Had Disraeli known of these facts he might well have 
added another chapter to the Curiosities of Literature, for a 
stranger, and may one not say a more convincing, literary 
coincidence it would be hard to find. Two works of 
imagination, each basing itself on persons proved to be real ; 
the two families used for this purpose shewn to be not only 
from the same place, but also connected by marriage ; the 
one book admittedly by Defoe, the other by (?). There 
can surely be but one answer that Drury's Madagascar was 
also the work of Defoe. What connection Defoe had with 
Dover, and how he came to know of these two families must 
be left among the unsolved riddles of literature. 

Of the Yeal-Hughes marriage were born eight children, 
of whom only the eldest has any interest for us, through his 
ownership of his grandfather's land at Capel. 

He was christened Young, his mother's maiden name, 
and it is clear that after their marriage his parents must 
have lived at Dover, for Young was baptized at St. Mary's 

* Registers of St, Nicholas, Deptford. 

Jf 2 



on August 10, 1708. The Veals must then have removed to 
Capel, where we find the baptisms of their seven younger 
children between 1709— 1718 * 

I find no record of Young- Veal's death, except in family 
notes of my great-grandfather Hughes, who places it in 
1753, which must be nearly accurate. The only trace of hini 
during his life is the entry of his name in a Poll Book for 
Kent of 1734 as living at Capel, and as having a vote for Dover. 

I may how turn to the records of my own ancestors at 
Dover, which will serve both to explain my interest in the 
question, and also to throw further light on some of the facts 
set forth above. There had come to Dover in 1686 one 
Isaac Minet, a refugee for religion's sake, from France. 
Established there as a merchant, he grew to success, and, 
marrying Marie Sauehelle, like himself a refugee,, they had 
a large family. His eldest son John, born at Dover in 
1695, went to Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1717 
and M. A. in 1721. Ordained priest at Lambeth in 1722, he 
was at once presented to the living of Eythorne, near Dover, 
which he held for fifty years. As deacon he had acted as 
curate to John Dauling, rector of Alkham-cum-Capel, for 
the two benefices go together to this day. Here in 1720 he 
must have met Alice Hughes, then a girl of 19. Falling in 
love with her, he married her so soon as he was settled in 
his new benefice. A business-like note of his father Isaac, 
whom I have already quoted, gives us the information, and 
is at the same time the confirmation of much that we have 
already learnt: 'The 14th Sep. 1724 my son John, Eector 
of Eythorne, married Miss Alice Hughes, daughter of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Yong, wife in second marriage of William 
Veal, Esq., of Capell, and comptroler of the Customs of 
Kent ; her grandmother Madam Alice Yong, widow of Capt. 

* I have set out these children in the pedigree on p. 75, most of which is 
compiled from the Capel liegisters. The two daughters who survived longest 
are both named in their half-sister Alice Minet's will. It is clear from the 
dates of the baptisms of the first two Veal children, as well as from that of 
their parents' marriage, that Young must have been born some time before his 
baptism. This is of common occurrence in the Dover Registers, and is often 
noticed, though not in this instance. The dates given in the pedigree are, of 
course, old style. 


William Yong. 5 Twelve children were born of this marriage, 
of whom only one concerns us here, namely, Hughes, 
doubtless so called after his grandfather, and born at 
Eythorne 1731 (Eythorne Registers). John Minet died in 
1771, and his widow survived him some seven years ; it 
appears not unlikely that after her husband's death she 
returned to Capel, where, as we shall see, she owned con- 
siderable property, for she was buried there in 1778. Hughes 
her son was a great book lover, and collected especially 
books of travel, among which we are not surprised to find 
two editions of Drury's Madagascar, one, the second, of 
1731, and a later edition of 1807. He was in the habit of 
making notes on the margins and blank leaves of all his 
books, and in the later of his editions of Drury we find the 
two following remarks : — 

6 This, so far as my frequent conversations on this subject 
would and could admit of (with my dear mother), I say all 
or many of them corroborated and further confirmed (as to 
the loss of the 6 Degrave ' and the death of the Captain 
and his son particularly) in my mind the truth of Drury's 

e This, and many other passages relating to Captain 
Young the father, and afterwards his son, who became 
Captain, accords with what I have heard from my mother, 
who was grand-daughter to Captain Young the father, and 
whose wife, my mother's grandmother, T well remember 
[i.e., Alice Young]. She died at Eythorn, aged 96 [1750], 
at my father's house. This book is particularly interesting 
to me, whose maternal great-grandfather Cap. Young the 
father was, and who am now reading these narratives above 
a century after they happened, and at 80 years of age.' 

These remarks were written in 1811, and the writer lived 
on until 1813, when he died at Westerham, where he is 
buried. It will be noticed that his confirmation does not go 
beyond the facts which form the foundation of Drury's book, 
facts which are admittedly true, facts which the wife and 
mother of the chief actors in them had herself communicated 



to him ; he accepts the truth of the whole narrative because 
he knew from statements he could not doubt that the ship- 
wreck story was true, nor is my purpose here to prove the 
truth of the whole of the Drury story, but only that the 
persons on which its foundation rests were real, and this 
Hughes does enable us to do. 

If we now take up the history of the Capel property, we 
shall again meet with the same people, and yet further 
strengthen the evidence of the close connection which 
existed between them. Hasted brings the story of the 
manor of Capel-le-Ferne, or St. Mary-le-Merge as it is 
otherwise called, down from very remote times. Into this 
I am not curious here to enquire, but in 1691 the manor and 
certain lands were in the hands of Oliver Wright,* from 
whom they passed to Captain William Young. He must 
"have been a Dover man, though an unfortunate lacuna in 
the registers from 1640 to 1664, which would seemingly 
cover the date of his birth, prevents our establishing the 
fact as certain. Previous to 1640 there were two families of 
the name in Dover, Thomas and William, both with wives 
Elizabeth, from either of which our Captain may have come. 
The registers, however, give us his marriage to Alice Watson 
on May 1, 1677, as also the births of two of their children, 
Nicholas in 1677 and Elizabeth (who became Mrs. Hughes) 
in 1678. Were we in any doubt as to the identification of 
these entries with Captain Young, his will would prove its 
correctness. f In it he describes himself as of Dover, 
mariner, outward bound, and intended on a voyage to East 
India. :[ He leaves to his wife Alice the house in Bulwark 
Street, Dover, in which he lived, and the manor and farm 
of Capel Church, and also a farm and lands called Upper 
Standen, which latter is near by Capel, § for life, with 
reversion to his son Nicholas. In default of heirs the 

* Hasted. Loc. cit. sup. 

t Archdeaconry of Canterbury, 80, 331 : dated February 9? 1699 ; proved 
November 28, 1705. 

% This must have been the voyage which took him to Porta Nova, where he 
was in July 1699 (see p. 65, supra). 

§ The only mention of this property ; what came of it I do not know. 

a Chapter in capel-l^-ferne history. 71 

property was to pass to his daughter Elizabeth, wife of 
Henry Hughes, with an ultimate reversion to his niece 
Mary Watson.* Nicholas, dying unmarried, the manor of 
Capel Church, and land appurtenant amounting to 102 acres, 
came ultimately under this will to Elizabeth his daughter, 
and from her to the eldest son of her second marriage, 
Young Veal. 

I now take up the story from my own family papers. 
Young Veal barred the entail in 1 744 ; and, falling on evil 
days, died, it would seem, about 1753, when, by order of the 
Court of Chancery, the estate was sold to pay his debts ; 
this it was insufficient to do, and Isaac Minet, from whom 
I have quoted above, is said to have lost a considerable sum 
through his connection with Young Veal.f 

The purchaser was William, brother of J ohn Minet, and 
his reason for purchasing it was to oblige his sister-in-law 
Alice, who by that time, as we shall see directly, owned the 
contiguous farm of Capel Sole. Dying in 1767, William 
devised Capel Church to his brother James for life; he, 
however, died in Berlin, unmarried, in 1774, when, still 
following the provisions of William's will, the property 
passed to Hughes Minet his nephew, son of Alice, for an 
estate for life. 

We will now turn to Capel Sole, which forms the other 
half of the Capel property. Alice, widow of Captain Young, 
lived on at Capel Church, as tenant for life, for some years 
after her husband's death in India, and in 1709 purchased 
the estate of Capel Sole, which adjoins Capel Church ; its 
area was 52 acres. This remained subject to her own 
disposition. After her granddaughter Alice's marriage to 
John Minet, she went to live at Eythorne, where she died at 
the age of 96, and was buried at Capel on August 29, 1750 

* It is curious to note that Dan Shilling, scrivener, of Tower Street, Dover, 
is a witness ; one wonders whether he was the Shylling employed to draw the 
will of Henry Hughes, the will that never reached him at Falmouth. 

f William Veal, father of Young, was, of course, in no way concerned in 
the devolution of the manor of Capel, but I may note that his will is on 
record (P.C.C., Auber, 23). Proved January 21, 1729, he leaves his wife 
Elizabeth universal legatee and executrix. 



(Capel Registers). Her will,* in which she describes herself 
as Alice, relict of William Young of Dover, devises to her 
granddaughter Alice, wife of John Minet of Eythorne, a 
tenement in Capel bought of John Stokes, deceased, and 
lands in Capel bought of David Crumpe and Elizabeth his 
wife. These no doubt formed the Capel Sole property. She 
also names her grandson Nicholas Yeal, who must therefore 
have been still living in 1741, and her granddaughters 
Elizabeth (who later became Mrs. Ridley) and Amy Yeal. 
Alice Minet is appointed sole executrix. 

By 1753 then the manor of Capel Church belonged to 
William Minet, and Capel Sole to Alice, his sister-in-law. 
To this property Alice had already added, before her grand- 
mother's death, 13 acres, called Badcocks, which she bought 
in 1748 for £152 12s.; and in 1752 she purchased 22 acres 
from Adam Hamond and 4 acres from James Southouse, thus 
adding 39 acres more, so that at her death, in 1778, Capel 
Sole consisted of 94 acres — these she devised to her son 
Hughes Minet absolutely; he therefore held (after 1774) 
Capel Church for an estate for life, and (after 1778) Capel 
Sole absolutely. The fact that he was not the owner of the 
manor of Capel Church in fee simple annoyed him very 
much, and in 1787 he took counsel's opinion on the point, 
but to no effect. This appears from a very characteristic 
note addressed, ' To him who will be alive as my eldest son 
after my death.' In this he says, probably without any 
reason, f among the many inaccuracies in the will of my late 
uncle William Minet he bequeaths Capel Church not accord- 
ing to his intentions I am sure, since when he bought it in 
Chancery it was to oblige my mother in whose family it had 
always been [since 1691] ; but, being entailed on the eldest 
son Young Yeal, it was sold in Chancery to pay his debts. 
He promised my mother that on condition of her bequeathing 
to me Capel Sole he would bequeath Capel Church to me. 
But though I trust his heart was good, his head was not 
clear.' There is much more in the same complaining style, 

* Archdeaconry of Canterbury, 94, 155. Dated 1741 ; proved 1750. 


and lie advises his son to bar the entail so soon as this may 
be possible. The same paper adds a note regarding Young 
Yea] : ' He was Treasurer, as I have heard, of Dover 
Harbour and became insolvent. My grandfather who was 
bound for him I believe lost money by him. 5 

Hughes died in 181-3, and was followed in the ownership 
of both estates by his eldest son William, who died un- 
married. Some time before his death in 1827 he sold the 
whole estate to his younger brother Isaac. He, dying in 1839, 
devised it to his eldest son Charles William, who further 
added to the property by two purchases. Of the earlier 
purchase of 17 acres (1856) I have no information, the later 
of 23 acres (1858) was of land which had belonged to Robert 
Coxon, who sold in 1809 to Ingram Tucker, who died in 

The whole estate, which now amounted, as we have 
accounted for it, to 233 acres, remained with Charles 
William Minet until his death, seemingly intestate, in 

Leaving six daughters and no sun the estate was sold by 
order of the Court made in a partition suit then instituted, 
and was bought by the family of Morris. Quite recently, 
however, it has again returned to the family which had so long 
possessed it, for in 1909 Susan, second daughter of Charles 
William Minet, and widow of Sir Charles Staveley, repurchased 
it from the Morris family and remains its owner to-day. 

The manor, as in the case of so many of these small 
manors, has sunk into silent oblivion. It was certainly 
purchased by William Young in 1691, but the particulars of 
sale of 1874 are wisely cautious on this point. ' The Vendors 
shall not be required to define the boundaries or constituents 
of the manor or reputed manor, or to give any information 
respecting such manor or reputed manor beyond that which 

* The acreage at this date was given as 235 acres. Hughes Minet, whose 
methodical mind was much troubled by such small variations in measurement, 
wisely remarks on the margin of an old plan of the property, ' the quantities of 
land mentioned cannot be depended on in ascertaining this matter of ad- 
measurement, as no nicety is observed, or highly needful so to be, as to the 
strict quantity of land in each field of which mention may be made. 5 



is afforded by the abstracted muniments of title,' nor do 
these go back to the purchase of 1691. Who may be its lord, 
or its lady, it would be hard to say, nor does the question 
seem to be one that need trouble us much in these days. 

In order to bring out more clearly the relationships of 
the persons who appear in the foregoing pages I have added 
a pedigree, which will, I trust, make it easier to follow the 
various parts they play in the story. 

a Chapter itf capel-le-ferne history. 

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( 76 ) 



Westenhanger House, or such part of it as still exists, is 
situated in the parish of Stanford, about four miles west of 
Hythe. Formerly, Westenhanger was a separate parish, 
but its church is demolished, and its lands have long been 
joined to the parish of which it now forms a part. 

Seen from the railway the ivy-clad ruins form a striking 
and picturesque group. The remains are evidently those of 
a large and important house, and closer inspection and study 
confirm the impression that it was also a place of great 
archaeological and historical interest. 

There are two traditions connecting Westenhanger with 
very early times. One ascribes to it the distinction of having 
been a royal residence during the heptarchy. There is 
nothing really impossible or improbable in this tradition. 
The kings of Kent doubtless had their houses in various parts 
of their kingdom, and Westenhanger may well have been 
one of them. Of course the matter must be received merely 
as a tradition, lacking both positive proof and the confir- 
mation of contemporary remains. It may be added that a 
natural spring feeds the moat, and the site is peculiarly well 
suited for defensive residence. 

The second piece of tradition relates $,0 a later period. 
Popular legend associates; this house with the story of 
Rosamond Clifford, commonly known as " Fair Rosamond," 
the mistress of Henry II. ; and one of the towers is actually 
pointed out as the scene of her death. Apart from the fact 
that several other places in the kingdom have been claimed 
as Rosamond's Bower, there are three good reasons which 
make it impossible to accept this tradition : (1) the archi- 



tecture of the tower is of an age several centuries later than 
Rosamond's time ; (2) there is no evidence that- Rosamond 
Clifford was ever here ; and (3) the whole story , romantic, 
tragic, and circumstantial as it is, appears to be without 
foundation of fact. 

The various printed accounts of Westenhanger contain 
much interesting, although sometimes contradictory informa- 
tion as to the age of the building. It is not considered 
necessary, however, in a brief paper like this, to do more 
than give a list of the authorities (see page 8) . But perhaps 
one quaint and very brief account by Leland may here find 
a place : 

" Ostinghaungre was Creals lordeship, of sum now cor- 
ruptly called Westenanger. Poynings a late hald it. The 
King hath it now."* 

Although so brief, this extract gives much of what is 
known about the house in early times. Whatever may have 
been the history of the place during the Anglo-Saxon 
period, for example, it is pretty certain that in the fourteenth 
century Westenhanger was the property of the family of 
Kiriel or Criol. An entry on the Patent Rolls, under the 
date 18 August 1343, records the granting of a "Licence 
for John de Kiriel to crenelate his dwelling-place of 
Westyngehangre, co. Kent."f 

For reasons which will be explained presently it does not 
seem certain that John de Kiriel immediately made use of 
the licence granted. It seems probable that he lived on in 
the old house for a few years. The Black Death, occurring 
in 1348-9, probably caused further delay. We are forced 
to this conclusion not by documentary but rather archi- 
tectural evidence, and by the character especially of the 
plan, which shews strong indications of a date late in the 
fourteenth century. 

The following extracts from the Calendars of the Patent 
Rolls during the early years of Richard are interesting as 
shewing that Westenhanger was not built strongly enough 

* Itinerary (edition of 1907 — 1910), vol. iv., p. 44. 
f Oai. Pat.' Rolls, 17 Edward III. 



to repel marauders. They are also interesting in a broader 
sense as shewing the unsettled state of Kent during the last 
quarter of the fourteenth century : — 

5 Richard II., February 11 (1881-2). 
Commission of oyer and terminer to Robert Bealknap, Stephen 
de Valence, William de Haldenne, William de Home,* and Wil- 
liam Makenade, on complaint by Lettice, late the wife of John 
Kiriel, knight, that John Cornewaille, knight, "William Elys of 
Hynksell,t William Malyn, John Philipp of Chilham, John Hem- 
mynghurst of Mersham, John, son of Ralph Faunescoumbe of Wy, 
Andrew Scot, Thomas Strode, Brunus Armorer, John Burnby, 
armorer, and others, with ladders scaled by night and entered 
her castle of Ostrynghangre, co. Kent, broke her houses and 
chambers, searched for her so closely that she was compelled to 
hide in some water, narrowly escaping death thereby, carried off 
twelve horses, value 40/., besides other goods, and assaulted her 
servants. For 20s. paid in the hanaper. 

7 Richard II., September 22 (1383). 
Pardon, at the application of the king's mother, to John Clyf- 
ton, indicted before 26 January, for having with others broken the 
gates, doors, and windows of the lady of Kyryel's castle of Estyng- 
hangre, co. Kent, besieged her there, and stolen a coat and hood of 
one of her servants value 4<0d. By p.s. 

8 Richard II., March 31 (1385). 
Pardon, out of regard for Good Friday, to John Vannescombe 
alias Swannescombe of Wy, co. Kent, a prisoner in Neugate, by 
the appeal of Lettice, late the wife of John Criel, knight, for that 
he with others on the vigil of SS. Simon and Jude, 5 Richard II., 
broke her castle at Westynganger in that county, entered it and 
took away divers of„ her goods, viz., a black and a bay horse with 
their saddles and bridles, value 107. and 40Z. in gold and silver 
money, silver spoons, gold nouches, rings, and brooches, and other 
jewels. By p.s. 

It is not an easy task to interpret the original plan of 
the house from a study of the existing architectural remains, 
and nothing short of an extensive and costly excavation 

* Of Horne's Place, Appledore. 

f Hiuxlnll. 

s, from Harl. MS. 7599, fo. 93. 



would enable us theoretically to entirely reconstruct the 
house. Fortunately, however, we have a manuscript pre- 
served in the British Museum* in which, although unfinished, 
is carefully laid down the ground-plan of about half of the 
building, extending from the gate-house tower on the west, 
southward, eastward, and northward, to what was obviously 
the great hall in the eastern range of buildings. 

It so happens that the portion planned is that part 
which is now either entirely or nearly demolished, and in 
publishing the accompanying plate it is hoped that some 
help may be given to a future hand which shall recover the 
plan of the northern parts of the house by means of excava- 
tion and surveying. 

Even as it stands the plan is most valuable, because it 
represents about half of what was once, in its complete 
state, a building of remarkable importance and symmetry. 
From what is shewn of the southern half it is not difficult 
to imagine roughly what the northern half must have been, 
especially if one is guided by the existing walls of the latter. 

A plan of Westenhanger, based on the MS. plan here repro- 
duced, was published in Archceologia Cantiana, Vol. XVII., 
p. 200, but it appears to be rather difficult to account for 
certain features in the restoration there given, and it seems 
desirable, therefore, to rely only on the MS. plan. 

The date of the licence to crenelate, although clearly 
enough 1343, is not necessarily that of the actual building. 
As has already been suggested, the main structure of the 
house seems to have been built in the last quarter of the four- 
teenth century rather than in the second quarter. 

The plan of Westenhanger should be compared with that 
of Bodiam Castle, Sussex, a building which is known to have 
been erected by Sir Edward Dalyngruge in 1386. Excellent 
plans of the latter were published by William Cottonf in 
1838 and by Mr. Harold Sands,J F.S.A., in 1903. 

* Harl. MS. 7599, fol. 93. This is one of the volumes of Adversaria of 
Col. Thomas Colepeper (1637-1708). 

f A Graphic and Historical Sketch of Bod yam Castle in Sussex, p. 31. 
£ Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. xlvi., p. 116. 



A careful examination proves that the relation between 
the two plans is striking*. The massive circular towers at 
the angles, and the square, or rectangular, towers half way 
between them are noteworthy. The general arrangement of 
the building round the four sides of an open quadrangle, and 
the strongly-defended gate with its portcullis and draw- 
bridge, etc., are points of resemblance which will naturally 
suggest themselves at first sight to any one who pays any 
attention to the two plans. Bodiam, whose walls stand 
practically intact, belongs to a class of military architecture 
which may be referred, without hesitation, to the latter part 
of the fourteenth century, and it is the close relationship 
which Westenhanger has to this group of castles (to which 
Bodiam and Scotney belong) which induces one to place its 
erection at the latter part, rather than the middle, of the 
fourteenth century. 

There are several remains of later work, mostly of Tudor 
character, to be seen about the ruins of the old house. The 
dove-cot in the north-east angle tower, for example, which con- 
tains spaces for 500 or 600 nests ; remains of a kitchen of the 
same period, built just adjacent to the north-east tower ; 
and a charming Tudor brickwork fireplace still remaining 
just to the north of the entrance gateway ; and certain 
other fragments, are the most noteworthy of these. 

The courtyard or quadrangle within the house is said to 
have been 130 feet square, and round it were the great hall 
50 feet by 32 feet, with minstrels' gallery at one end, and a 
chapel measuring 33 feet by 17 feet. 

There are at Westenhanger, probably derived from the 
Tudor part of the building there, several plaster ornaments 
of good bold design, which appear to have enriched one of 
the ceilings in the house. The designs, which were pointed 
out to me by the present occupant, Mr. George Vincent 
Bird, comprise (1) the royal arms on a shield surmounted 
by a crown ; (2) the sun in his splendour ; (3) the Tudor 
rose ; (4) a shield bearing a key surmounted by a crown (the 
badge of the Poynings family) ; (5) a shield bearing I.H.C. 
supported by an angel with a small cross at the top of the 

Entrance Gateway, from a Sketch., c. 1750. 
(British Museum, King's Library, xviii, 43, 1.) 


VKSTENH vxni n house, keNt. 


head; and (6) a shield bearing* three garbs within a bordure 
engrailed (the arms of Cardinal John Kemp, Archbishop of 
Canterbury 1452 — 54). 

All of these devices or arms, except the last, are figured 
in The Home Counties Magazine, vol. xii. (1910), pp. 172, 173. 

A rank growth of ivy obscures most of the more impor- 
tant remains of Westenhanger, threatening destruction of 
the fabric at no distant date. If any words of the present 
writer might perchance influence the owners of this charm- 
ing old Kentish house, they would speak strongly for the 
immediate removal of this dangerous, destroying, and disin- 
tegrating plant. 

On the western side of the house there are two ranges 
of most interesting fifteenth or early sixteenth century 
buildings, one possessing a really fine hammer-beam roof, 
the other possessing door and window mouldings of a 
character which seems more intimately related to the 
fifteenth century than the sixteenth. 


The following works contain accounts of Westenhanger : — 
Hasted's History of Kent, vol. iii., pp. 322 — 327. 
Ireland's History of Kent, vol. ii., p. 452. 
Harris's History of Kent, pp. 294, 295. 
Leland's Itinerary (1907—1910 editions), vol. iv., p. 44. 
Archceologia, Vol. XXIII., p. 428. 
Archceologia Cantiana, Vol. XVII., p. 200. 

Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, No. xli. (1787) : Eev. S. Pegge's Sylloge 

of Inscriptions, etc., pp. 61, 62. 
Journal of the British Archaeological Association, vol. xl., p. 233. 
Brayley and Britton's Beauties of England and Wales (Kent), vol. viii,, 

pp. 1131—5. 

Home Counties Magazine, vol. vi., pp. 114—121, and vol. xii., pp. 169 — 173. 


{ 82 ) 





The Parish Church of Westenhanger is said to have stood 
at a little distance westward of the House, and of the 
drawbridge at the entrance to it, between the latter and the 
great barn, which, report says, was partly built out of the 
ruins of it. 

In the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of P. Nicholas IV., c. 1291, 
the Church of u Ostringhangre " is valued at £4 13s. 4>d. In 
the Valor Ecclesiasticus of K. Henry VIII., 1535-6, the net 
value is given at £7 12s. 6d. 

The old Church was from early times the recipient of 
numerous offerings from dutiful sons and daughters, fore- 
most among them being, naturally, members of the family 
which owned Westenhanger House. Thus Sir John Kiriel, 
1376, left 100 marks and 100s. for memorial services, besides 
40s. to " the work " of the Church. Lady Lettice Keryel, 
1408, left to the High Altar, 6s. Scl. To " the work and 
fabric " of the church three cows ; white linen cloth of 
sufficient quantity, marked with a red cross ; and four torches 
of the value of 5s. each. Lady Elizabeth Keryall, 1419, left 
a missal and a vestment. And Lady Cicely Kyriell, 1472, 
bequeathed 40s. for " forgotten tithes." Other parishioners 
left various money bequests for " tithes forgotten " and for 
the "fabric" of the church. Towards the latter object an 
outsider, Richard Keteham, of Monks Horfcon, 1480, left 
6s. Sd., and towards the reparation of the chancel Thomas 
Marche of Salt wood, 1506, bequeathed the sum of 13s. 4d. 
The following lights are specified as receiving bequests : 
St. Mary's, St. Christopher's, St. Anthony's, Holy Cross, 

st. mart's, WESTENHAN&ER. 


and those of St. George and St. John. Andrew Hawarden, 
1511, left for a taper to burn before Our Lady there, 20s. 
yearly ; also for stayning of cloths for our Lady's altar in 
the church 16s. 8d. ; also for the foundation of a lamp 
perpetual to burn before the Sacrament there, 20s., and his 
round chippechest to be occupied by the goods of the 
church so long as it would last.* 

Dr. Harris speaks of a chapel 33 feet long and 17 feet 
wide, with curious carved stonework and richly decorated, 
which was erected by Sir Edward Poynings, K.G., and 
Controller of the King's Household, in the 12th year of the 
reign of King Henry VIII. f This was evidently identical 
with the church said by Mr. Hickman to have been built in 
1520, J as recorded by an inscription, formerly at Westen- 
hanger, preserved in Stukeley's Itinerarium Guriosum. 

The introduction of this domestic chapel must have 
largely contributed, with other circumstances, to bring about 
the gradual disuse of the original Parish Church, and to lead 
to the fusion of the parish with that of Stanford, which 
appears to have taken place shortly before the middle of the 
sixteenth century. 

The Church of Stanford once contained what seems to 
have been the sole remaining relic of Westenhanger Church 
— the ancient font, which was rescued and conveyed, thither 
for further use and preservation. For some generations 
these purposes were fulfilled ; but no trace of this interesting 
memorial can now be discovered, notwithstanding diligent 
inquiries have been made by the present Rector, the Rev. 
Herbert F. Smith, M.A. The nave of Stanford Church was 
entirely rebuilt about the year 1846, and it is thought that 
the old font was then removed and its place taken by the one 
now in use, which is of modern workmanship. 

* See Arch. Cant., Extra Vol., p. 354. 

f History of Kent, 1719, p. 295. 

X Gothic Architecture, 7th edit., p. 317. 


si\ mary's, weste'nhanger : 


Ralph de Alegate, presented 7 March 1274-5. Patron : 
King Edward I. (Pat. 3 Edw. I., m. 29.) 

He was presented to the Church of " Ostriughangcre " 
by the Crown owing* to the custody of the lands and heirs of 
Nicholas de Crioll, deceased, who held of the Sovereign 
in capite, being in the King's hands. 

In 1279 Peter de Trye also had letters of presentation to 
this benefice from the Crown, but the anticipated voidance 
did not occur, and they were not acted on. 

Walter de Trayly, adm. 12 May 1282, on resig. of 
the last. Patron : Sir Nicholas de Criell. (Eeg. Peckham, 
f. 525.) 

This Eector may have been connected with the family of 
the same name living at St. Paul's Cray, and owning 
property there, in the last quarter of the thirteenth century, 
two of whom were called " Walter."* 

Thomas Treweman, adm. 27 April 1312. Patron : Sir 
Ealph le Savage, Kt. (Eeg. Winchelsey, f. 57.) 

Milo de Chichester, inst. 18 May 1327. Patron : Sir 
Ealph le Savage, Kt. (Eeg. Eeynolds, f. 2655.) 

Hugh de Stanford, inst. 4 March 1327-8. Patron : 
Sir Ealph Savage, Kt. (Ch. Ch. Cant., Eeg. Q., f. 137, and 
Scrap Book, II., p< 121.) 

He was the son of Eobert Aleyn of Stanford, and was an 
Acolyte when instituted to the benefice. He was ordained 
Sub-deacon, on the title of his Church of " Ostringhangre," 
on Saturday, 19 March 1327-8, by Peter, Bishop of Corbavia, 
acting for the Prior and Chapter of Christ Church, Canter- 
bury, the See being then vacant. Two months later he 
obtained licence to be non-resident until the following 
Michaelmas for the purpose of pursuing his studies. 

# Thorpe, Registrum Rqffense, p. 269. 



During his term of office the chantry in the chapel of 
St. Thomas, on the north side of the Church of " Ostryng- 
hangre," was endowed by John Cry el with a messuage, 
forty-five acres of arable land, and six acres of pasture, 
with appurtenances, for the support of a Chaplain to 
celebrate daily for the good estate of the King and his 
progenitors, and of the said John and his ancestors. The 
licence for this purpose was granted 23 June 1345.* 

After an incumbency of more than twenty years Hugh 
de Stanford resigned for the chaplaincy of Craythorne, or 
Crauthorne, in the parish of Hope All Saints, to which he 
was admitted 13 September 1349. On the following day he 
was instituted Rector of " Demechirch " (Dymchurch), which 
he held for several years. 

Henry de Cumptone, or Compton, " provided " 12 March 
1348-9, on resig. of the last. (Papal Letters, vol. iii., 
p. 273.) 

He was previously Chantry Priest of St. Thomas's Chapel 
in Westenhanger Church, and is perhaps referred to under 
the entry " de Henrico persona de Westingangre " in the 
assessment to knight the Black Prince, in the year 1346.f 
He was present, as Rector, at an inquisition held 24 May 
1349 respecting a vacancy which had occurred in the Church 
of Midley. On 6 July following he had the King's letters of 
presentation to the vicarage of Aldington, to which he was 
instituted ten days later. His tenure of that vicarage could 
not have been a very long one, as Symon Balynden is 
mentioned as resigning it in 1356-7, and as Compton returned 
to Westenhanger, it looks as if they effected an exchange 
of benefices. 

Symon Balyndenn, or Baledoun, mentioned in Sep- 
tember 1349. (Ch. Ch. Cant., Scrap Books, I., 27 ; II., 151.) 

He is mentioned on three occasions as attending inquisi- 
tions held respecting benefices which had become vacant by 

* Pat. 19 Edw. III., p. 1, m. 4. 
f Arch. Cant., X., 127. 


st. mary's, westenhanger: 

the death of their incumbents during- the continuance of the 
grievous plague commonly known as the "Black Death." 
The date of his leaving Westenhanger for Aldington has 
not been discovered, but he resigned the latter early in 
1357 * 

Henry de Compton, Pexch. with the last, 1349 — 1357. 

It has not been ascertained how long he held the vicarage 
of Aldington, but that he came back to Westenhanger is 
placed beyond a doubt by the fact that he subsequently 
exchanged the latter for the vicarage of East Farleigh. 

William Bonsergeant, exch. with the last, 21 July 
1371. Patron : Sir John Kryel, sen., Kt., for this turn. 
(Eeg. Whittlesey, f. 86.) 

He held East Farleigh for six years and a half before 
exchanging for Westenhanger. After retaining the latter 
rather more than a year he again effected an exchange for 
the perpetual chantry of " Crowethorn," where he died 
in 1375. 

John Meisy, exch. with the last, 27 September 1372. 
Patron : John de Kyriel, son of Sir Nicholas Kyriel, Kt., for 
this turn. (Eeg. Whittlesey, f. 91b.) 

He was of " Willeamesthorp," and was admitted Rector 
of Monks Horton in September 1349. After eight years he 
exchanged for Blackmanstone. In 1366 he exchanged again 
for " Crowethorne," and six years later a third exchange 
brought him to Westenhanger, which he held for about a 

Thomas de Morton, adm. 22 September 1373. Patron : 
Sir John de Kyryel, Kt., for this turn. (Eeg. Whittlesey, 
f. 95.) 

Archbishop Whittlesey died a few months after Morton's 
appointment, and the latter, with the rest of the clergy of 

* Reg. Islip,, f. 275. 



the deanery of " Lymene," received a citation to appear in 
person at Canterbury on Saturday next after the festival of 
the Apostles Peter and Paul, 1374, to pay canonical obedience 
to the Prior and Chapter, the guardians of the spiritualities 
of the See, when vacant. 

This Rector's patron, Sir John Kiriel, by his will dated 
1 December 1376, and proved 16 February following, left 
40s. to " the work of the Church of Ostrinhangre," in 
addition to 100 marks, and 100s. for religious services in the 
same church and that of Warmer. He also left 40s. for 
distribution to the poor of " Ostringhangre " on the festival 
of the Assumption of the B.Y.M. within a year of his burial, 
and a similar amount for the same purpose on the Nativity 
of St. John Baptist. He likewise left money bequests to 
twelve other churches, including 10s. to that of Stanford.* 
Sir Nicholas Cryel, Kt., by his will dated 25 September 
1379, left among other charitable bequests the sum of 40s. 
for distribution among the poor of ie Ostrynghangre," and 
made this further provision : Item lego ad celebrandum pro 
anima unius hominis occisi apud Swynesfeldeshothe, x marcas.f 

John Sare, or Sarke, adm. 12 January 1383-4. Patron : 
Leticia, widow of Sir John Kyriell, Kt. (Reg. Courtenay, 
f. 253.) 

In March 1397 an indult was obtained by him that his 
confessor might grant him plenary remission as often as he 
pleased. J 

Stephen Monynden, adm. 10 July 1404, on resig. of the 
last. Patron: Leticia, widow of Sir John Cryel, sen., Kt. 
(Reg. Arundel, L, f. 297.) 

His patroness died early in 1409 during his term of office, 
having among other bequests left to "the work and fabric 
of the church of Ostynghangre " three cows, and directed 
that ten "Torchys," value 5s. apiece, should, after being 

* Reg. Sudbury, f. 96. f Ibid., f . 102. 

J Papal Letters, vol. v., p. 40. 

st. mary's, westenhanger: 

used at a specified service, be thus distributed : four to the 
parish church of Ostynghanger, three to Langdon Abbey, 
and three to the parish church of Walmer. 

After holding the benefice nearly nine years Monynden 
effected an exchange with his successor for St. Andrew's, 
Huntingdon. He was legatee under the will, dated 1420, 
of John Briklisworth, of Sandwich, to the amount of 20s., 
for tithes forgotten to be paid him when he was Rector of 
" Westyrighanger."* 

Edmund Wodehous, exch. with the last, 21 March 
1412-13. Patrons : The feoffees of William Keryell, for 
this turn. (Reg. Arundel, II., f. 66b.) 

On 8 June 1419 he served on a Commission consisting of 
five rectors, two vicars and two laymen, who were 
appointed to inquire respecting a vacancy in the Hospital 
of SS. Stephen and Thomas, Martyrs, at Romney They 
found that the presentee, Thomas Morton, was of good life 
and honest conversation, had first tonsure, was twenty-two 
years of age, and was beneficed elsewhere. He was duly 
admitted the following day. Edmund Wodehous exchanged 
for Ham, which he held until 1423, when he again made an 
exchange for Walcomstowe (Walthamstow) in the London 
diocese, where he died three years later. 

John Aleyn, exch. with the last, 5 May 1421. Patrons : 
William Chayne, and others, for this turn. (Reg. Chichele,, 
f. 1256.) 

While Rector of Ham a licence was granted to him 
ad celebrandum unum annuale. After leaving Westenhanger 
he became Vicar of Sybertyswelde, which he held until his 
death in 1426. 

Richard Bryan, inst. 1 February 1424-5. Patron : Sir 
Thomas Keryel, Kt. (Reg. Chichele, f. 1546.) 

* Reg. Chichele, I., f. 338. 



Richard Wolvey, adm. 9 March 1444-5. Patron: Sir 
Thomas Kyryell, Kt. (Reg. Stafford, f. 82.) 

It seems doubtful if he ever discharged the duties of 
rector, as Thomas Laurence is said to have been admitted on 
the death of Richard Bryame. 

Thomas Laurence, adm. 9 May 1447, on d. of Richard 
Bryame. Patron: Sir Thomas Kyryell, Kt. (Reg. Stafford, 
f. 93.) 

He is mentioned in the will of Dame Cicely Kyriell, 
1472, who among many other bequests left 40s. apiece to the 
rectors of (£ Westinganger " and Spaxton, for tithes for- 
gotten on her own part and that of her husbands. She also 
left her tenement " called Brokehust in Westingangre," 
which she purchased of John Harryes, to Agnes Lukyn 
on certain conditions, failing whieh^ her executors were 
instructed to sell the property and distribute the proceeds 
super emendacione turpium et debilium viarum in Westing- 

Leonard Bliknyng, or Bliclynge,, adm. 25 September 
1476, on d. of the last. Patron : John Keryell, Esq. (Reg. 
Bourchier,, f. 114.) 

He retained the benefice rather less than two years. 
Subsequently he moved into the Chichester diocese, where 
he held for a short time the rectory of Elsted. 

Thomas Toullarge, adm. 28 July 1478, on resig. of the 
last. Patron: John Kyriell, sen., Esq. (Reg. Bourchier, 
f. 119.) 

During the early part of this Rector's incumbency a 
memorial service was annually held for William Smith, a 
parishioner, who directed that his interment should take 
place in the churchyard of St. Mary of Ostynghanger, and 
made provision for an obit to be kept for him in the said 
church for fourteen years. 

* P.C.C., 9, Watty s. 


ST. maky's, westenhanger : 

Jottn Whyte, mentioned in 1496-7. (Reg-. Morton, II. } 
f. 162.) 

The date and circumstances of his appointment have not 
been discovered, bnt he resigned the benefice for the chantry 
of St. Stephen, in the Church of Selling, near Faversham, to 
which he was admitted 19 January 1496-7, on the presenta- 
tion of John Langley, gent. 

David Flemyng, adm. 26 January 1496-7, on resig. of 
the last. Patron : Sir Edw. Ponynges, Kt. (Reg. Morton, 
II., f. 162.) 

After holding Westenhanger about twelve years he was 
presented to the vicarage of the adjoining parish of 
Lympne, apparently on the death of Nicholas Farneley, 
in 1509, and he retained both benefices until his decease in 

William Wyghtman, adm. 1 December 1512^ on d. of 
the last. Patron : Sir Edward Ponynges, Kt. (Peg. War- 
ham, f. 3476.) 

He was Rector of St. Giles, Winchelsea, before being 
beneficed in the Canterbury diocese. Five years after 
obtaining Westenhanger he was presented by the Master 
and Brethren of the Maison Dieu, Dover, to their vicarage 
of Sellinge, which had fallen vacant by the death of 
Thomas Peniston. 

William Grene, mentioned only in connection with his 
successor's appointment. (Reg. Warham, f. 3796.) 

He also seems to have resigned for Sellinge^, where he 
died about the beginning of the year 1526. 

William Lambert, or Lambakde, adm.' 21 December 
1523, on resig. of the last. Patron : Edward Thwates, 
executor of Sir Edw. Ponynges, K"t., deceased. (Reg. War- 
ham, f. 3796.) 

The mandate for his induction was directed to Masters 
John Webbe, Vicar of Elham, and Robert Sympson, Rector 
of Monks Horton. 



An entry in one of the Archdeacon's Visitation Books 
states that " William Lambarte, Rector of Oystenhanger," 
appeared at the General Chapter held on Tuesday, 26 April 
1541, in the Parish Church of Bylsyngton, and refused to 
pay the procurations due, whereupon he was pronounced 
contumacious. He was a witness to the will, proved 
26 April 1542, of Thomas Smythe of " Ostringhanger." 
Very shortly after this, being no longer required to conduct 
the services in the Parish Church, which was now suffered 
to fall into decay, he was pensioned off with a life annuity 
of £6, in lieu of the tithes which he had received hitherto. 
* * * * x 

Thomas Eaton, M.A., inst. 29 June 1636, on d. of the 
last incumbent. Patron : King Charles I. (Reg. Laud, 
f. 3176.) 

He seems to be identical with one of the same names who 
matriculated from Christ Church, Oxford, in July 1624, at 
the age of nineteen. He graduated B.A. in 1627, and M.A. 
in 1630. Two years later he was incorporated at Cambridge. 

For some four years after his appointment to Westen- 
hanger he was cited, as usual; to appear at the Archidiaconal 
Visitations, although his Church for twenty years before — 
and as many after — is described as " ecclesia desolata " and 
" dilapidata." 

One of the manuscripts in the British Museum contains 
an Order to stay proceedings for tithes from Westenhanger 
Park, claimed by Mr. Eaton, in 1637.* 

Either he or a namesake held the vicarage of Maxey, 
Northants, from 1645 to 1649, or later. 

This last-mentioned Rector of Westenhanger comes into 
view on the eve of a troubled period, and the references to 
him are few and uncertain. 

* Harl. Ch. 75, F. 14. 

( 92 ) 



The following extracts from the Consistory Court Books, 
and the Account Rolls of the Treasurers to the Dean and 
Chapter of Canterbury, have "been selected as illustrating by 
contemporary evidence the progress of that great religious 
movement which we call the Reformation of the Church of 

The first series of extracts relate to the period when the 
Commissioners of King Edward VI., in their zeal to restore 
a more primitive faith and a simpler ritual, were sweeping 
out of the churches everything which savoured of medie- 
valism ; the second have to do with the temporary restora- 
tion of the older uses during the short-lived Marian reaction. 
The Edwardian extracts are taken from certain books which 
contain the depositions of witnesses ; the Marian extracts 
from a book of Presentments made to the Consistory Court. 
Both sets of records are preserved in the Chapter Library 
at Canterbury. 

As to the depositions, it would seem that the witnesses 
had certain articles submitted to them, framed upon those 
contained in the Royal Injunctions of 1547. These Injunc- 
tions are printed by Wilkins in his Concilia, and are also to 
be found in Cardwell's Documents and Annals of the Church 
of England* but as they are too long* for reproduction 
here the late Canon Dixon's convenient summary of them 
must suffice. " They Avere " (the Injunctions) he writes, 
" in part a reproduction of the former two sets of 

* Wilkins, vol. iv., p. 3, et seq., and Cardwell (1839), p. 41, 


Injunctions of Crumwell and Henry YIII the new 

parts which made the Injunctions of Edward something 
more than a republication were not unimportant .... As 
to public services of the church, some advance was made 
towards the final victory of the English over the Latin 
language, although the great liturgical reformation was 
delayed for some time longer. The lessons were ordered to 
be read in English (a chapter out of the New Testament at 
the end of the morning office, and after the Magnificat at 
evensong). On days when there were nine lessons (in the 
Latin office) it was ordered that three of them should be 
omitted to make room for this English reading ; also the 
Epistle and Gospel were to be read in English at High Mass. 
The English Litany was enjoined, but all processions about 
churches and churchyards were forbidden .... When a 
sermon or one of the homilies was to be had, the prime and 
the three services of tierce, sext, and nones, which were 
called Hours, were ordered to be omitted .... As to images, 
the distinction between those that were superstitiously 
abused, and those which were not, was still retained .... 
All pictures and paintings of feigned miracles that were in 
walls, glass windows, or elsewhere in churches or houses 
were ordered to be utterly destroyed. Eeigned miracles 
were found as difficult to be discerned from true miracles, as 
abused images from other images. Thenceforth began that 
villainous scraping, coating, or whitewashing of frescoes and 
that indiscriminate smashing of windows which obliterated 
in countless numbers the most various and beautiful 
examples of several of the Arts."* 

From the extracts given below it would seem that the 
destruction actually carried out went even beyond that 
ordered by the Injunctions, since not only were the images 
themselves destroyed, but even the niches or " tabernacles " 
which contained them. 

The English Boole of Common Prayer was used throughout 
England for the first time on Whitsunday, 9 June 1549, 

* History of the Church of England, vol. ii., p. 428. 


whereupon a decree was issued forbidding the possession of 
any of the ancient Latin service-books under penalty of 
one pound for the first offence, two pounds for the second, 
and four pounds with imprisonment at the King's will for 
the third offence. The only exception made was the 
authorized Primer of Henry VIII., and this was to have all 
invocation of saints blotted out. Moreover the edict was 
strengthened by a royal letter to all bishops to command 
their deans, prebendaries, parsons, vicars, curates and 
churchwardens to deliver up all antiphoners, missals, grayles, 
etc., and then to deface and destroy them.* 

The destruction of altars followed in the next year. On 
24 November 1550 a letter written in the King's name and 
given under his signet was addressed by the Privy Council 
to the bishops ordering them to destroy the remaining 
altars and set up tables in every church. f 

This was construed very strictly : it was not enough that 
the table was of wood, it must in no way resemble a stone 
altar. Thus in 1551 the Vicar of Blean was "presented" for 
setting up in his church a table modo altaris. The Vicar 
appeared and confessed that " there is no difference between 
the altar and the table, saving the one was stone and the 
other of wood, and that this hath no ornaments or clothes." 
The Commissary ordered that on the next day, before his 
parishioners, he should break down the boards and declare 
that he hath done evil in suffering it. 

It is worthy of remark that Robert Collens or Collyns, 
the Commissary who presided over the Consistory Court 
when the iconoclastic reforms of Edward's reign were in pro- 
gress, continued to hold his office under Queen Mary. In 
1554 the Queen appointed him to a Canonry in Canterbury 
Cathedral, and he actually acted as proxy for Cardinal Pole 
at the latter's enthronement at Canterbury 4 Foxe gives 
him a bad character as a persecutor of Protestants, and it is 
not unlikely that the Marian " presentments " printed below, 
were made before the same man, who in the previous reign 

* Dixon, ut supra, vol. iii., p. 160. f Ibid., vol. iii., p. 161. 

X Ibid., vol. iv., p. 393. 


had posed as a zealous reformer. When Queen Elizabeth 
came to the throne Collens was deprived of his canonry. 

For the convenience of the reader the various matters 
dealt with in the " Depositions " have been grouped together 
under separate headings, though of course the various articles 
were administered successively to each witness, whose 
answers were recorded as they were given. 

Depositions of Witnesses taken before Master Robert 
Collens, LL.B., Commissary General. 

Destruction of Images, Tabernacles, etc. 

1548, May 29th. The rector of Sandhurst confessed 
that "there yet remayneth 11 tabernacles at both sides of 
the hie Aulter, on the north side one defaced, and there is 
no more in his church nor chauncell : " also that " ye Image 
of the Ciosse accustomed to be borne on procession doth not 
stand in any of ye tabernacles at the hie Aulter sith the com- 
mandment was declared at Ashford that such things should 
be taken away."* 

Thomas Beeching, however, a parishioner of Sandhurst, 
deposed " that on Easter last the Crosse accustomed to be 
borne upon procession stode in one of the tabernacles of the 
hye Aulter/' and " that the Images which were taken down 
remayne in the revestrie of the said church undefaced." 

Peter Hall, curate of Sandhurst, deposed " that sith the 
King's Injunctions ye tabernacles stoode there, but the 
Images were taken away," also " that touching the setting 
up of the Paschal) candle and sepulchre he was not of know- 
ledge of the settyng up of them." 

The vicar of Boughton-Blean confessed " that on Sunday 
last there stood the topps of the tabernacles undefaced, but 
that night admonished by the Soinnar he tooke them down 
and burned part and gave part to the poor." 

* The niche for the processional cross still remains on the north side of tie 
altar in the church of St. Mary at Sandwich. 


The curate of Godmersham said "that there standeth a 
whole table of ymages, not defaced, taken down from the 
high Aulter." 

Administration of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 

1548, May 29th. The rector of Sandhurst said that 
" uppon Easter day last past the sacrament was ministered 
to his parishioners under ye kynde of bread e onely he beying 
parte thereto and knowing the same, and further that dyvers 
of his parishioners required to have it ministered to them in 
both kynds, and saith that about a sevenyght afore Easter 
he receaved a boke of Communion sente hym by the 

Andrew Warde, a parishioner of Sandhurst, deposed 
"that the said parson upon Easter day after Evensong said 
openly that it was against his conscience to ministre the 
Communion in manner and form as it is sett forth." 

The curate of Sandhurst confessed that " he did minister 
but in one kynde, because his Master woulde not suffer hym 
to minister in both kynds." 

The vicar of Wymingswold confessed that he had said 
" that the naturall breade was transformed by the mightie 
wourde of God into the body and bloode of Christe after 
consecration, and that after the saide consecration, he 
beleiveth that there remayneth no materyall breade." 
Also, " that upon Easter day laste paste he saide ij masses, 
and at his first masse being about viij of the clocke there 
was about xxx persons to communicate, to whom he minis- 
tered it under the kynde of breade onely, and did not rede 
unto them the exhortacions and other things appointed by 
the book of Communion, neyther made them any other 
exhortacon, and further saide come all you that have made 
auricular confession and hear masse." 

William Jackson, a parishioner of Deal, testified that he 
had heard " the parson of Deal say and affirm that the body 
of Christe was really and naturally in the Sacrament after 
the consecration, and no breade, and that (belief) he saide 
he would dye in." Also, " that upon Sher-thursday he sawe 


divers of the parish of Deale with the said parson at con- 
fession, to whom, immediately after he sawe the said parson 
ministre the breade holle (whole), and to other that were not 
confessed he ministered the same broken." 

Leonard Reynold, the rector of Deal, was called and 
confessed " that he hath said, and now doth say, and affirm, 
that in the Sacrament of the Aulter after the words of 
consecration there remayueth no bread but the body of 
Christ really." 

26 February 1550. George Jones, curate of Lenham, 
replied to some article dealing with the manner in which he 
celebrated the Holy Eucharist, that his practice was as 
follows : " that from the beginning of the service at the 
aulter unto such tyme the Gospel be redd or doon, the deske 
with the boke standeth on the right hand of the aulter,* 
and after that he removeth the boke to the lyfte syde of the 
alter, and after the post-communion he removeth it to the 
other syde of the alter agayne where it stoode fyrst." 

14 October 1550. Vincent Beice, freeman, of Goodnestone 
next Winghain, deposed that Reginald Boke, vicar of 
Newington next Hythe, on All Saints' day last past, had 
said in the parish Church of Newington, "that the Chalice 
handled by a temporal man's hand was prophaned, and that 
he would sing with none such, which words were reported to 
the parson of Mongeham, Deputy to Mr. Commissary, who 
openly in the Commissary's Court gave him rebukes for his 

* Technically the right side of the altar is the Gospel-side and the left the 
Epistle-side, but this is of course reversed when the sides are considered in relation 
to the celebrant. See Gavantus' Thesaurus Sacrorum Rituum, 1763, i., p. 179 : 
" Accedit ad cornu ejus sinistri id est Epistolae ubi stans versus altare," etc. ; 
to which Cajetan adds the following note: "Accedit ad sinistrum cornu altaris 
id est Epistolae, quod quidem cornu Epistolae dici potest pars altaris dextera 
sicut et cornu Evangelii .... dicitur pars altaris sinistra .... respectu 
celebrantis qui dum est ad altare facie ad illud versa a dexteris habet cornu 
Epistolae, a simstro vero cornu Evangelie." 

The Rev. S. Baring Gould, in an article contributed recently to the Guardian 
newspaper, states that in pre-Reformation times it was the custom at Low 
Mass for the priest to begin the office at the north or Gospel side of the 
altar, and asserts that the rubric relating to the position of the celebrant in the 
Prayer Book was a concession to those who already were accustomed to that 
use, but he gives no authority for the statement, and it is doubtful whether 
it receives any corroboration from the above evidence. 




superstitious opinions, and for proof thereof declared to him 
the Scriptures, and also the King's proceedings." 

The Vicar, however, stoutly maintained his opinion, and 
declared from the pulpit of his parish church that "the 
Commissary had not to do for the reformation of things 
doubtful for the service of the Church, but only the bishop 
of the diocese, and whosoever presumed to take the Chalice 
in his hands sought his own damnation.'"' 

A curious feature in this evidence is the fact that the 
witness also deposed that he had received the Communion at 
the vicar's hands and " felt no evil savour thereat"; he 
alleged, however, that "divers of the said parish of Newing- 
ton say that the said Vicar's hand is so sore divers times in 
the year that they could not find in their hearts to receive 
the Communion at his hands." 

At Faversham it was alleged against the vicar that he 
had said to the deponent's wife " except she did believe 
in the Sacrament of the altar, meaning the pixes which 
hang over the altar, she could not be saved." 

It was also alleged that "when the said Vicar ministereth 
the Communion, he eateth one cake whole himself, and 
drinketh iii suppes after the same, but he breaketh it in 
pieces to other." 

Thomas Worceter, a parishioner of Challock, deposed 
that Sir John Cheard, vicar of Godmersham and Challock, 
did " upon St. George's day last past affirm that the Com- 
munion ministered as yet of any curate was and is of none 
effect." Also that "those ministers who did minister the 
Communion to their parishioners (no other commandment 
being as yet therefor \_sic~]) be knaves and traitors." The 
said vicar had also publicly declared that in his opinion 
" the Six- Articles stand still in strength and efficacy, and 
that he would abide by them surely, for three of them pertain 
to the Sacrament of the altar, and the other three stand in 
a condary (? quandary) ; what he meant by this condary 
this deponent cannot tell," 

The vicar meant, probably, that there was some uncer- 
tainty as to binding force of three of the Articles, viz., those 


relating to the marriage of priests, the observation of vows 
of chastity, and the necessity of auricular confession. 

The Reading of the Epistle and Gospel in English. 

29th May 1548. The rector of Sandhurst said that 
" before the bible was stolen, which was about a month ago, 
there was read in his church every Mass the Gospel and 
Epistle in English, and one chapiter of the New Testament, 
and another of the oulde." One of the parishioners, however, 
alleged that u he omitted to read the Epistle and Gospel in 
English upon Sundays and holy days, and that there hath 
no part of the New Testament been read at Matins in 
English, but part of the oulde Testament divers times at 
evensong"; and, further, "that the parson affirmed openly 
in the chauncell of the said church that there should be 
neither Epistle nor Gospel read in English in his church till 
he knew more." 

Roger Harman, rector of Deal, said that his practice was 
to read the Epistle and Gospel first in Latin at the altar, 
and then to come down and read them in English in the 

One of the parishioners of Deal deposed that the parson 
whenever he read anything in English "putteth on his 
spectacles, and maketh such jerking and hemming that the 
people cannot understand him, yet when he readeth the 
Latin service in the Quire he doeth it without his spectacles 
and readeth it so distinctly and plainly that every man may 
hear." To this the rector replied that " he always readeth 
the Legends in Latin in the Quire having on his spectacles. 
When he readeth any other service in Latin in the Quire he 
hath his spectacles on likewise .... When he readeth the 
Bible in English in the body of the Church he doeth it with 
his spectacles on, though the Choir is darker than the body 
of the Church." 

From this it seems clear that some of the clergy found 
it easier to read the Latin, with which they were familiar^ 
than the new English translation, which was strange to 
them. Force of habit, too, made the curate of Lenham 

h 2 



revert to the old formula when baptizing a child, for it was 
objected to him that he "Christened a child at Lenham, and 
then spake these words in Latin and not in English : Ego 

baptizo te in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus sancti. Amen." 

Reading the Bible, Homilies and Sermons, 

The curate of Sandhurst confessed that he sometimes 
omitted reading part of a homily " by reason of a marriage, 
or burial or such like impediment." 

The vicar of JBoughton under Blean confessed that on 
one occasion before evensong he began to read Vinyon's [?] 
" first sermon concerning the sacrament, none being present 
but one so far as he perceived, but afterwards divers of his 
parishioners resorted unto him, of whom one desired him to 
read up that they might hear, and so he did, until it began 
to treat of the transubstantiation and there he left." 

He denied that he had dissuaded his parishioners from 
reading the Bible, but confessed that he had said " that all 
the heryticks bringeth their auctoritie oute of the Bible." 

The curate of St. George's, Canterbury, confessed that 
" upon mass time he read to the parishioners of St. George's 
ye book word by word, commonly called ye Institution of a 
Christian Man, or the King's booke, unto these words, viz., 
' furthermore here is to be noted as teaching the receiving 
of Sacraments,'" exclusive." 

The vicar of Wymingswold neglected to read the King's 
Injunctions, "being lett by an unprofitable sermon." 

Robert Wilson, rector of Hinxhill, said that " he hath 
had every quarter since Christmas last a sermon saving this 
quarter, and that when he readeth the homilies, he readeth 
sometime a whole homily, sometime but half, and leaveth 
the rest unread until next Sunday." 

The curate of Godmersham confessed that " he did forbid 
Robert Mascall the reading of the Bible in the church of 
Godmersham, and then he read unto him .... an article 
made in King Henry Ylllth his days against reading of the 
Scriptures by certain persons .... He hath had but 
ij sermons. Since the King's Majesty's last visitation he 


hath read the homilies but once over .... When ix lessons 
should be read he hath not left out iij lessons with their 
responds .... that the day articulate he did only read the 
xiii Chapiter of St. Mark, without any declaration or adding 

William Jackson, parishioner of Deal, aged 32, deposed 
that the parson did discourage him and other persons from 
reading of the Scriptures in English, saying to this deponent 
ee you oughteth not to read it, it doth pass your capacity, it 
is fit for such men as be learned." 

On the other hand another witness, who naively confessed 
" that he hath not been very much used to go to church," 
said that " for the time that he hath been there he hath not 
heard the parson to discourage any man from reading of 
the Scripture, but contrariwise he hath heard him move 
them to it." 

The same witness said " that he hath seen the said parson 
drink immoderately, and be discomforted with drink, but he 
did not remember that he hath seen him beastly drunk." 
As for sermons, he said " the Master of St. John's College 
in Cambridge made a sermon there (Deal) at the instance of 
Mr. Qwyter, who he thinketh to be the parson's friend." 

This was corroborated by another witness, who added : 
" there hath been divers sermons by Huntingdon, Mr. Swyn- 
ner and others, but by whose commandment he cannot tell. 
The parson doth read the Scripture, but not expound it." 

The rector said that in Advent " he made a sermon, but 
since that time neither he nor anyone by his procurement 
preached there ; but there hath been every quarter one 
sermon at the least by the procurement of Mr. Tucke and 
Mr. Qwytter." 

Stephen Nethersole, curate of Waldershare, confessed 
that he had ce many times omitted to read the homilies, 
sometimes for that he was disteased [sic], sometimes at the 
request of Mr. Edward Monnyngs either when he was 
disteased, or had strangers, and other times he saith he read 
them accordingly." 

At St. John's Church in Thanet one Mr, Turner had 


preached a sermon on St. John's day. The vicar of the 
parish was called to give an account of this discourse, and 
deposed as follows : " The said Mr. Turner taught that it 
was the office of a parson, vicar, or other pastor of Christes 
Church to preach God's word truly, and to minister the 
Sacraments"; further, "that he said that mass, matins, and 
evensong were not to be said, for the mass was superstitious 
ipocrysie and heresie, and against the King's statute, and 
with that he took out a boke of the statutes and read it." 

Of the vicar of Faversham it was said that he had not 
been heard to encourage any man to the reading of the 
Scripture, but contrariwise he had been heard to rebuke 
some for reading it. 

The vicar of Godmersham was accused of saying in the 
church pulpit "that no layman ought to dispute, teach or 
hold opinion in the Gospel except a Master of Arts> or a 
spiritual man admitted by the ordinary." 


At Sandhurst candles were still placed on biers at burials, 
and women who came to be " churched " brought one. 

The curate,, however, said "that the setting up of the 
paschal and sepulchre candles was done without his know- 
ledge." At Hinxhill, "at the burial of Nicholas Avery's 
wife, there were four tapers burning about the corpse syns 
this Easter last past." 

At Godmersham the candles " were set upon the lamps 
below the Rood," but the vicar said it was done " by certen 
women on Candlemas day last past," and that he never knew 
of it "till such time as the judge did lay the same to his 
charge in the Church." 

Poor men's box. 

The curate of Sandhurst confessed that he "had not 
called upon, exhorted, and moved his parishioners since the 
King's Majesty's last Visitation, to give to the said poor 
men's box, neither moved them to bestow upon the same 


that which they were wont to bestow upon pardons, 
pilgrimages, trentalls, and other such blind devotions." 

Commination Service. 

Cranmer's Ash Wednesday office appears to have been 
unpopular from the very first with lay folk, since the curate 
of Waldershare in excuse for his alleged neglect to use the 
service deposed as follows : "that Mrs. Engham of the parish 
of Alkham, hearing that on Ash Wednesday the publick 
cursing should be read in the parish Church of Alkham, 
came to Waldershare, and Mr. Edward Monnyngs and she 
coming to the said Church of Waldershare, the said 
Mr. Monnyngs desired this deponent to defer the reading of 
the cursings, and so he did till all the other service was 
done, and then he read the said cursing openly standing in 
ye body of the Church. And further he read the declaration 
going before the said cursing, and declared to the people 
that they should say Amen." 

Destruction of Altars. 

On 31 October 1550, Eichard Syrapnell, vicar of Petham, 
certified that the altars in his church were destroyed. 

7 November 1550. Christopher Hawke, rector of 
Bircholt, certified that the altars in his church were 
abolished, and asked to be relieved of the sentence of 
excommunication which had been pronounced against him 
for non-compliance with the order ; and the judge absolved 

On the same date Master Richard Master, rector of 
Aldington, made a similar application, and his petition was 
granted on condition that he destroyed all the altars in the 
church of Aldington within one week, and certified to the 
Court that this had been done. 

The churchwardens of Great Chart appeared, on the same 
day, and made a similar request, certifying that all the 
altars in the church of Great Chart were now destroyed. 

80 November 1550. Certain parishioners of the parishes 
of Wye and Eastling appeared and confessed that they were 


present at the visitation and heard the publication of "my 
lord of Canterbury's injunctions for pulling down of Altars." 

The churchwardens of Lynsted said that they were 
present at the visitation, but did not hear distinctly the 
tenor of the injunctions. 

The parishioners of Sevington confessed that the altars 
in their church had not been destroyed, and they were 
ordered to appear again on the Sunday following and bring 
a certificate that the work had been done. 

The parishioners of the parishes of Mersham, Boughton- 
Aluph, Eastwell, Brabourne and Elmstead confessed that 
the altars had not been destroyed at the proper time (tempore 
congruo), but asserted that this had now been done and a 
table set up in the place of the destroyed altars (altaria 
destructa sunt et mensa erecta). At the same time the vicar 
of Boughton-Aluph was presented for saying " that the best 
of Ynglond wold not say that by the law altars should be 
pulled down." When asked what he meant by the best he 
answered " he meaneth nobody." 

The parishioners of Throwley appeared and swore to be 
obedient to the mandate, and said that all altars in their 
church were destroyed before the monition except one 
standing in a chapel called Mr. Sondes' chapel, which, 
however, was " now also defaced." 

In 1551 the vicar of Blean was presented for having set 
up in his church a table that resembled an altar (modo altaris). 
The vicar allowed that there was no difference between the 
table and the altar " saving the one was stone and the other 
wood," and that the table " hath no ornaments or clothes." 
The judge ordered that on the day following, the vicar, 
before his parishioners, u should breke down the bords and 
declare that he hath done evill in suffering it," and that he 
should certify that this had been done. 

Abolition of the Old Latin Service Books. 

10 July 1550. The vicars of Appledore, SS. Mary and 
Clement, Sandwich, the rectors of St. Peter's, Sandwich, 
Snave and Boughton Malherbe appeared before the Court 

Illustrating the reformation in kent. 105 

and swore that the old service books were done away with 
(aboliti fuerunt) . 

Richard Eton, curate of Old Romney, also appeared and 
said that, though the matter did not rest with him, the 
books were abolished. 

William Lancaster, rector of Pluckley, swore that the 
books were sold before the monition for their removal was 
received, and said that they were in the custody of one 
Dorothy Bettenham. 

Thomas Bible, curate of Egerton, said that the books 
were sold to one Walter Biadforthe before the monition was 

Some of the ancient service books and ornaments which 
found their way into private hands became a source of 
danger to their possessors at a later date, since we learn 
that in 1562 John Berry, a parishioner of Sturry, was 
charged with keeping in his house " upon his walls the 
painting of the rode, and other y mages "; and Randall 
Tatnall of St. Andrew's, Canterbury, with having in his 
possession " a masse booke with other Lattyn bookes." 

The Marian " Presentments " which follow shew that in 
addition to the destruction which had been carried out by 
authority in the previous reign, there had been much 
embezzlement of church goods, stock and even of lands by 
private persons. At Folkestone one of the jurats had not 
only pulled down the altar of St. George, for which he may 
have had authority, but also the whole aisle of the church in 
which the altar stood, for which act he certainly had none. 
Well Chapel (the ruins of which are still standing in the 
water-meadows between Bekesbourne and Littlebourne) was 
reported to be used as a store for hog-skins, a weaver's 
workshop and a kennel for hounds. It would appear that 
for some years before this report was made the chapel had 
been used for Divine service only once a year, namely, at 
Rogation-tide, but owing to the above sacrilegious uses to 
which it had been recently put even this annual mass could 
not be said. 

The persecutions of Protestants, for which the reign of 



Queen Mary is infamous, are hinted at in the return from 
Hythe, which gives a long list of persons whose only crime 
was that they had accompanied to Canterbury some of their 
fellow townsmen who had fallen under the ecclesiastical 
ban and had visited them when in custody there. A charitable 
work for which these names should be held in honour. 

' Presentments temp. Queen Mary.* 


William Knight for that he did jest and rayle of the Grospell 
when the priest did read it in the pulpit. And did say that he 
played " Jack apye." 

The wife of Robert West of Elham for not doing reverence to 
the blessed sacraments but holdith downe her hed at the elevation 

Wot ton. 

Robert, the servant of William Wybourn, carpenter, for sytting 
behind a pillar in the Church at the elevation tyme, and doth no 
reverence thereunto. 


The presentments of the jury of the parish of Hithe. 

Raffe Hassilherst and his wif, John Mychell and his wife, 
Thomas Jekys and his wif, Giles Ellyworthe, John Bredgeman, 
Roger Mome and his wif, William Baddell, John Vygors and his 
wif, Thomas Snellyng and his wif, olde father Edwards, Margaret 
Eeryar, William Tysted, w* many more did visit the prysoners 
w* us at Hith ymprisoned for heresy e. 

John Cery, John Horton's wif, John Bredgeman, Thomas 
Walloppe, John Yigores, Thomas a Stone, Laurence Cole, John 
Patt, Griles Ellingworthe presented for that they were w* the 
prysoners in the Castell of Canterbury. 

John Vigores, John Huggyn presented for that at the tyme 
that the prysoners were caryed to Canterbury they said to the 
baylif that he had pulled down ther M ties armes and in stede 
thereof had set up an Idol w* other opprobrious wordes. 

# There are no dates in the book containing these presentments, nor any- 
thing to indicate the nature of the Court. 



Thomas Engelham, gentilman, and his wif and certen of his 
housholde presented for that they have not been at the parish 
Church by one moneth before this presentment, and that the said 
Thomas nor his wif have not ben at Church at the tyme of gevir.g 
the hollywater nor hath gon in procession sythen the command- 
ment was they sholde. 


James Justice hath a byble in his house whether it be good or 
no, it is not knowen unto the priest. 


They present that the Chappell of Well is putte to a prophane 
use for wher the parish of Ickham were accustomyed in the 
rogation weke to have Masse song ther, now ther is nothing wher 
w* all to minister. And ther was such a savor of hogg skynnes 
that no man colde abide in the Chappell for stinck thereof. 

Item they present Mr. Isaac for that he hath made lofts ther, 
in the said Chappell for corne and haye, so that divyne service 
cannot be ther mynystred. And also hath made ther a workhouse 
for a wever and a kennell for his hounds. 


Four persons presented for refusing holybread, holywater, to 
kiss the pax, or to go in procession. 


James Chapman presented because he ayded Sir James Peers and 
his wife in his house they being disobedient to the quene's lawes. 

William Parker presented for keping of the said Sir James 
Peers wife in his house a long tyme and that she never coming to 
the Church, and despyseth the laudable ceremonyes and sacraments, 
and went away when she sholde have receyved the Sacrament at 
Ester, and sayeth that she wolde go over sea to her husband. 


The Priest's wife, late of Chartham, for saying if Christ were 
here agayne Jie shpMe be newe torne, and she will not come to the 



N aching ton. 

They present that the Chauncel ther is sore in ruyne and decay, 
that the priest cannot stande drye, and that they have no priest 
ther to mynyster. 

St. Laurence. 

They present that the Chauncell and Church ther is sore 
decayed and in gret ruyne, and that they have no priest. 

Bur marsh. 

Roger Burton presented for that beyng Churchwarden ther did 
sell xx 11 of waxe and xxviii bowls of pewter, and a holly water pot 
of latten, and payre of sensers, and iiij s in ready money, whereof 
he hath yelded no accompt. 


George Mylles of our ladye parish in Canterbury next the dong- 
hill presented for witholding of iiij kyen of the Church of Mers- 
hain, which Thomas Hill his predecessor had, whereof three of 
them be wyndowe kyen and paye by the yere a xx d a pece, and the 
fowerth a brothered kowe and payth by the yere xii d . 


James Allyn presented for that he hath a parte of the woodwork 
of the chauncell of S* Martyn Church, and we cannot learne 
whether the Church Wardens have ben paid for it. 


Peter Hay man, gentilman, late of Sellenge, deceased, had a 
challice of Bilsington parish in gage for xiij s iiij d , being wurthe 
iiij 1 ', and the said Challice yet remaynith in th'executor's handes of 
the said Peter. 


"William Sanders of Woodnesborowe and William Hawdwyn of 
Chislet for pullyng of certin seales from deedes belonging to the 
Church of Chislet, and that by that menes the said William San- 
dees did sell avvaye a pece of land of the Churchis called ' holly- 
bred ' land, and the said William Sanders sold another pece of land 
called Grottoppis, conteyning three acres, given for the maintenance 
of a great bell. 



William Sanders presented for that he witholdith a Church 
kowe, wherwith the paskall was alwaies maynteyned. 


Thomas Bet presented for v^holding of xj tapers from the 
Church, which tapers did berne in the rodeloft besyde the Chauntry 
of our ladye. 


Anthony Maye of Fordwich presented for w^iolding of certen 
goodes from the Church and hath nor will make any accompt, and 
also pulled down the rode w* Mary and John. And also he had 
xv bolles of pewter and a bar of iron that was in the rode loft. 

John Parker of Stodmarsh for w t holding of a vestment of blewe 
sattyn, and that he had awayd the sepulchre there. 

They present that ther were two houses taken from the said 
Church ; and that their steple is like to falle and that they have 
nothing to repaire it w'all unless they may have the said two 


John Plane presented for that he doth w^olde one Challice from 
the Church of S l Peter's in Dover. Edmonde Mychell had the 
best Challice belonging to our lady Church of Dover, and doth w* 
hold the same without recompence. Mr. Foxeley presented for 
that he loste one challice weying x unc', whereof he hath paid xl s . 

Overland. (A chapelry in Ash next Sandwich.) 

They present that the Chapel of Overland is destytute of a 

Barson (Barfreston). 

Syr Roger Jackson, parson of Barson, presented for that he 
did pull downe the rood ther and brake it in peces. 


Edmonde Moryce of Wingham, and Thomas Kye of Groddinson 
presented for that they wilfully destroyed v tables of alabaster 
which were taken from the aulters & set in the vestry. 



Mr. William Hamond presented for that he toke away the 
roodelofte, and the fownte, a crosse covered w* lead, a crosse 
covered w* iron, certen led out of the steple to let in pygyons, and 
cut off the crosse beame that lay crosse the chauncell. 


They present that one Syr Robert Pele, sumtyme Vicar of 
Chilham, gare two hundred pounds in money to the fellowship of 
the Clothworkers in London, to the intent that the said fellowship 
sholde paye yerely for to a priest to sing and playe on the 
organes, and sarve Grod in the Church of Chilham aforesaid nyne 
poundes six shillings and eight pence, which said pensyon of nyne 
pounds was taken from us, and be w^olden this x years. 


The executors of Syr William Haut presented for that he the 
said Syr William did take away two super-altars and converted 
them to his own use, and one crosse of stone standing in the 
Church yard, and made no accompt for ye same. And more, he 
toke awaye one grete table of the picture of Sainte Christopher yt 
hanged in the Church by chaynes, and hokes of iron, the tables of 
imagery and alabaster upon the high alter, and the Crucyfixe and 
all other imagerye in the Church, the vestry made of tymber, and 
never made any accompts thereof. 

They present that Nicholas Fraunces and Richard Arford, sum- 
tymes Churchwardens of Stowting, solde one challice conteyning 
xij unc, amounting to xlviii s , to Edmond Not, whereof the said 
Edmond laid out certen money, but how much they know not. 


William Baker, Jurate, presented for taking down of th'aulter 
of Saint George, and the hole ile ; and a pece of a braunch of 
certen lattyn candlesticks to his proper use converted them. 

Mr. Gloddyn and Tho. Keys presented for that when they were 
Churchwardens did pull downe the rodeloft and did take away 
certen brasse bemys (?) in the moments {sic) of the tombes, as well 
w l in the quier as w l out. And that the said Thomas Keys did take 
down the tabernacle over the high aulter w fc all the ornament thereto 
belonging and converted it to his own use. And the said Thomas 
hath in handes a house of xij d a yere out of a pece of land y* sholde 
fynd a canape light to bern before the sacrament. 


Extracts from the Accounts of the Treasurer of 
Canterbury Cathedral. 

Edwardian. 1547-8. [John Ponet, Treasurer.] 

Money paid for destroying (extirpatione) images this 
year, altogether, according to agreement . . . [blank] 

Also money paid for deforming the windows in the 
Common-hall, and destroying divers feigned histories, 
as per bill . . . . . . . 3 s 4 d 

* #'■..# * * 
Also money paid for William D even y she, clerk, a 

prebendary of the Church to gc to London on Church 
business, and for waiting on the council of our Lord the 
King about handing over the silver vessels and the altar- 
table (vasorum argentorum et tabulae altaris) as per bill* 61 s ll d 

* # # # * 

Also money paid for divers books, both the bible and 
the paraphrase of Erasmus, bought and provided for 
divers Churches in this year. [The Church of Westcliffe 
received a Bible, and St. Peter's in Thanet (for Callis 
Grange), Littlebourne, Ticehurst and Sheldwich copies of 
the paraphrase of Erasmus.] .... 19 s 10 d 

* # * # * 

The accountant charges himself with the sum of £169 9 s 8 d , the 
price received for divers vessels and plate (jocalia) of silver, sold 
by him with the consent of the Chapter to John Busshe ; whereof 
45 H 8i oz. were of silver-gilt, valued at 5 s 4 d per oz., and 8 H 3^ oz. 
of white silver at 3 s 8 d per oz. ; and with 141 H 8 s 4 d in like manner 
received by him for the price of other vessels and plate of silver, 
sold to the said John Busshe, within the time of this account, 
whereof 253 oz., = 67 u 9 s 4 d , was of silver-gilt at 5 s 3 d per oz.; 
175 oz. of white silver at 3 s 4 d per oz. = 40 li 19 s ; 280 oz. of com- 
moner (deterioris) silver at 2 s 4 d per oz. = 32 u 13 s 4 d . 

[The remainder of the page is torn and cannot be read in its 
entirety, but the entries relate to money received for copper 
ornaments and utensils, amongst which are " the five brass candle- 
sticks of Archbishop Sudbury."] 

* This refers probably to the splendid silver tabula erected by Prior Thomas 
€hillenden. See Archoeologia Cantiana, Vol. XXIX., p. 71. 

112 EXTRACTS I s ROM original documents 


Paid for xxvj psalters of the gretter sort for the quere . lij s 

It. for a boke of hornelys for the quere . . . xvj d 

Paid to M r Ykhain for bakyng irons for singing bread . x s 

iij s 

ii s vij d 

Marian. 1553. [John Myllys and Hugh Grlasyer, treasurers.] 

To Colman for pryekyng* of iiii books for to set forth the 

old service . . . . . . x s 

To Absolom for mending the vele (Lenten-veil) f . . iii s iiij d 

To Colman servant of Mersham bringing an antyphonar 

to help serve the quere . . • . xii d 

Item, making of vestments, albes, stoles, phanells and 

buckeram ...... 

Itm, for vj greyles in parchment, and one legend in 

ij volams 

Item, to Sir John Hauke for processionalls, and Imnalls 

(hymnals) ...... 

Item, to the parson of All hallows for binding of vij of 

them . . . . . 

Item, for a cross, and candlestyks and other necessaries 

for the Church to Mr. Cornewalle . . vj u viij s iiij 

Item, to the Vicar of Saint Poulis for an antyphonar and 

a grayle ...... 

Itm, to Mychale Dyryk for one antyphonar and a my sail . 
Itm, to M r Prenshe for iiij antyphonars 
Itm, for a large calves skyn to cover the great antyphonar 
Itm, to Andrew for making of parels (apparels) for albes 
Itm, for the carredge of iiij antyphonars to Paversham 

to bynd .... 
Itm, for viij processionals and Imnalls 
Itm, to M 1 ' Pysher for an antiphonar 
Itm, for bynding the same . 
Itm, for xiiij calveskyns to cover the books 
Itm, xij sheep skyns for lyning for them . 
Itm, for a dozen claspes for them 
Itm, for one paier of copper and gylt 
Itm, ix bosses ...... xiiij 4 

liij s iiij c 
"j 1 


3 viij c 


xij d 
xl s 

Vijs ijd 

xiij s viij d 
v s iiij d 

iiij 8 
x d 

* That is, putting in the musical notation. 

t One of the pulleys for raising or lowering the Lenten-veil is still attached 
to the pier next to Archbishop Kemp's monument. 


Itm, paid for mending the great Qrgaynes, glew, lether, 

and other charges to labourers 
Itm, to Jule for caryeng of little Selby to Wynesor # 
Itm, to Bull for his charge to London to save our queresters 
Itm, to a manuell ...... 

Itm, for paynting the Sepulchre {Easter) and other 

necessaries . , . . 

Itm, to the Proymis man for redlinering {rubricating) of 

the antiphonar 
Itm, for pryekyng of squares 
Itm, for a holywater stopp {stoup) 
Item, a sprinkler to the same 
Item, for iiij corporas cloths 
Itm, to Mychel, booke bynder, for one myssall and one 

antyphoner ..... xlvj 
Itm, in expensis uppon M 1 ' Hake and in regard for that 

he promysed us his comyssion to take upp children 

to serve our church at any tyme 
Itm, to M r Fisher jorning abowt the ij convicts {i.e., 

heretics) to Sandwich at ij times 
Itm, to Jenks for a legenda in print 
Item, to Sir Hauke for yj new processionals 
Item, for iiij pounde of frankinsens 

Item, to Kaff: Rogers for one antyphyner and mending 

the same when it lacked 
Item, for binding of v antiphyners at Feversham w f bourds, 

shepskyns and glew 
Itm, for xij yeards of here cloth for alters of the Church 

at v d the yeard 
Itm, to M r Cornewall for the foote of the crosse 
Itm, for iij graylys to the Bishopp of Dover 

xliiij s 
vij d 

iiij 8 

xij d 
xij d 

V s 

iiij d 
iiij s viij d 

viij d 

xiiij s 

ix s viii d 
x s iiij d 

xiiij 8 

XV s 

iij u xvj d 

. xliij s vij c 

V] 3 vnj c 
iij 1 


In primis to Sir Thos. Weston for a altar booke of 
parchement for ye quere .... 
Itm, paid to the said Sir Thomas for a messall 

ill] 1 

* " Little " Selby was the son of the Cathedral organist ; apparently he was 
impressed to serve in the choir of the Chapel Royal at Windsor. The next 
entry shews that so serious a raid had been made on the Canterbury choir-boys 
that their master, Thomas Bull, had to make a journey to London, presumably 
to protest against the high-handed proceedings of those persons who held Com- 
missions "to take up boys " for the Royal Chapels. 



Itm, paid to M r Odyam for a mesall . . . ii 8 vj d 

Itm, paid to Bourn for an Imnall to serve the quere . xx d 
Itm, to William Swift for a Sal tar Book . . . viij d 

Itm, paid for two antiphoners, and a legend for the quere 

at Loudon . , . . . iiij H 

Itm, paid to M 1 ' Boncer for iiij messalls xl s 
Itm, paid to John Marden for pricking of Gloria in 

ecccelsis, Sf Agnus Sanctus in the Eed Book . . iij s iiij d 

Itm, to Sir George Erevell for writing of S* Thomas' 

Legends* ...... xii d 

Itm, to the Booke-Bynder for byndyng & covering of 

three parts of the pontify calls . . . viij s 

Itm, paid to M 1 ' Brymmer for a Challes w* a patten weing 

xij onz. one q 1 ' & a half at vj s viij d the onz. . iiij 11 ij s vj d 

Itm, paid for a paire of Organs for our Lady quere 

carydg, and setting uppe . . . vj u xviij s iiij d 

Itm, paid to M r Warren for a paire of crewets, a paxe, 

and a sacaryng Bell ..... xviij d 
Itm, to him for three crewets bought at London . . xviij d 

Itm, paid to Robert Absolom for a vestment w t all things 

belonging except an awbe . . . xxvj s viij d 

Itm, paid to the said Robert for two tunicles to make two 

vestments with .... xxvj s viij d 

Itm, paid to the said Robert for two foref runts for two 

altars, & fringes for the same . . , iiijs 

Itm, paid for xviij yerdes of reed and russett silke for 

two tunycles when any Bishop shall selebrat, ut patet 

per hillam . . . . . . iiij s 

Itm, paid for two elles of whit silk for two curtains for 

the altar in ye Cardinalls chap pell f . . . vj s 

V11 .l 

Itm, for silk, layce and rings for the same curtains vj d 
Itm, paid for the carydg of two antiphoners & the mes- 

sals from Faversham to Canterbury . . . viij d 

Itm, paid to John Marden for his expenses into the Wilde 

(Weald) of Kent to bye the Organs for our Lady quere y s 
Itm, paid to M v Erevell for all the glasse in his studdye 

* This, and a similar entry on the next page, are of special interest, since 
they shew that in Queen Mary's days an attempt was made to revive the cult 
of St. Thomas of Canterbury. 

f The old Almonry Chapel in the Mint yard was granted by the Queen to 
Pole, who bequeathed it in his will to tlie J)ean and Chapter for the use of 
their Grammar School. 


chamber windows, and two windows in his studdye 
above there to remayne per Capit . . . xxx s 

Itm, paid for painting of the Crusyfyx and the xij Apostles 

in the Cardinalls Chappell . . . . . iij s iiij d 


Itm, to two men of Tenterden the xj th December toward 

their charges in bringing of a Convict (heretic) . iij s 

Itm, paid to John Pensay the xiiij daie of January for 
his fee for keeping of convicts from Michaelmas to the 
said daie, ut patet .... xxxix s vij d ob. 

Itm, paid to the said John Pensay at our Lady day for his 

fee, and for the convicts, ut patet . . xxiii s x d ob. 

Itm, paid my Lord of Dover (Hich. Thornden) for his 
expenses to London at the consecration of my Lord 
Cardynalls grace ,-. . . . . iij ]i x s 

Itm, paid to Thomas Callowe for reserving of certain 

books called pontificalls .... x s 

1557. Receipts. 

Eec. of Valentine Astene for a benevolence towards 

buying of a Chalice ..... iiij h 

Rec. of M r Ycham,* sexton, for oblations in the Church, 

per annum ..... xxxix s v d ob. 

Rec. towards the buying of a paire of Organs for the 

Church ...... ix u 


Paid to M 1 ' Fysher for iiij processional Is . . . viij s 

Itm, to Tannar for an Imnall .... xviij d 
Itm, to him for a Saltar ..... iiij d 
Itm, to him for an Antem of our lady of v partes . xij d 

Itm, to M r Bull for dyvers sonnges as appereth in an 

Inventory of his own hand .... liij s iiij d 
Itm, paid to Jo Marden for prickynge of S* Thomas' 
storrye, and correcting and mending of dyvers other 
boks in ye quere ..... xiij s iiij d 
Itm, paid to M 1 ' Westus for an ordinall for the quere xxiij s iiij d 
Itm, paid to M 1 ' Bull for a desk for o 1 ' Ladye Chapell . xx d 

* Thomas Ickham, Minor Canon and Sacrist ; he had been a member of the 
old foundation, 

i 2 


Itm, paid to Thomas Itainold for one Chalice parcell gylt 

w* out a cover, weing viij oz. di price the oz. v s . xlij 8 vj d 
Itm, paid Nic. Brymmer for the sylver for a pattene to 

the same Chalice, weing 11 oz. di. 1 qr. lacking. 
Itm, for making and gylding of the same Chalice and 

patten . . . . . . v 8 

Itm, for burnishing of the same Chalice . . . xx d 

Itm, paid to Mystres Webbe for a monstrant for the sac- 
rament . . . . . . vj s viij d 

Itm, paid for x elles of cloth for altar Clothes, for v elles 

at xvj d the elle, and the other v after xiiij d the elle . xij s vj d 
Itm, for ij elles more for to wells and Chalice clothes at 

xiiij d the elle . '. . . ij s iiij d 

Itm, paid for making the same . . . . iiij d 

Itm, paid to Kichard Frencham for mendyng, gluying, 

and tunyng of the Organs in the quere . . xx s 

Itm, paid to John Barar for the shepes skynne and glewe 

for mendyng of the bellowes of the Organs in the 

quere, and for his laboure . . . ij s 

Itm, paid to Thomas Byskuo for making of the rood w 1 

Mary & John & the cross . . . vj 11 xiij s iiij d 

Itm, paid to a Turnar for turning of ye ring for the iiij 

Evangelists for the crosse . . . . iij s 

Itm, for ij pounds of glewe for the same crose . . viij d 

Itm, paid to W m Johnson for painting and gilding of the 

Roode, Marye, and John w f all the furniture vij 11 xiij s iiij d 
Itm, paid to Thomas Byskoo for an ymage of our Ladye 

for our lady chappell ..... xv s 
Itm, paid to iiij laborers for feching and carying of a pair 

of Organs from S l Georges & thither againe . . viij d 

It, paid to certaine laborers carying of the crosse uppe to 

the crowne of the Churche w l Mary and John to be 

gilded and painted ..... xij d 
Itm, paid to xij laborers ij daies abowt the reringe of the 

crosse w t all the furniture and pulling at the wiensh 
(winch) at vj d the pece a day .... xij s 
Itm, paid for a Chalys . . . , . lix s vij d 

Itm, for making of the picture of Christ and O r Lady . xv H iiij 


Setting up an altar yn ye vestry (struck out) 


Paid for setting up of ij alters .... vij s vj d 
For setting up of ij alters to ye masons . . . vijf vj d 


Unfortunately the Treasurers' Accounts for the opening 
years of Queen Elizabeth's reign are missing — they do not 
begin until 1562 — and the Chapter Act books have suffered 
so much injury by fire that the information to be gleaned 
from them at this period is somewhat fragmentary. Hence 
it is impossible to say with certainty how much was done in 
these early years of the reign in the way of casting out again 
those things which bad been acquired quite recently and at 
very considerable cost. The great rood upon which the 
Chapter had spent much money only five years before was 
doubtless one of the things that was destroyed during the 
early years of the reign, since no reference to it is to 
be found at a later date. The piecemeal alienation of 
vestments and ornaments is illustrated by the following 
extracts : — 


Imprimis layed out to Mr. Bale for the nether part of the 

paynted cloths yn the Church . . . xxx s 

For waying of ij Chalises before M r Sentleger . . iij d 

To Brimstone for that he layed out for the Communion 

cuppe above the wayte of ij Chalises . . xxix s vij d 

The Chalises bothe together wayed before M 1 ' Seyntleger 
weare xxvij ounces and 3 q'ters, and weare solde at 
v s ij d the ounce of which wayt one quarter was copper 
and wood which I have to shewe. 

The Communion cups wayed before M r Butler came to 
xxvj ounces lacking half q r -j- 3 and cost vij s the ounce. 

Itm, delivered the Chantor {Precentor) for six books 
writing to serve the quyre according to the order sett 
out for fastyng on the Wensdays . , . xx d 

1565. Chapter Act Books. 

An order was made for selling certain goods of the 


church, but owing to the damaged condition of the record 
only the following words can be deciphered : — 

.... Church goods sold .... used in the Church and .... shall 
be by M 1 ' .... wyth th' advise and consent .... and one or two 
more of the .... and weyed and bestowed .... of a Communion 
cupp and .... for the better furniture of the .... Deane will 
agree thereunto .... 

Itm it < is agreed that all ... . albes and amyces w l theyre 
.... phanells, candlestycks .... and other vessel! s and uten .... 
remaynfng in the vestry .... w* the assent of M r Vic' .... and 
M 1 ' Porye or the .... solde and converted to the .... to be 
imployed and .... 

1564-5. Treasurer s Accounts. 

" I delivered into the plumery lead which I found hid yn the 
belfry of an old holy water stock the weight lviij 11 ." 

Whereas the Chapiter was agreed that my lord's grace shuld 
have stones so that the said stones were halved, M 1 ' Person had for 
my lord's use ij altar stones, which were halved at xx s , and out of 
the undercroft he had xxi stones which were halved at xx s more. 

A note of the stuff that has been delivered by me unto John 
Clark's store : — 

First, a fayre large payne of glasse that was taken out of the 
nave of the Church. 

Item, ij great frames of iron taken down from the vvyndowes of 
the undercroft wythyn the sanctuary gate. 

1569. Chapter Act Boohs. 

"It is agreed that the vestments, and other vestrye stuffe 
remayning in the vestry shall be viewed, and sold, reserving some 
of the copes and the money that shall arryse of the same to be 
bestowed in byeing of necessary armor."* 


" M r Eeceyvor and M r Treasurer shall make sale of the lent 
clothes remayning in the vestrye to M r Pyerson at such pryses as 
they shall thy nke them reasonably worthe." 

* The armour (eorslctts, almain rivets, pikes and bills, etc.) was required 
for the contingent which the Dean and Chapter had to supply to the County 
Militia. In Gostling's time (c. 1770) the stands for the armour still remained 
in the chamber over St. Michael's Chapel. 


The following extracts from the Gomperta et Detecta 
books of the Consistory Court relate to mediaeval furniture 
and ornaments which still lingered in certain parish churches 
in the fourth year of Elizabeth : — 

1562. Ulcombe. 

" It is reported that the tabernacle is standing."* 
" It is reported that the Rood loft door is not closed up, neither 
the stairs taken away ; and (that there is) a place at the end of the 
altar where the books were wont to lay on not stopped up ; and 
(there are) iii seats for the priest, deacon, and subdeacon." 

Mar den. 

" It is presented that there is a vestment alb, with stoles, 
corporas, and one pax, one pix, one bell, one cruet, altar cloths, 
and curtains of silk." 


" It is presented that the upmost part of the Eood loft is not 
taken down, but the middle part thereof." 


" It is presented that the glass windows in the Chancell Chapel, 
and in the Church be undefaced ; the foot stools of stone that the 
IHolls stood on be undefaced ; the place where the priest did sit on 
festival days is undefaced ; the hole where the sepulchre was wont 
to lie is undefaced; the steps in the chancel be standing; the doors 
and stairs of the Rood loft is unmade up ; the holy water stock is 
undefaced ; the place where the cruet stood to wash his hands (sic) 
be undefaced." 

The vicar, Tanguinel Bealik, a Frenchman, confessed that : 
" Upon Friday before Whitsentide last he executed the funerals 
of Mistress Mason deceased, and the same day did say Communion 
at the table appointed for the same stauding at the upper end of 
the Chancel altarwise, and said the Lord's prayer, and the Collect 
his back being towards the people, but at the saying of the 
Commandments he turned himself to the people, aud said them, 
and likewise the Epistle and G-ospel in the body of the Church, and 
saith he ministered the Communion to the friends of the deceased 

* The tabernacle here means probably the carved work whicb once formed 
the reredos of the altar. 



there in the Church, they kneeling before the Communion table as 
it stood nor reversed about as the order is appointed to be done. 
And he saith, that the Vicars of Boxley, Thurnham, and Detlmg 
received there with this deponent, and saith that dead corpse 
remained in the Church unburied till all the service was clean done, 
and saith that he never at any time before used any Communion at 

What the ruling of the Court was we do not know, since 
it is not recorded in the Act Book. It is, however, a curious 
entry and, like others quoted above, capable of being made 
a basis for theological controversy ; but since anything of 
the kind is altogether barred by the rules of our Society, the 
writer is content to give the evidence and to leave to the 
reader the task of drawing his own deductions. 

( 121 ) 




The main purpose of this Paper is to record the plans of 
two timber-framed buildings at Headcorn, which belong to 
a class, as far as I know, undescribed in our Proceedings. 
Timber-framed houses in Kent are numerous, and in many 
instances of considerable interest, but most are of course of 
the usual domestic type. As will be seen in the following 
description, the subjects of this Paper belong to a different 
and rarer class. 

The building I shall first describe is about two hundred 
yards east of Headcorn Church, on the south side of the 
road, towards which it presents its gable, a high pitched 
one, which suggests an early building. There are also other 
old houses on the same side of the road, but they appear to 
be of the normal village types, with their fronts facing the 

The structure in question lies nearly north and south, 
and the main portion is a rectangular building measuring 
32^ by 17^ feet, divided originally into two stories, and 
apparently with only one room on the ground floor and one 
above. Both the ground floor and the next floor have, 
however, been divided into several rooms, and the interior 
has been so covered up with paper and plaster, that it is 
difficult to find any original features, although probably a 
good many exist, though hidden. The chimney stack is of 
a comparatively modern date ; a floor has been inserted 
about 8^ feet above the first floor and about the eaves 
level, and it would be necessary to clear away all these 
inserted features to expose the original construction. In 
the accompanying jplau and section this has been done. 


The building- is framed in three bays, the width of each 
between the main posts (centre to centre) being approxi- 
mately 10 feet, and the unit used in setting out being, I 
think, 104 feet. Mr. R. T. Blomfield, who has given some 
notes on these buildings in the Portfolio* has suggested 
that it may have been one bay longer to the south. There 
is, however, absolutely no evidence available that this was 
the case,- although the other building of the same class (to 
be described) is much prolonged. 

The ground floor was apparently one large low room 
about 7 feet 9 inches high to the under side of the heavy 
girders crossing from main post to main post, and carrying 
the floor of the upper room. These main posts are sub- 
stantial timbers, for they stand nearly 18 feet high, and on 
the ground floor are about 15 inches by 17 or 18 inches. 
They are moulded on the inner edges (see section, Fig. 1), 
and the same moulding is carried round the room as a 
cornice along the horizontal beams in the wall, and also 
along each side of the girders. The staircase was probably 
always where it is indicated in the plan, though now 
modernised. The bay window to the north is also modern, 
and the lights on each side appear to have been similar to 
those upstairs, to be noticed later. 

The room upstairs must have been a handsome one 
before the insertion of the ceiling. Here we find the main 
posts are cut out, forming slender shafts with caps and bases 
standing out in solid oak. Above the half octagon which 
forms the capital is a brauket-like projection, again sur- 
mounted by a series of mouldings which projects like an 
upper capitalf (or almost with the effect of a hammer beam), 
and carries the arched principal rafters of the roof.f This 
moulded bracket appears to be 2 feet from front to back, 
and may possibly be the root end of the tree. The caps and 
bases of the slender shafts below curiously vary much in 
size in the different posts. (See Figs. 2, 3, and 4.) 

* The Portfolio, edited by P. G. Hamerton, London, 1887, p. 3. 

t This upper capital is hidden by the later floor, and the mouldings cannot 
be examined, but can only be traced by touch by passing the hand along them 
behind the floor boards. 



The construction of the roof can only be examined by 
going into the attics, but I have shewn it to the best of my 
ability in the section (Fig. 5). It may be described as a 
truss rafter roof with moulded ribs springing from the post 
brackets and dividing each bay. The purlins are also 
moulded, and at the intersection of the ribs and purlins, and 
on the beam overhead, are flat square spaces, as if ornamental 
bosses have been removed.* There was originally an oak 
cornice all round this hall, continuing the moulding of the 
upper bracket. AH mouldings in the roof itself are uniform, 
as shewn in Fig. 6, shewing the section of a rib. 

As regards windows to this room, all those indicated on 
the plan at the north and south ends are of comparatively 
recent date, but some idea of the original method of lighting 
can be seen at the north end, where we can trace on either 
side of the modern window, narrow lights now filled with 
plaster, each 1 foot 8 inches wide. These lights are two on 
each side facing north, and one on each side facing east and 
west. They appear (as far as can be traced under the plaster 
and wall paper) to have had round heads, but in their present 
condition it is impossible to say more about them. Similar 
lights apparently existed on the ground floor directly below, 
but nothing like the in can be traced at the south end of the 
building. A projecting oriel may have existed in the centre 
on both floors, but as there was no oversail, the evidence of 
this is missing. 

The height of this interesting- room from floor to anex of 
the rafter is about 22h feet, and as the roof appears to be a 
beautifully proportioned one, it must have been a handsome 
and dignified chamber. 

Mr. Blomfield, in his article referred to, remarks that 
externally the building is not remarkable, except for the 
framing of the gables, which reproduces the arch of the 
principal rafters within — a constructive feature rare in 
England, but common in France. But, as a matter of fact, 

* In the first bay from the north this boss socket overhead is omitted, aud 
the mouldings meet. 


weather-boarding hides nearly everything except the north 
gable and the upper part of the east side. There is, how- 
ever, an original bargeboard still remaining, though in a 
very decayed condition, on the north gable, and the windows 
on both floors appear to have had, between the lights, small 
shafts with caps, something like those on the main posts 
inside. But these, and the mouldings over the door, are so 
decayed that the detail is unrecognizable and cannot be 

This very interesting building is the earliest timber 
structure I have seen in the Weald, and Mr. Blomfield dates 
the roof about a.d. 1400. The building attached to it on 
the west side may be contemporary. 


This remarkable building stands to the east of the 
Church, with its east front against the high road, while one 
gable looks over part of the churchyard. It is quite a 
feature as one enters Headcorn from Sutton Valence or 

The total dimensions of the main block, which is a 
parallelogram, is 60 feet by 18 feet on the ground floor, as 
originally set out, increased to about 61 feet at the first 
floor by an oversailing story, the difference being filled by 
modern brick walling as shewn in the ground plan by hatched 
lines. The structure is divided into seven bays by six pair 
of posts and principals. 

All the posts south of C are moulded (Fig. 1) on the 
ground floor, while north of C they are plain. 

Throughout, the building is sadly altered and cut up. 
On the ground floor a modern shop has been made at 
the south end, and between the points A and B the 
original east wall has been cleared away and the posts 
mercilessly hacked about. The entire block is now in two 



tenements, a bakehouse with shop, and a cottage, and is 
divided by numerous modern partitions, and into three 
stories instead of two. There are also two inserted chimney 
stacks, the dates of which are immaterial, since they had no 
part in the original object of the building. All these 
features are omitted in my plan except the modern external 
brick walls. The partitions which are shewn are certainly 
original ones, except that marked D D, which I am not certain 
of, though I believe it to be so. In the first room the posts 
appear to have been set out 9 feet apart, but in the other 
rooms only 8 feet apart. 

The main entrance was presumably somewhere in the 
wall now destroyed to make the shop. I have indicated a 
probable position on the plan, but it may have been further 

The doors marked E and F F are both original. E leads 
to the staircase indicated on the first floor plan. F F have 
both depressed Tudor arches, that leading out of the 
building (originally) having spandrels carved in good style, 
similar to those to be described on the first floor. 

No original windows can be traced in these lower rooms. 
Those on each side of letter C are probably in the position 
of original windows. 

The height of these lower rooms is 7 feet 8 inches to the 
under side of the girder. 

On the first floor the original arrangement, as shewn in 
the plan, was three halls open to the roof, the chief apart- 
ment being the southern one, which is of three bays, and 
measured 26£ feet by 17 feet. 

This room is entered by a Tudor doorway at the north 
end of the west side from a lobby at the stair head. It is, 
of course, now ceiled in so that the arrangements of the roof 
can only be found by examination in the attics. 

This room I have partly described in a note in Vol. XXIX. 
(p. 201) of our Proceedings, and I now give a section 
(Fig. 2) shewing both floors and the roof. The latter, as can 
be seen, is of the tie-beam and king-post type, and there are 
large curved braces below the tie-beam, which form a 



depressed Tudor arch at the division of each bay. The king- 
post is shewn in Fig. 3. 

The interesting thing about this room is the carving of 
the spandrels of these braces, which is of excellent character, 
" admirably free " as Mr. Blomfield puts it in his description. 

1 regret that the position of this 
carving does not lend itself to photo- 
graphy, and it requires a much more 
skilled hand than mine to make adequate 

South Arch, south side, west spandrel : 
Within a cusped quatrefoil, a character 
which is either an heraldic chess rook, 
or a very unusual letter I. (Fig. 4.) 

Same side, east spandrel. The letter 
A in a similar quatrefoil. (Fig. 5.) 

On the north side in both spandrels 
we find a big rose with foliage behind. 

North Arch, south side, west span- 
drel : A and I joined by a knot, but 
foliage behind the letters. (Fig. 6, and 

North Arch, east spandrel : The chess- 
rook badge (?) and A joined as above. 
(Fig. 7.) 

On the north side both spandrels have 
leaves and foliage very well treated. 

Besides the initials, etc., the spandrels 
are ornamented with cusps and tre- 
foil carving of late Gothic character. 
(Fig. 8.) 

The main or story posts which carry the tie-beams of 
this building are richly moulded (Fig. 9), and the inner 
members or mouldings are continued along under the 
spandrels which form the Tudor arch. This moulding 
finishes at the floor level with an octagonal base similar to 

* Since writing the above, Mr. Reginald Blomfield lias most kindly sent me 
a drawing of one of these, which is now reproduced. 





the bases of the shafts in the house first described. (Fig. 10.) 
The king-posts shewn in Fig. 3, now only to be seen in the 
attic, are of quite good character. 

The total height of the building is about 32 feet, and of 
this room, from floor to apex, about 23 feet. An examination 
of the sections of this hall and that in the other house will 
reveal an entire difference in constructive system, and 
probably a considerable difference in date. 

With regard to the lighting of this hall, it had at the 
south end, corner lights, two on each side, and one facing 
east (all now closed), similar to those at the north gable of 
the other house. These were 5 feet 10 inches high, 1^ feet 
wide, divided by a 7-inch post. In the middle of the gable 
was a projecting window under the overhang which has 
entirely disappeared, and can only be traced by the mortice 
holes in the brestsummer above. Another projecting bay 
has also disappeared from the south end of the east front. 
Presumably these bay windows were original features, but 
such windows were so frequent in local sixteenth-century 
work that it is not certain. 

At the north-east corner a door (now blocked) leads into 
the next hall, and next to this door in the east wall is a four- 
light original window with mullions of the section shewn in 
Fig. 11. Each pair of lights is 2 feet 1 inch wide, and between 
each pair there is a 9-inch post. 

The second or central hall was of two bays only, and 
measured 16 feet by 17 feet. Its present condition with 
inserted ceiling and chimney stack is deplorable. It had 
two two-light windows similar to those last-mentioned facing 
the street, but one is now closed up; the little arched heads 
remain in the other. The roof is similar to the bigger hall, 
and has a similar king-post, but the main posts have a 
different and plainer moulding (Fig. 1a), and the braces 
below the tie-beam are uncarved. 

From this hall two doors with flat Tudor arch and hollow 
chamfer lead to Hall No. 3, originally 16 feet long. This 
part is now a separate cottage, and there is no way into the 
attic, which is not boarded. With the aid of a ladder I 



managed to screw my head under the tiles, and so ascertain 
the existence of a king-post, and observe the roof construction 
and rafters which elsewhere are ceiled in. These, as shewn 
in the section, are drawn from this limited point of 

Now, a few words as to the exterior of this curious building. 
In the first place there is no jetty story or overhang on the 
front, which is so characteristic of Kentish timber houses. 
Neither is there in the other honse already described. But 
there is a peculiarity in roof construction as seen from the 
road. The rafters (not properly indicated in Fig. 12 done 
several years ago), instead of resting directly on the wall 
plate, project over a series of false joist ends which are 
carried on brackets, tenoned into the main and intermediate 
posts. This was presumably intended to carry the rainfall 
clear of the walls. A similar roof at Dunster in Somerset is 
illustrated by Parker and Turner.* The roof does not 
appear to overhang the same way on the west side, but the 
mass of weather-boarding and other buildings make that 
part very difficult to study. 

The house was close timbered, that is, it has upright 
intermediate posts between the main posts along most of the 
street front, and an oaken string is carried under the 
windows. The south end over sails not only at the main 
floor level, but also in a line with the eaves. I am not quite 
sure whether the last was not an alteration when an attic 
floor was inserted . At the south corner of the east wall may 
also be seen an interesting little carved shaft similar to the 
base moulding of the main posts in the big room. This 
certainly ornamented the jamb of the window. 

The cottages at the back which I have not planned may 
be part of the original structure, but the roof is much lower, 
and I hesitate to form an opinion. 

With regard to the date of this house, I see that 
Mr. Blomfield, taking into consideration the mouldings 
of the strings and other features, saw no reason " for 

* Domestic Architecture, fifteenth century, part ii., p. 339. 



dating- it earlier than the end of the fifteenth century." And 
I, in my note of the subject in Volume XXIX. of Our 
Transactions, suggested the middle of that century. 
Possibly it may lie between the two. 

What is more important than the exact date is the 
meaning of the curious arrangement of both these buildings. 
I do not wish to recapitulate in full what I wrote formerly 
on this subject/* but the most probable suggestion I was 
able to make about the building just described, was that as 
the chess-rook badge occurs twice on the carved spandrels, 
it was probably erected by, or at any rate in some way con- 
nected with, the Boddenham (or Boddenden) family of 
Lashenden (a place only two miles from Headcorn), which 
was a family of some position, and who bore on their coat 
of arms three chess rooks. Probably, like most Biddenden 
families, they were clothiers. 

These two buildings are not domestic, although they 
have been taken for such by some writers. The placing of 
the large open halls upon the first floor, with large low rooms 
beneath them, and without the usual office and parlour wings 
at each end, points to some use totally alien to the usual 
domestic requirements. 

It cannot, I think, be doubted that we have here two 
veritable " cloth halls," a term used frequently loosely and 
indefinitely, and one on which it does not appear easy to 
obtain accurate information as to its proper application. 

It can hardly be doubted that u cloth hall " is an old 
term, and the only thing that appears certain is that its 
meaning was not " Clothiers' hall house." But when we 
come to enquire how these halls were used, it is difficult to 
meet with any authoritative explanation. The new English 
Oxford Dictionary gives us — 

" Cloth hall, a hall or exchange where sellers or 
buyers of woollen cloths meet at stated times to 
transact business." 

* "Old Timber Houses in the Weald," Archceolorjia Cantiana. XXIX., 
pp. 203-4. 




while Furley, in whose History of the Weald there is much of 
interest and value concerning the history of the Kentish 
Clothiers and their trade,* says — 

" The residences of the employees with their gable 
ends were more substantial, and besides the factories 
attached to them, they possessed large and lofty halls 
for the deposit of their stock." 

I have put myself in communication with several 
gentlemen engaged in south-country research, but without 
any definite result. It is thought that they were probably 
erected in compliance with Statute, and that they were used 
either as court rooms by members of Trade Guilds in 
cloth-making centres, or for storage, and inspection by the 
Government officials. The last-named use appears to me 
very probable. By Statute I believe these officials were 
searchers, measurers, and ahiagers, the last of whom collected 
the aulnage duty, and I think sealed the cloths. Somewhere, 
no doubt, there is contemporary documentary evidence of 
value on the subject, but I do not know exactly where to 
look for it. It is difficult to understand, for instance, why 
such excellent detail should be found applied to the timbering 
of these halls, and especially why in House No. 2 the south 
hall should have so much decorative detail, while the other 
halls were left so plain. 

For permission to use the photographs in this Paper I 
am indebted to Mr. H. Tippen of Headcorn. 

* Vol. ii., pp. 323, 325, 408, 479, 566-573, 606, etc. 

( 131 ) 



Up to the present time no paper in Archaeologia Gantiana 
has dealt in general with brasses in Kent, or in particular 
with the brasses in any church, and it may be well to 
pass in review shortly what has already been done elsewhere 
to illustrate the subject so far as it relates to the 
county. Every writer on monumental brasses has sooner or 
later to acknowledge indebtedness to Mr. Mill Stephenson, 
F.S.A., so I may as well begin by pointing out that a paper 
by him on Kentish Brasses in the 5th volume of Transactions 
of the St. Paul's Eeclesiological Society at p. 129 is, as a 
general conspectus of the whole matter, most informing and 
completely satisfactory. By his permission I can also give 
a list he has made giving a rough approximation to the 
number of brasses which still exist in the churches of Kent 
so far as at present known, and it is improbable that any 
large addition will be made to it from further discoveries. 
This is followed by another list, also by Mr. Mill Stephenson, 
of certain interesting details which call for notice. 

This list includes lost brasses of which rubbings exist. 
Brasses after a.d. 1700 are not as a rule included. 

Men is Armour (with or without ladies) . . 99 
14th century . . . . . .10 

15th century . . . . .44 

16th century . . . . . 39 

17th century ..... 6 

Ecclesiastics . . . . . . . Gl 

14th century 7 

15th century ..... 84 
16th century . . , . .18 

17th century ..... 2 
Three of these Ecclesiastics are with wives. 

t- 2 


Men in civil dress (with or without ladies) . .157 

14th century ..... 3 

15th century . . . . .45 

16th century ..... 84 

17 th century . . . . .24 

18th century ..... 1 

Ladies (alone, but including some who have lost their 
husbands) 77 

14th century ..... 6 

15th century ..... 26 

16th century 32 

17th century 12 

18th century . . . .1 

Judge 1 

NOTARY . . . , . . 1 

Garter Knight ....... 1 

Yeoman of the Guard 1 

Children (alone) ....... 5 

Shrouds and Skeletons 7 

Bracket Brasses ....... 3 

Chalice Brasses 2 

Cross Brasses ....... 8 

Heart Brasses 2 

Inscriptions only . . . * . . . . 359 

14th century ..... 7 

15th century ..... 54 

16th century . . . r . 133 

17th century . . . . 165 

Miscellaneous ....... 30 

This gives a total of 814, but there is a certain amount 
of overlapping. 


Various Details. 
Benefactors to churches, schools, poor, etc. . .17 
Canopies ......... 33 

Collars 5 

S. S 3 

Garter ...... 1 

Indeterminate ..... 1 

Engraver's name . . . . . .1 

Heraldry, etc. — 

Arms of Canterbury ..... 1 

„ ,, London ...... 1 

„ „ Cinque Ports ..... 3 

„ ,, Drapers' Co. ..... 1 

,, ,, Haberdashers' Co. . . .1 

„ ,, Merchant Adventurers ... 2 
„ ,, Skinners' Co. ..... 1 

Royal Arms ....... 1 

Rebus 2 

Merchants' Marks ...... 5 

Palimpsests . . . . . . . .27 

Religious devices — 

Crucifixion ....... 1 

Five wounds ....... 1 

Saints ........ 7 

Trinity ........ 5 

Interest in monumental brasses seems to have developed 
towards the end of the eighteenth century, but it was 
left to Thomas Fisher, F.S.A., a Kentish artist, to discover 
that the only way to reproduce them accurately was from a 
" dab " or rubbing afterwards reduced to scale in the finished 
drawing. His productions may be compared with the 
caricatures in Nichols' Leicestershire. Many of Fisher's 
rubbings have been preserved in the collection of the Society 
of Antiquaries, where are also some of his finished drawings. 
These drawings seem to have been disposed of at his sale 



(catalogue in the British Museum), and many found their 
way into a collection now in the British Museum of illustra- 
tions connected with Kent in the Additional MS 8. 32,858- — 
82,875. Fisher, as a rule, is careful not only to give a 
sketch of the brass remaining, but to draw it to scale and 
to shew what (if any) was lost. These sketches, made about 
1800, are of the greatest value. Fisher also published 
certain plates of brasses which are all noted in Haines,* as are 
also the representations of Kentish brasses (two) published 
in the illustrations issued between 1841 and 1846 by the 
Cambridge Camden Society, and the ten which appeared in 
the series issued by Messrs. Waller between 1840 and 1864. 
Any person desiring fuller information about these latter 
works may consult a paper in the Transactions of the Monu- 
mental Brass Society, vol. v., p. 180. In those Transactions 
much information about Kentish brasses will be found, and 
in the Portfolio of that Society have appeared some eight 
excellent reproductions of Brasses from this county. In 
the Portfolio of the Oxford University Brass Rubbing 
Society the only illustration from Kent is the priest at 

It is curious that, though Kent is on the whole one of 
the richest counties in memorials remaining of this class, 
only one work is devoted, so far as I am aware, to Kentish 
brasses alone. This is a book called Kentish Brasses collected 
by Mr. W. D. Belcher in two volumes, the first published iu 
1888, the second in 1905. It is impossible not to regret 
that a work on which clearly much pains was spent, and 
which must have cost the author heavy expense, was not 
better done. The letterpress in the first volume is quite 
inadequate ; at times it is misleading ; in the second volume 
there is none at all. The index is of the very worst. There 
is no indication where in the Church named the brass 
illustrated was found. Bits of one brass are in the illustra- 
tions put in another. Shields and other details are omitted, 
and no attempt is made in the majority of instances to shew 

* A manual of Monumental Brasses, by Herbert Haines. Oxford ; 
Parker, 1861, 8vo.' 



the indent of what was lost where such an indent remained. 
Any one taking the trouble to compare Mr. Belcher's 
reproduction on p. 7 of Vol. I. of the remains of the 
Clitherow brass at Ash with the much smaller one in 
Planche's Corner of Kent (London : 1864, 8vo.), p. 207, will 
see at once how much the interest of the reproduction 
is diminished by Mr. Belcher's mode of procedure, and he 
seems himself to have had some doubts after the publication 
of his first volume, for in the second he does at times 
indicate the indents of parts lost when the rubbing was 
made, but in that volume many of the illustrations are 
quite inadequate to illustrate even what remains. On the 
other hand it can be said that Mr. Belcher was at con- 
siderable pains to visit all the Churches where he could hear 
of brasses existing, and in fact he only misses 16 Churches 
altogether out of the 219 where brasses occur,* though he 
sometimes omits a brass in a Church where he has repro- 
duced other brasses. t 

Though Mr. Belcher's is the only work devoted to Kent 
alone, it is desirable to refer to one or two general works on 
the subject of Brasses which have numerous illustrations 
from Kent. It is not necessary to refer to the well known 
works by Boutell or the Manual of Monumental Brasses 
published in 1861 by the Rev. Herbert Haines, the latter 
being the standard authority by which everybody works. 
In more recent years the Rev. H. W. Macklin has, in the 
series known as The Antiquary's Books, published a manual 
of The Brasses of England which has gone through several 
editions, as well as a smaller manual, and Mr. Herbert Druitt 
has published a Manual of Costume as illustrated by Monu- 
mental Brasses (8vo., London, 1906). These works leave 
little to be desired, which cannot be said of a book by 
Mr. E. R. Suffling, English Church Brasses (8vo., London, 
1910). Unfortunately Mr. Suffling lacked sufficient anti- 
quarian equipment, and the book is full of blunders, and 

* Bearsted, Bekesbounie, Canterbury (S. Mildred), Charlton by Woolwich, 
Cowden, Darenth, High Raldeu, tladtow, Petham, Rochester (S. Nicholas), 
Slioreham, Taro»vle3 r , TiiuraLiam, Wil nun^toa, Wittersham, Wouldham. 

f E.g., at Biddendeu three are omitted. 



cannot be relied on. The illustrations, too, are often cramped 
by considerations of space, and shields and other details 
appear where they should not. Another work of the same 
description is Ancient Memorial Brasses, by Mr. E. T. Beau- 
mont (Humphrey Milford, 1913, 8vo.). Like Mr. Suffling, 
the author lacks equipment, and makes many mistakes which 
should have been avoided. For instance, Mr. Beaumont, 
finding " De bello campo " in an inscription, translates it 
'•'From the battle-field." The book cannot be commended, 
though the illustrations are fair. Not many Kentish 
examples are given. 

Amongst the shilling manuals issued by the Cambridge 
University Press is one published in 1912 on Brasses by 
Mr. J. S. M. Ward. It is satisfactory so far as it goes, 
being largely founded on Mr. Macklin's book mentioned 
above. Of the twenty-five illustrations five are from Kent. 

Our member Mr. George Clinch is the author of many 
popular handbooks on antiquarian subjects which he 
frequently illustrates from Kentish brasses. 

In the following list — 

Glinch, Churches refers to Clinch (Gv). Old English 

Churches, 8vo., London. 
Clinch, Costume refers to Clinch (G.). English Costume, 

8vo., London. 

Drawings refers to Drawings of Brasses in some Kentish 
Churches, issued privately by Ralph Griffin in 1913. 

Druitt refers to Druitt (EL). Manual of Costume, etc., 
8vo., London, 1910. 

Fairholt refers to Fairholt (F. W.). Costume in England, 
London, 1 885. 

Hewitt refers to Hewitt (J.). Ancient Armour, Oxford, 

Indents refers to Some Indents of Lost Brasses in Kent, 

issued privately by Ralph Griffin in 1914. 
MacJdin refers to Macklin (H. W.). The Brasses of 

England, 8vo., London. 
Mills refers to Engravings by I. Mills, issued privately by 

F. C. Brooke, Esq., in 1874 to illustrate brasses of 

the Cobharns. 

Suffling refers to Suffling (E. R.). English Church 
Brasses, London, 1910. 



A List of some Illustrations* not mentioned by Haines. 


Rich. Charlie, 1378. 

Anastatic Drawing Soc, 1879, No. 6. 


Rich. Clitherow and w., c. 1440. 
Druitt, p. 266. 

Planche, Corner, etc., PI. IX. 
Somerset Arch. Soc. Pr., XLIV., ii., 41. 

Jane Keriell, 1455. 
Druitt, p. 269. 
Planche, Comer, etc., PI. IX. 
Somerset and Dorset JV. and Q., IX., p. 301. 

Wm. Leus, 1525. 

Planche, Comer, etc., PI. XL 

Chr. Septvans, 1575. 
Druitt, p. 184. 

Planche, Corner, etc., PI. XL 

Walter Septvans, 1642. 
Druitt, p. 216. 
Planche, Corner, etc., PI. XL 


Head of a priest, c. 1320. 

The Bazaar for Oct. 13, 1893. 

Elizth., Countess of Athol, 1375. 
Arch. Cant., L, p. 180. 
Clinch, Churches, pp. 213, 215. 
Scott's Memorials of family of Scott, p. 76. 
Suffiing, pp. 333, 339. 

# It must not be assumed that these illustrations shew the whole brass : 
many of them shew details only. As a rule no references are given to numerous 
illustrations in the six volumes of the Transactions of the M. B. 8., as these 
must be in the hands of every student and they are well indexed. 



ASH FORD — continued. 

Sir John Fogge, 1499. 

Arch. Cant., II., 103 ; III., 141. 
Clinch, Churches, p. 212. 
Sujfling, 332. 

Thos. Fogg, 1512. 

t Arch. Cant., IT., 108. 


Ins. Palimp., 1545. 

S. A. Proceedings, 2 S., viii., 174. 


Barbara Wry the, 1.483 (lost). 
Drawings, p. 1. 


A lady, c. 1500 (lost). 
Drawings, p. 2. 


[? John Digges], c. 1470 and w. (lost or covered) 
Drawings, p. 3. 


Sir Humph. Style, 1552. 

ft'Lacklin, y. 241. 
Dame Margt. Damsell, 1563, and sister. 

Drawings, p. 4. 


Hunting horn and shield, 15th century. 
Arch. Cant., XVI II., 373. 
Clinch, Churches, 230. 
Suffiing, 337. 

John Quek, 1449. 

Clinch, Churches, 225. 
John Felde, 1454. 

Ibid., 226. 



BIB/CHINGrTO N — continued. 

Margt. Cryppys, 1533. 
Ibid., 229. 


Sir Arnold Savage, 1410. 
Dasenfs Speakers, 00. 


Wm. Fordmell, 1490. 

The Bazaar for Oct. 20, 1893. 

Indent, Siinone Abocton. 

Arch. Cant., XVIII., 242. 

Wm. Scott, 1433. 

Arch. Cant., X., 261. 

Scott, Memorials of family of Scott, 43. 
Denis Einch, 1450. 

Arch. Cant., X., 262. 

Scott (ut supra), p. 44. 
Sir Wm. Scott, 1524. 

Arch. Cant., X., 264. 

Scott {ut supra), p. 45. 
Dame Elizth. Pownynges, 1528. 

Arch. Cant., X., 264. 

Scott (ut supra), p. 46. 


Ins. Isabel Lacer, c. 1345. 

Benham (C. D.), Notes on a brass, 1861. 
John Yonge., Bp. of Rochester, 1605. 

Drawings, p. 5. 


Cathedral. Some indents are illustrated in Indents. That 
of Abp. Stafford, 1452, is in Rogers, Strife of the Roses, 
137, and in Wilts N. and Q., III., 193. 



CANTERBURY— continued. 
St. Alphege. 

Robt. Gosebourne, 1528. 

Carpenter (B. H.), Hist. ch. of St. Alphege, 11. 
Cooper {J. M.), Registers of St. Alphege. 

St. George. 

John Lovelle, 1-188. 

The Bazaar for Sep. 29, 1893. 

St. Mary, Burgate. 
Joan Lynde, 1117. 
Drawings, p. 6. 

St. Martin. 

Thos. Stoughton, 1591. 
Clinch, Churches, p. 211. 
Suffling, p. 97. 

St. Paul. 

Geo. Wyndbourne, 1531, and w. (lost from the church). 
Drawings, p. 7. 


John Darell, 1438. 

Clinch, Churches, p. 213. 


Sir Robt. Setvans, c. 1306. 

The Boys' Own Paper, XV., 573. 
The Builder, Nov. 11, 1899, p. 438. 
Fairholt, I., 146. 

Foster {Joseph) , Some Feudal Coats. 
Machlin, 20. 

Blanche, Costume, I., PI. II., fig. 10, p. 4. 

Robt. London, 1416. 

Clinch, Costume, p. 240. 


Brasses illustrated in Arch. Cant., XVIIL, 356. 




John Lennard, 1556. 

Hasted, Vol. I., 361. 


Alan Porter, 1482. 

Hist, of Chislehurst {Webb, Miller, and Beckwith), 
p. 62. 

Guide by E. A. Webb (1901), p. 27. 


Dame Jone de Kobeham, c. 1320. 

Bazaar, Sep. 8, 1893. 

Building World, Nov. 1, 1891. 

Mills, 1. 

Suffling, 129. 
Sir John de Cobham, 1354. 

Assoc. Arch. Soc. Reports, XVIII, 186. 

Building World, Bee. 1. 1891. 

Mills, 2. 

Suffling, 37. 
John de Cobham, c. 1365. 

Arch. Cant., XI, 85. 

Builder, Feb. 16, 1912. 

Bruitt, 160. 

Foster s Feudal Coats. 

Mills, 9. 

Somerset Arch. Soc. Proc, XLIV, ii, 28. 

Suffling, 47. 
Thos. de Cobham, 1367. 

Mills, 3. 

Suffling, 40. 
Dame Marg. de Cobeham, 1375. 

Bruitt, 250. 

Mills, 4. 

Suffling, 133. 
Dame Maude de Cobeham, 1380. 

Mills, 5. 

Suffling, 135. 



CO BHAM — continued. 

Dame Margt. de Cobeham, 1395. 
Arch. Cant., XL, 86. 
JDruitt, 250. 

Exeter Bioc. Arc. Soc. Trans., 2 S., III., 250. 
Mills, 6. 

Bogers, Sep. Eff. Devon, 100, PI. XXVIII., 17. 

; Bogers, Memorials of the West, 340. 
Somerset {tit supra), XLIV., ii., 29. 
Suffiing, 135. 
Ward, Brasses, 13. 

Eauf. de Cob ham, 1102. 
Suffiing, 46. 

Sir ~Reg. Braybrok, 1405. 
Arch. Cant., XL, 88. 
Arch. Ass. Sketch Bh, X. S., IX., i. 
Mills, 7. 

Somerset (ut supra), XLIV., ii., 36. 
Suffiing, 51. 

Sir Nich. Hawberk, 1407. 
Builder, Jan. 19, 1912. 
Chester Arch. Soc. Trans., N. S., V., 85. 
Hewitt, III., 364. 
Mills, 8. 

Somerset (ut supra), XLIV., ii., 37. 
St/ fling, 55. 

Joan, Lady of Cobham, 1433. 
Arch. Cant., XL, 100. 
Bruitt, 264. 
Mills, 10. 

Somerset (ut supra), XLIV., ii., 33. 
Suffiing, 140. 

Sir John Broke, 5th Baron Cobham, 1506. 
Bruitt, 278. 
Mills, 13. 

Somerset (ut supra), XLV., ii., 2. 
Suffiing, 151. 



COBHAM— continued. 

Sir Thos. Brooke, 6th Baron Cobbam, 1529. 
Bruitt, 180. 
Mills, 14. 

Somerset (ut supra), XLV., ii., 8, 9. 
Suflling, 90. 


Feyth Brooke, 1508. 

Somerset Arch. Soc. Pr.. XLV., ii., 8. 

Civilian, c. 1520. 

Lane, and Chesh. Hist. Soc. Tr., 4th Ser., XXVI., 34, 

No. 82. 
Suffling, p. 258. 

Isabell Cossale, c. 1500. 
Drawings, p. 8. 


Jobn Feerby, 1454 (lost). 

Drawings, p. 10. 
John Smythe, 1584. 

Drawings, p. 11. 


Ricbd. Martyn, 1402. 

Arch. Cant., XV1IL, 387. 

Clinch, Costume, 53. 

Macklin, 159. 

Portfolio M.B.S., II., 39. 
Richd. Burlton, 1496. 

Arch. Cant., XVIII., 389. 


Jobn Edwards, 1613. 

Willemeni 's Damngton, 104. 
Kath. Lasbford, 1616. 
Ibid., 105. 



Castle Church. 

Sir Robt. A stone, 1384. 
Arch. Cant., I., 178. 

St. Mary. 

Wm. Jones, 1638. 
< Clinch, Churches, 232. 
Suffling, 336. 


Jacob Verzelini, 1607. 

Portfolio M.B.S., I., Pt. IV., PL VI. 


John Selyard, 1558. 

Miscell. Gen. et Her., 2nd Ser., i., 96. 


Roger Sender, 1425. 

Harris Erith (1885), 10, PI. III. 

John Ailemer, 1435. 
Ibid., 10, PL V. 

Em me Wode, 1471. 
Ibid,, 10, PI. II. 

John Mylner, 1511. 
Ibid,, 10, PL I. 

Edw. Hawte, 1537. 
Ibid., 10, PL IV. 


Wm. Thornbury, 1481. 
Arch. Cant,, XL, 27. 

Hen. Hatche, 1533. 
Maclclin, 232. 

Portfolio M.B.S., I, Pt. V., PL V. 



Aphra Hawkins, 1605. 

The Bazaar for Sep. 22, 1893. 
Clinch, Churches, 222. 
Druitt, 290. 
Suffling, 161. 


fm, Ha ward, 1612. 

Arch. Cant., VI., 300. 


Dame Joan de Feversham, c. 1360. 

Portfolio 31.B.S., IV., PL VI. 
John Marty n, 1436. 

Builder, Feb. 16, 1912. 

Silvester Lambarde, 1587. 
Arch. Cant., V., 250. 
Miscell. Gen. et Her., II., 100. 


Wm. Burys, 1444. 

The Bazaar for Nov. 3, 1893. 

Clinch, Churches, 209. 
Wm. Petley, 1528. 

The Bazaar for Sep. 22, 1893. 

John Strete, 1405. 

The Builder for Nov. 11, 1899, p. 438. 
Druitt, 22. 
Machlin, 74. 
Ward, Brasses, 93. 


Elizth. Haward, 1610. 

Arch. Cant,, YI„ 299. 





Eobt. Garrett [1566]. 

Clinch, Churches, 231. 
Suffling, 313. 


Peter Halle, c. 1430. 

Brit. Arch. Assoc. Journal, XLIIL, 410. 

Buchanan s Heme. 
John Darley, c. 1450. 

Buchanan s Heme. 

Reliquary, XX., 205. 
Dame Christine Phelip, 1470. 

Arch. Cant., XI., 11. 

Buchanan 's Heme. 
Elizth. Fyneux, 1539. 

The Bazaar for Sep. 15, 1893. 

Buchanans Heme. 

Clinch, Churches, 218. 

Suffling, 156. 
John Sea, 1604. 

Buchanan s Heme. 


Margt. Cheyne, 1419. 
Arch. Cant., I., 122. 
Reliquary, XX., 206. 
Suijiing, 139. 

Sir Thos. Bullen, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond, 1538. 
Arch. Cant., I., 121. 
Macklin, 155. 

Portfolio M.B.S., IV., PI. XXV. 

Wm. Todde, 1585. 

Kelke, Sepulch. Mon., 33. 

Sybbill Green, 1614. 

The reverse of this slab bears an indent of a priest 
of the early 14M century, illustrated in Portfolio 
M,B,S., III., 41, 




Thos. Cobham, 1465. 
Mills, 12. 


[John de Grofhurst], c. 1340. 
Portfolio 3I.B.S., III., 31. 


A lady of the Kirkby or Stooor family, c. 1460. 
Anastatic Drawing Sod., 1879, PI. XI. 
Suffling, 143. 


Indent, Martin de Hampton, rector, 1306. 
Portfolio M.B.S., II., 52. 


Thos. de Hop, 1348. 

Clinch, Churches, 199. 
Bruitt, 82. 

Reliquary, XIII., 156. 
Muffling, 219. 


Elizth. Couhyll, 1513. 

Hasted Hund. of Blackheath, by Drake, p. 229. 
Hen. Byrde, 1545. 


Isabel Annesley, 1582. 

Nich. Ansley, 1593. 


A shroud, c. 1580. 

Arch. Cant., I., 123. 

Elizth. Cobham, 1544. 
Mills, 15. 
Drawings, p. 9. 

L 2 




John Motesfowt, 1420. 

Oylers Lydd {frontispiece). 
John Thomas, 1429. 

Ibid., p. 30. 
Thos. Godefray [1430]. 

Arch. Cant., VI., 263 ; XIII., 439. 

Glynne, Churches of Kent, 66. 
Peter God f rye, 1566. 

Arch. Cant., VI., 262 ; XIII., 440. 

Glynne, Churches of Kent, 67. 


Thos. Beale, 1593. 

Cave Broivn, Hist. All SS., Maidstone, 144. 
Some lost brasses. 

Arch. Cant., I., 179, 181. 

Indent, Abp. Courtenay, 1396. 
Cave Browne, ut supra, 33. 


Rich. Adams, 1522. 

Anastatic Drawing Soc, 1877, PI. XXVII. 


Elizth. Perepoynt, 1543. 

Machlin, (Manual), 75. 

Trans. M.B.S., IV., 148. 
Dame Jane Eitzjames, 1594. 

Trans. M.B.S., VI., 158. 


Nich. Canteys, 1431. 

Clinch, Churches, 229. 

Ruffling, 180. 
John Daundelyon, 1445. 

Hewitt, III,, 456, 

Monumental brasses in kent. 

MARGATE — continued. 
Thos. Mutt, 1582. 

Building News, Jan. 13, 1888. 

Clinch, Churches, 237. 

Su0ing, 298. 
A inan in armour, c. 1590 (? Win. Cleaybroke). 

Hewitt, III., 667. 


Sir Thos. Nevell, 1542. 

Dasent Speakers, 120. 

Thorpe, Oust. Boff., PI. XXIII., p. 121. 


Sir John de Northwode, 1320. 
^rc/^. Cant., IX., 149. 
Bazaar for Sep. 8 <md Oc£. 20, 1893. 
Clinch, Churches, 208. 
Foster, Feudal Coats. 
Gent. Mag., 1858, II., 103. 
Hewitt, II., 112, 151. 
Macklin, 26, 30. 
2Vafts. M.B.S., IV,, 153. 
Blanche, Costume, I., 138, 181. 
#0c. Antiquaries Broceedings, 2 S., VIII., 414. 
Su filing, 35. 
Ward, Brasses, 6. 

Lady Norton, 1580. 

Bazaar, Sep. 15, 1893. 
Clinch, Churches, 220. 
Dm*'«, 287. 
Ji*7Zs, 16. 

Somerset Arch. Soc. Br., XLV., ii., 14. 
Suffling, 159. 
Mary Brooke, 1600. 
Brwitt, 294. 

Somerset Arch. Soc. Br., XLV., ii., 14. 



Peter de Lacy, 1375. 

Macklin, 125. 

Suffling, 213. 
Win. Lye, 1391. 

Suffling, 220. 


Thos. Wilkynson, 1511. 
Bazaar, Sep. 29, 1893. 
Clinch, Churches, 206. 
Suffling, 229. 


Thos. Hendley, 1590. 

British Arch. Assn. Jl., N. S., I., 172. 


Thos. Seintleger, 1408. 

Portfolio M.B.S., I., Pt. VIII., PI. II. 
Reliquary, N. S., VIII., 233. 


Sir Wm, Culpeper [1457]. 

Reliquary, N. S., I., 110. 


Thos. Bwllayn, c. 1520. 

Bazaar, Oct. 13, 1893. 


Julyen Deryng, 1526. 
Arch. Cant., X., 344. 
Haslewood, PlucMey, 20. 

Valentine Baret, 1442. 

Arch. Cant., XXI., 133. 
Wm. Mareys, 1459. 

Monumental Brasses in kent. 151 


Wm. Aucher, 1514. 

Arch. Cant., XVII., 61. 
Wm. Bloor, 1529. 

Ibid., 59. 
John Norden, c. 1580. 

Ibid., 60. 


Cathedral. Some indents will be fonnd illustrated in the 
Some Counties Magazine, Vols. V. and VI., and two 
others in Indents. 


Thos. Smyth, 1610. 
Druitt, 290. 


Nich. Manston, 1444. 

Cotton s Hist, of St. Lawrence, 96. 
Shields from a brass, c. 1450. 


Joan St. Nicholas, 1493. 

Ibid., p. 99. 
Sir Adam Sprakeling, 1610. 

Ibid., p. 101. 
Adam Sprakeling, 1615. 

Ibid., p. 102. 
Margaret Sprackling, 1623. 

Ibid., p. 103. 


Indent of a priest, c. 1310 [? Wm. Archer]. 

John Verieu, 1370. 

Arch. Cant., XVIII., 423. 

Druitt, 82. 



SALT WOOD— continued. 

Thos. Brokhill, 1437. 

Arch. Cant., XVIII., 422. 

Druitt, 169. 
Dame Anne Muston, 1496. 

Arch. Cant., XVIII., 423. 


Sir Win. de Bryene, 1395. 
Builder, Dec. 13, 1890. 
Gent. Mag., 1858, II., 555. 
Hewitt, II. , 249. 
Suffling, 43. 


Lost Brasses. 

Arch. Cant., IV., 118 segf. 


Sir Bich. Atteleese, 1394. 

Arch. Cant., XVIII., 290. 
John Cely, 1426. 

Ibid., p. 291. 
Joan Mareys, 1431. 

Ibid., p. 291. 

Suffling, 278. 


Edmd. Page, 1550 [now lost] . . 
Gent. Mag., 1801, I., 497. 

Joan Urban, 1414. 

Suffling, 275. 
John Urban, 1420. 

Beliquary, N. S., I., 109. 

Suflling, 173. 
John Sedley, c. 1520. 

Suffiing, 192. 



[? Walter Mayne], 1577. 
Clinch, Costume, 155. 


John Lumbarde, 1408. 

Girls Own Papers, XVI., 148. 

Stifling, 271. 
Anne Carew, 1599. 

Stifling, 327. 


A civilian, c. 1460. 

Anastatic Drawing Soc, 1877, PI. IX. 


Sir Edw. Filmer, 1629. 

Arch. Cant., XXV., LVII. 
Cave Browne, Sutton Valence, 45. 
Portfolio M.B.S., I., Pt. XI., PI. VI. 
Oyler, East Sutton, 41. 


John Frogenhall, 1444. 

Arch. Cant., I., 89. 
Eobt. Hey ward, 1509. 

Suffling, 259. 

Wm. Dye, 1567. 

Antiq. Etching Club, V., PI. XXXVIII. 
Druitt, 116. 

Hierurgia Anglicana, 1904, III., 143. 


Indent of a priest, c. 1330. 

Oxford Portfolio of Monumental Brasses, Pt. V., PI. I. 


John de Bladigdone, c. 1325. 
Art Journal, 1898, p. 119. 



fm. de Thorp, 1407. 

Bazaar, Sep. 29, 1893. 
Clinch, Churches, 201. 
Suffling, 215. 


Nichol de Gore, c. 1330. 
Bazaar, Oct. 13, 1893. 
Macklin, 31. 


Thos. Pekham, 1512. 

Druitt, 278. 

Fairholt, I., 234. 
Reynold Pekham, 1525. 

Druitt, 278. 
Elizth. Crispe, 1615. 

Druitt, 290. 



Pre- Saxon Physical features 

( 155 ) 




The Vale of Holmesdale is not confined to the county of 
Kent, its limits being commonly reputed to be the Castle 
of Guildford to the west and the Castle of Rochester to the 
east, the chalk hills forming its northern boundary and the 
sandstone ridge separating its southern confines from the 
Weald. The motto of our county indicates our claim to 
have never yet been conquered, but that of the Holmesdale 
goes one better, indicating that we never shall be. 

The sentiment is perpetuated in the old rhyme, the 
second half of which is adopted in recent years by the 
Borough of Reigate as its motto : " The Vale of Holmes- 
dale. Never wonne nor never shale/' 

As to the name, Lainbard, writing in 1570, refers to 
Reigate Castle " which Alfrede de Beverley calleth Holme, 
and which the Countrie people do yet terme the Castle of 
Holmesdale. This tooke the name of the Dale wherein it 
standeth, which is large in quantity, extending it selfe a 
great length into Surrey, and Kent also, and was (as I con- 
iecture) at the first called Holmesdale, by reason that it is 
(for the most part) Convaliis, a plaine valley, running 
between two hils, that be replenished with stoare of wood : 
for so much the very word (Holmesdale) it selfe importeth." 

East of Rochester there is, apparently, no record of the 
name being attached to the geographical continuation of 
the same formation, but as far as West Kent is concerned 
we have from an early date three natural divisions : first, 
The Upland; secondly, The Weald; and thirdly, The 



Holmesdale, lying between the other two. East Kent con- 
tents itself with the simpler division of Upland and Weald. 
Diagram No. 1 makes this clear. 

The principle of communal responsibility for individual 
action was approved and enforced by our Saxon forefathers 
at a very early date, and this has a most important bearing 
on our subject, and it is proposed in this article to trace the 
evolution of the Holmesdale, and to trace it by the help 
primarily of the basis of population, upon which it is gene- 
rally admitted our county was first subdivided by our Saxon 
forefathers, who desired to give effect to this principle. 
As a natural sequence of this enquiry, we have the deduc- 
tions to be drawn from the relative positions of the places 
from which such subdivisions drew their nomenclature. 

Such an enquiry must practically be limited to the 
period covered by existing documentary evidence, and before 
touching upon any evidence so comparatively recent as the 
records in question, a short reference to the earlier surviving 
local indications of man's handiwork may not be out of 

In the progress of the inhabitants of any given area four 
stages can usually be noted. We have first the savage 
huntsman, secondly the pastoral herdsman, thirdly the 
agricultural ploughman, and fourthly the manufacturing 
artisan. At the date of the Roman occupation we find 
that while East Kent was already in the third, West Kent 
was hardly out of the second, and the Weald had not 
emerged from the first ; no part of the county had yet 
reached the fourth stage. The development of our county 
has been largely a question of accessibility. Forming, as it 
does, the nearest point of communication between England 
and the rest of Europe, we should readily expect to find the 
Upland intersected, as it in fact is, by a great highway 
running from west to east and thence to the coast. In 
Diagram No. 1 this highway is marked in a firm line. It 
will be noticed that it passes outside and to the north of 
the Holmesdale Valley, and runs from London to Canter- 
bury, and there breaks up into three branches, communica- 

The /Joime S D fi L E 

Some Pre - Mormon Rootofs 


ting with what were originally the three principal harbours or 
landing-places at the eastern extremity of our county — Rich- 
borough, Dover and Lynipne. The reasons for this arrange- 
ment are excellently set forth in Mr. Belloc's book, The Old 
Road, though many of his deductions are open to question. 
This road and its three branches were doubtless improved, 
if not originally constructed by the Romans. As regards 
the Weald itself, the majority of the roads or droveways 
ran due north and south, the object doubtless being to reach 
as soon as possible the greater highway in the Upland run- 
ning east and west. 

But somewhere in a south-easterly direction lay one 
other route or droveway, traversing the Wealden forest and 
giving more direct access from the Newenden and Rye district 
to London. This road is also roughly indicated by a dotted 
line on Diagram No. 1. So also portions of three roads 
commonly reputed to owe much to Roman hands, and 
doubtless extending to link up other centres. The portions 
marked are those connecting the four British or British- 
Roman fortresses in or near West Kent — Keston, Oldbury 
in Ightham, Squerries in Westerham, and Camp Hill by 
way of Edenbridge. 

In addition to the highways constructed principally for 
the continental traveller or merchant, the needs of the 
actual resident must not be overlooked. A glance at 
Diagram No. 1 shews the physical features of the county, 
while Diagram No. 2 shews the same thing on an enlarged 
scale for West Kent, and one of the first requirements of 
any inhabitant of a sparsely populated district engaged in 
pastoral or agricultural enterprise must ever be some 
facility for moving his flocks to successive pasture grounds, 
or, as the quantity of his produce increases, for enabling 
him to reach new markets or ports. We know that the whole 
country lay unfenced, the Weald valley and the higher 
Uplands being for the most part densely wooded, whilst the 
lowest portions of the open valleys were at all times liable 
to inundation by floods. The earliest roadways we should 
naturally expect to find on the slopes of the most open foot 



hills, safe from the floods in the valley below and also com- 
paratively safe from wolves, as well as the human despoilers 
likely to be found in the woods. Roads in this position would 
require the least upkeep. On Diagram No. 2 the approximate 
positions of some of these earliest roadways affecting the 
Kentish Holmesdale are indicated by thin dotted lines. 

The first roadway marked on the diagram is that from 
the Surrey county boundary near Westerham to the Darenth 
river ford at Dartford. The second, from the same ford 
along the opposite side of the Shoreham Valley and thence 
north to Rochester. The third, from Rochester along the 
opposite side of the River Medway towards Canterbury. 
Each of these roadways lies in more than one valley, and it 
is obvious that a means of crossing the River Darenth at 
the point where the Holmesdale Valley meets the Shoreham 
Valley would be of the greatest convenience, and it is with- 
out the least surprise that we find at this point a ford of 
great antiquity giving its name to the adjacent village of 
Otford. Further west there was doubtless a means of 
crossing the Medway in the vicinity of Snodland — perhaps 
more than one. In any event, by linking up the roads 
across each of the two rivers, and by continuing our 
Holmesdale Valley in an easterly direction, we can piece 
together stretches of different roadways which may well 
have been used as one. And so irresistible has this sug- 
gestion proved, that many persons see in these several 
portions one great continuous highway, which they trace 
from Winchester to Canterbury, or even from Stonehenge 
to the Straits of Calais, and to which they point as being 
the great and only highway from the west to the east of 
England, calling it the "Pilgrims' Road." The present 
writer has studied with some care the exhaustive treatises 
of Mr. Belloc and Mr. Hope Moncrief, not to mention 
those of Mrs. Ady and General James, but their conclu- 
sions are based on arguments many of which can only be 
termed fantastic. 

It is, of course, admissible that the foot hills on which 
the roads lie were some of the earliest cultivated portions 



of the country side, and therefore included commonly in 
the demesne lands of the later manors through which the 
road runs. It is, perhaps, equally well known that our 
parish churches are almost invariably built near the manor 
house, or at the least within the lord's demesne. The presence 
of a road would doubtless assist the parishioners to reach 
their church, but our imaginative friends point to the situa- 
tion of these very parish churches as evidence that the road in 
question was developed, if not primarily constructed, for the 
religious movement represented by the pilgrimages of the 
Middle Ages. There is, however, no reason to believe that 
the lengths of road alleged to make up the Pilgrims' Road 
are more ancient than the four extensions leading in a 
northerly direction to Dartford and Rochester (as shewn 
upon the Diagram No. 2), nor have I seen any evidence that 
the name of " Pilgrims' Road " is of earlier origin than say 
the reign of Queen Anne. 

The fourth road marked upon the same diagram as run- 
ning from the Surrey boundary through Maidstone, possibly 
quite as ancient and probably always of more importance, 
attracts but little attention from the authors cited. 

So much for our roads, which are at least suggestive of 
a higher civilisation in the Upland than the Weald, and of 
populous places at their termini and points of intersection. 
Populous centres would also develop at an early date where 
the great highways crossed the streams or rivers by bridge 
or ford. 

To return to the more precise line of our argument, we 
know the system of colonization followed by the Romans, 
and this finds a parallel in the course adopted by our own 
Empire in modern times. In Britain there was no exter- 
mination of the aboriginal inhabitants, and so far as 
existing systems could be utilized they were made to con- 
form to the requirements of the Roman law. A survey of 
the new district as a basis for the future land tax, and a 
census of the inhabitants for the purpose of the collection 
of the poll tax, were doubtless made by the Roman governors 
of Britain. Unfortunately no trace of such records has sur- 



vived, for after the withdrawal of the Roman legions the 
Saxon invader either exterminated or expelled the bnlk of 
the native inhabitants and destroyed, as far as he was able, 
every trace and record of the Roman occupation. 

To the Saxon succeeded the Norman, and it is to the 
documentary evidence surviving from a date just prior to 
the commencement of the Norman period that we must 
look for bur earliest information of place-names, not because 
they were new at that date, but because, speaking generally, 
no earlier record is forthcoming. 

With the introduction of Christianity in the 6th century, 
two influences were simultaneously at work in the subdivision 
of our county — the one lay, the other spiritual — the former 
naturally being the older. Both will be found to support the 
main argument in this article, namely, that the development 
of the county was roughly from east to west, while as 
regards West Kent the trend was from north to south. It 
must not be forgotten that in point of time the Christian 
community came first, and the church in which they wor- 
shipped followed. The delimitation of the ecclesiastical 
parish under the spiritual care of its parish priest, for whose 
maintenance the tithes arising from such parish became 
payable, would be likely to follow the boundaries of the 
estate or estates of the landowner or landowners for whose 
benefit the new cure was constituted. Such estates might, 
from the point of view of tenure or service, be held by such 
landowners under more than one over-lord, while from the 
point of view of criminal or other lay jurisdiction the 
parishioners might be under the protection or within the 
jurisdiction of more than one individual or civic tribunal. 
In other words, the new parish might embrace lands held 
of more than one manor, and include parishioners and their 
homesteads which were within the area of the court leet or 
other franchise of more than one over-lord, or were within 
the jurisdiction of the court of more than one liberty or 

The annual payment of tithes growing in value 
with the improved condition of the agricultural inte- 

"the valley oe holmesdale." 161 

rest, and coupled with the fear of eternal damnation, or at 
least temporary exclusion from church privileges, if the 
church's dues were withheld, as well as the practice of 
beating the parochial bounds, would all serve to perpetuate 
the precise limits of the parish. 

But the relatively smaller and progressively dwindling 
revenue to be derived from Courts Leet, Hundred Courts, 
and similar franchises, coupled with the introduction of 
other and better tribunals, has tended to obscure the terri- 
torial limits of these jurisdictions. 

Successive county historians— Lambard, who wrote in 
1570, and Kilburn, who followed in 1659, each made a brave 
effort to perpetuate what was then known. Both point out 
that the boundaries of both lathes and their component 
hundreds do not necessarily follow the actual boundaries of 
parishes, but in many cases intersect them. Lambard com- 
piles his tables from the point of view of taxation, giving 
the fixed contribution for each place to the Tenth and Fif- 
teenth, and this has the merit of shewing the early propor- 
tionate values of the several portions of each parish lying 
within each hundred. Kilburn, on the other hand, takes 
pains to explain which lathe and hundred claims the parish 
church of each intersected parish. There are considerable 
discrepancies between the two records, and both are often 
at variance with Edward Hasted, who wrote shortly after 
1790. Lambard's apparent omissions are bewildering. 
Generally speaking, the entirety of each hundred lies in 
the same bailiwick, and the entirety of each bailiwick lies 
in the same lathe. But there are exceptions. These excep- 
tions may indicate nothing more than that the increase or 
variation in density of the population from time to time 
made an alteration necessary or more convenient. Hasted's 
maps and arrangement are apparently based more or less 
on Lambard and Kilburn, but the maps are obviously only 
approximate and do not indicate all the details mentioned 
by either of the earlier writers, nor do they quite agree with 
the more modern tithe maps or ordnance surveys. 

Starting then with line 12 of page 303 of Kil burn's first 
vol. xxxi, m 



edition, we learn that Kent is divided into two divisions, 
viz., West and East. He then traces the boundary line 
between the two portions of the county through some 27 
parishes. I say " through " advisedly, for we note that 
Kilburn makes this boundary line intersect every one of 
the 27 parishes, leading the reader on from church to 
church l^ke a veritable steeplechase, and this is a very 
real difficulty, for it is found that the better denned eccle- 
siastical area often, and apparently needlessly, overlaps the 
presumably older boundary which had previous^ proved the 
most convenient in matters of lay jurisdiction. 

For the purpose of the Diagram No. 3 an attempt has 
been made to follow the line laid down by the Ordnance 
Survey of 1868. There is, however, some discrepancy, the 
Ordnance Survey introducing as separate hundreds areas 
which by Kilburn are not subdivided. Greater accuracy 
may be attained if and when the land-tax parishes of the 
present time are accurately defined, a matter of no little 
difficulty. The precise bearing which the modern land-tax 
parish has in the matter is explained below. 

The first subdivisions of our county are clearly the 
lathes (see Diagram No. 3), of which seven are mentioned in 
Domesday. Of these no less than five are situated in the 
eastern half of the county, namely, Borowart, Estrei, Mid- 
del tune, Wiwarlet, and Limowart, leaving only Sudtone and 
Elesford to occupy the western half of the county. And it 
is to the men in the lathes in East Kent that William 
referred for evidence as to the crown rights in the county, 
not only in their own area but also in the two lathes of 
West Kent. 

Kilburn gives to West Kent half of the lathe of Scray. 
This half is the lower division constituting ee the Seven 
Hundreds" in the Weald, but Furley, who has a most inte- 
resting chapter on the origin and subsequent consolidation 
of this area, contends that as late as the fourteenth century 
this division had not become an actual part of any one of 
the great lathes in the county. The same point arises in 
regard to the lowy of Tonbridge. Lam bard treats the lowy 

"the valley of holmesdal:e." 163 

as part of Twyford bailiwick. Kilburn considers it an inde- 
pendent area, though both place it in the lathe of Aylesford. 
It is clear, however, that neither the Constable of the town 
of Tonbridge nor any other one constable had responsi- 
bility, as such, for the entire lowy, and therefore Lambard's 
arrangement has been preferred to Kilburn's. 

Assuming the Saxon subdivisions to have been based on 
the number of the inhabitants, the existence of five lathes 
in East Kent, occupying an area for which two lathes suffice 
in West Kent, is evidence that the development of the 
county was from the east westwards. 

Incidentally, Lambard, in his tables of taxation, enume- 
rates his lathes from the east westwards, doubtless the order 
of original importance, and the Domesday of Kent begins 
with Dover. Kilburn, a century later, reverts to the more 
natural order which later writers also follow, and commences 
with West Kent. As regards the names of the lathes, 
Borowart and Estrei early became united as the lathe of 
St. Augustine with its two bailiwicks, which may well 
represent the two earlier lathes. Middeltune and Wiwarlet of 
Domesday Book become the lathe of Sherwinhope, which, 
with the addition of the seven hundreds and the hundred 
of Marden, now figures as the lathe of Scray. Limowart 
becomes Shipway, Elesford remains as Aylesford. But the 
bulk of the bailiwick of Twyford, now forming part of 
Aylesford, is probably a later addition, only the most 
northerly of its five hundreds being mentioned in Domes- 
day. Sudtone became Sutton-at-Hone. Each of the lathes 
was subdivided into two or more bailiwicks. These are also 
shewn on Diagram No. 3, and it is noticeable that, as 
regards West Kent at least, the places giving names to both 
the bailiwicks and the lathes are situated at the northern 
rather than the southern extremity of the area which they 
denote. It is not suggested that the spot giving its name 
to the lathe or bailiwick was necessarily of importance from 
the point of view of its own large population, but rather 
that it formed the most convenient meeting place for the 
bulk of the inhabitants occupying the whole of the area in 


"the valley of holmesdale." 

question. The fact that the place-name is found in the 
northern rather than the southern extremity of each of 
such areas would support the contention that, as regards 
West Kent itself, its civilization and development moved 
from the north in a southerly direction. As regards 
"spiritual." subdivision, it should be borne in mind that 
the Cathedrals of Canterbury and Rochester both lie to the 
eastern rather than the western end of our county, while 
the original Rural Deanery covering the bulk of the Kentish 
Holmesdale derives its name from Shoreham at its northern 

It may well be that the " conversion " and subsequent 
ecclesiastical control of both the Holmesdale and the western 
portion of the Weald of Kent emanated and continued to 
be directed from Shoreham. 

To return to our plan of tracing development by the 
place-names, the subdivision of the bailiwick was the hun- 
dred, just as the subdivision of the hundred was the 
tithing or borough. 

In spite of variations and changes in the tithings recorded 
from time to time, and to a lesser extent in the hundreds 
found in our county, we may with confidence look upon the 
successive divisions of tithing or borough, hundred and 
lathe, as an actual survival to the present day of a system 
which was in existence at the landing of St. Augustine, and 
was still better established on the arrival of King William. 
If this suggestion be right, we have in our tithings or 
boroughs units of local government or control older than 
the parochial system subdivided out of bishopric, arch- 
deaconry, and rural deanery older than the advent of Chris- 
tianity itself, and which perhaps represent the nearest 
approach we can make to the foundation of society as we 
see it among us to-day. 

These Kentish boroughs must not be confounded with 
the better known municipal borough, indicating something 
in the nature of a large provincial town. The Kentish 
borough may well have been but a hamlet or a cluster of 
farm buildings grouped together for the purposes of com- 

t£e Valley o£ hOlmesIdale." 


munal responsibility and represented by a head man, tithing 
man or decener at the hundred court. 

It is stated above that, speaking generally, the bailiwick 
is not subdivided. Two exceptions should be mentioned. 
First as to the bailiwick of Stouting. The place-name of 
this bailiwick is on the extreme western boundary, and near 
to the place-name of the lathe of Shipway, of which it forms 
part. But the easternmost hundred, called Buesborough, 
figures in the adjoining lathe of St. Augustine, and not in 
the lathe of Shipway as do the four other hundreds belonging 
to this bailiwick. Buesborough hundred is intersected by 
the Roman road leading from Dover to Canterbury, and the 
inhabitants could reach Eastry or St. Augustine's at Can- 
terbury, the successive place-names and presumably the 
points of assembly of the bailiwick and lathe to which 
their hundred appears to have been transferred, with much 
greater ease than they could have reached Shipway. 

Similarly as regards the bailiwick of Twyford, in the 
lathe of Aylesford, the hundred of Marden in its south- 
eastern corner figures as part of the adjoining lathe of 
Scray. The reason may be somewhat the opposite of our 
previous instance. Marden was always an appendage of far 
distant Milton, itself a place-name of a Domesday lathe 
afterwards made a bailiwick of Scray. Here it would be a 
convenience for the men of Marden to meet at a bailiwick 
muster in Twyford rather than Milton, though, as soon as 
the seven hundreds and Milton were all included in the 
lathe of Scray, Marden might well be similarly embraced. 

As regards hundreds which figure in more than one baili- 
wick, Kilburn mentions two only. The one is Kinghamford, 
one parish of which, namely Wootton, is included in the 
bailiwick of Eastry rather than the bailiwick of Bridge. 
The advantage is less apparent here. The second instance 
lies in West Kent. Here the four Cray parishes with 
Bexley, all of which lie in the hundred of Ruxley, itself a 
part of the bailiwick of Sutton-Bromley, appear in the baili- 
wick of Sutton-Dartford. The consideration of convenience 
would apply here, with the added advantage of doing some- 


thing towards equalizing the two bailiwicks constituting the 
lathe of Sutton- at-Hone. 

It should also be noticed that the bailiwicks as shewn on 
Diagram No. 3 include several towns which had constables 
of their own, and also areas which were within the liberty 
of the Cinque Ports, and as such the areas in question were 
"exempted from the acting of the Bailiff of these baili- 
wicks," as Kilburn puts it. 

If we now glance at Diagram No. 4, we see the approxi- 
mate outline of the hundreds lying in West Kent and which 
are mentioned in Domesday Book, and of these, those to the 
north are doubtless more constant and accurate than those 
in the south. In this connection the method of the compila- 
tion of Domesday Book must not be forgotten. 

Just as the Roman Governor needed his poll tax and his 
land tax to provide the financial sinews with which alone 
he could establish order and exact a proper return from the 
newly occupied territory, so William the Norman found 
it advisable to have a correct return made to him of the 
yearly values of the whole of the lands in his kingdom which 
were liable to contribute to the national revenue, or which 
had been expressly granted on the basis of contributing to 
the national defence. As a result commissioners were sent 
into every county, at whose instance the several hundred 
courts throughout each county were successively convened. 
Here all and sundry were required to make a sworn return 
as to all lands within the hundred and the annual value 
of such lands, together with the names of their owners and 
the feudal service due from each. 

It is a matter for profound regret that these sworn 
returns, at least as far as Kent is concerned, have perished. 
But prior to this accidental or intentional destruction the 
documents themselves were delivered to government clerks, 
who rearranged the subject-matter for each county, not 
according to the hundreds in which the various estates lay, 
but according to the several great landowners by whom they 
were held. As a result we get in Domesday Book a return 
in fiefs of each of the great spiritual and lay landowners in 



Courts Leet in Holmesdale 

, low Woolmeh 




Q f*OT£H AAf J 

LA Codsheath \5ea? \ 




the county, under whose names appear in succession as sub- 
divisions the several hundreds in which they owned land. 
An examination of Domesday Book at once makes it clear 
how easy it would be to omit altogether the name of any 
hundred^ especially if the whole of its area were in one land- 
owner's hands. The hundred of Oodsheath in the Holmes- 
dale Valley is a case in point. I do not doubt its existence 
as an ascertained and named hundred, but the whole is 
answered for under the name of Qtf ord, and although Otford 
is mentioned (as, apparently, part of Axtane hundred), the 
hundred of Codsheath escapes enumeration. Codsheath is 
the modern Riverhead. Brasted Upland is part of Wester- 
ham hundred, but is not so recorded. La Sela, the modern 
manor of Kemsing and Seal, is mentioned as part of Helmes- 
trei (now Ruxley) hundred, doubtless an error. The whole is 
now considered part of Codsheath hundred, but, as appears 
below, the inhabitants answered to a separate court leet of 
their own and not to Codsheath. The ville of Brasted similarly 
possessed its own court leet and was outside any hundred. 
In or near the area marked Somerden are indicated parts of 
Leigh and Speldhurst parishes which answered at the court 
leet of Kemsing and Seal, and parts of Hever parish which 
are detached portions of the hundred of Ruxley. The area 
in which Tonbridge is marked is Washlingstone, a hundred 
not mentioned in Domesday Book. This includes the whole 
or parts of the parish of Tonbridge (which answered to the 
courts leet of the Town borough, the Hilden borough, or 
the South borough respectively) , and also the whole or 
parts of the parishes of Speldhurst, Pembury, Bidborough, 
TucJ.eley, Penshurst, etc., which answered at the hundred 
court of Washlingstone. There does not seem to have been 
any court for the lowy of Tonbridge as such. 

Other than those mentioned, I do not know of any court 
leet within the Holmesdale Valley. Hasted writes of a 
court leet for the manor of Chevening, and a copy of the 
Parliamentary Return of 1650 which he quotes is before me. 
The Manorial Records, however, make it clear that there 
was no such court leet. 


Forest courts were held for the Frith forests in Ton- 
bridge, and probably for Whitley forest near Ide Hill. 
There were certainly pannage rights over the latter needing 

The place-names where the men of the several hundreds 
presumably met are, it will be noticed, in the north rather 
than the south part of each hundred. Some place-names I 
cannot indicate. After all, the hundred, except for the pur- 
pose of roughly indicating the situation of the fief, has no 
importance in Domesday, the hundred court, as a source of 
revenue, being probably included in the value of the manor 
or honor of which it was an appendage. Possibly the bulk 
of the hundreds of Somerden and Washlingstone consisted 
of outlying portions of Upland hundreds, with which they 
lost touch at an early date. 

The Diagram No. 4 must therefore be considered but a 
faulty record, and this is the more certain when it is remem- 
bered that, owing to omissions and mistakes of the clerks 
who compiled the Domesday records, places so wide apart as 
Brasted and Ulcombe are returned as being in the hundred 
of Axtane ; that Mailing, Trosley and Snodland are all 
returned as part of Bromley hundred ; while Northbourne 
and Eastry, lying on the east fringe of the county, figure as 
part of Somerden hundred, which lies in the extreme south- 
west corner of West Kent. 

This rearrangement from hundreds to fiefs is complicated 
by a further occurrence. The Holmesdale adjoins the 
Wealden forest or valley, and it is found that every Domesday 
manor in the Holmesdale originally extended for a consider- 
able distance into the Weald. This inclusion of portions of 
the Weald in the manors outside its limits is the rule rather 
than the exception, and surviving records shew that in per- 
haps every instance of an early grant of a manor or estate 
in the Upland of Kent some integral part of the Weald or 
some rights thereover, restricted in kind though indefinite 
as to locality, were included in such grant. It may well be 
that all these rights were at first exercisable over the whole 
valley and did not carry with them precise ownership of any 



portion, but I think that, anyhow, they ultimately crystal- 
lised into the absolute ownership in severalty of some ascer- 
tained portion of the Wealden valley, and that as a set-off 
against this all rights over any other portion were relin- 
quished. And this is the probable explanation of the denes 
which Mr. Furley, in his History of the Weald, enumerates 
in so large a number. Each of these may, I suggest, repre- 
sent an original grant of pannage for a defined number of 
hogs and other right throughout the valley, which after- 
wards evolved into the absolute ownership of a small farm 
holding, the general pannage and other rights over the 
entirety being given up. 

For the subdivision of the hundreds we must look to 
the boroughs or tithings, and in this connection we have a 
most interesting survival. The national revenue, as raised 
for the national defence, was known from a very early date 
as " scutage," being the shield money, primarily a compo- 
sition or fine paid in lieu of the personal attendance of the 
individual landowner, though later we find the word loosely 
used not only to indicate the levy strictly so called, but also 
embracing the various dona and auocilia demanded and 
received by the crown on the same occasions. At a later 
date we find the scutage represented by the lay subsidy, 
and, although scutage was originally collected on a fief 
assessment, it became convenient to collect the lay subsidy 
on a lathe, hundred, and borough assessment throughout 
the country. 

We know that the hundred court was constituted by repre- 
sentatives from each of the tythings or boroughs within its 
limits, and the court leet or view of frankpledge, which we 
so often find as a component part of the jurisdiction of the 
lord of the hundred (or manor) court, was commonly held 
at the same time. But long after the view of frankpledge 
had ceased to have any real importance, and the hundred 
court as such had ceased to be of any effective use, we still 
find the borough appearing as a unit for the collection of 
the lay subsidy. With the passing of the lay subsidy for 
the better known imposition of the land tax, we still find 



the borough as the unit of assessment, and it is a most 
interesting fact that when the land tax assessment was made 
permanent in 1794 the borough was then and is still retained 
as the unit of assessment and collection. 

In many cases the borough has the same name as the 
corresponding parish, but, even where the name is identical, 
it will be frequently seen that the boundaries are dissimilar, 
while in other cases it will be found that although the whole 
of the civil parish pays land tax there is no borough of cor- 
responding name, but the parish in question is still sub- 
divided amongst various land tax boroughs of totally 
different nomenclature. 

The boundaries of these boroughs,, or land tax parishes 
as they are called, is a fruitful source of complaint, as they 
have never been delimitated by way of record, nor is even 
the oldest inhabitant in any way able to give information of 
the least use, while the collector himself is usually thankful 
if he can get in his quota of tax, and his statutory surplus 
for his own pocket, without troubling too much from what 
land he gets it. But none the less we may look to the 
modern land tax parish as representing a unit of assessment 
at least as old as the imposition of scutage, and possibly as 
old as the Dane Geld. 

As regards the actual boundaries of the boroughs, I had 
attempted to present an approximate diagram. The diffi- 
culties of this, however, are so great without an immense 
amount of study of the surviving Land Tax Assessments, 
that it must be postponed and a short enumeration substi- 
tuted. Commencing with the surviving Rolls for Westerham 
hundred, we find four tythings represented by their ty thing 
men, viz. : Westerham Town, Westerham Upland, Eden- 
bridge, and Brasted Upland. Brasted Town or Ville has 
separate jurisdiction. These five boroughs still survive, 
with the same names as the land tax parishes. Proceeding 
eastwards into Codsheath hundred in the Rolls of, say, 1533, 
we have these boroughs or tythings : Halstead, Shoreham, 
Upsepham (in Shoreham), Chevening, Otford, Riverhead, 
Sevenoaks, and the Bailiwick (of Sundridge). A hundred 


years later Upsepham disappears, but Sevenoaks Weald 
returns a separate tything man. With this alteration the 
whole eight boroughs have survived as modern land tax 

It may be mentioned that the jurors at the hundred 
court appoint aletasters for Sevenoaks, Otford, Shoreham, 
and Chevening boroughs, and a leather searcher, a leather 
sealer, and a leather register for the market borough of 

Still proceeding eastwards we find separate boroughs or 
tythings for Kemsing, Seal, and parts of Leigh and Speld- 
hurst represented at the court leet for Kemsing-and-Seal, 
with jurisdiction outside the Codsheath hundred court. 

Proceeding into the Wealden valley, the hundred of 
Somerden is attended by tything men from the tythings or 
boroughs of Stanford (principally in Edenbridge), Cowden, 
Chiddingstone, Frinden Borough (in Chiddingstone), and 
Penshurst. By 1670 Penshurst has become subdivided into 
the boroughs of Penshurst Town and Penshurst Upland, and 
Groombridge appears. Sherbourne Borough alias Hall- 
borough (in Penshurst), and Kingsborough (in Chidding- 
stone) also appear as separate boroughs with separate courts 
leet or views of frankpledge. 

The whole of the above names are still found as land tax 
parishes, except that Prindsboro' and Chiddingstone appear 
as Chiddingstone North and Chiddingstone South. Charcot 
(in or near Leigh) now appears as a land tax parish, though 
not as a borough represented at the Somerden hundred 
court. And excepting the land tax parishes of Hallborough 
and Groombridge (now in the Tonbridge land tax division), 
the whole of the hundreds of Westerham, Somerden, and 
Codsheath, with Kemsing and Seal, are now grouped together 
as the Sevenoaks land tax division. 

In recent years the land tax parish of Linkhill (princi- 
pally in Hever and previously administered from Bromley) 
has been transferred to the Sevenoaks list. In the area 
touched on, Hever is the only civil parish which has no 
counterpart as a land tax parish. But how many are there 

1*72 "tke Valley of lib l m Est) ale. ^ 

amongst my readers who could define the present land tax 
parishes of Linkhill, Stanford Borough, Charcot, or Kings- 
borough, none of them being very far from Hever ; or, to pass 
eastwards into the Tonbridge division, the land tax parishes 
of Hallborough, Badmonden, Sinningley, and Teperidge ? 

We now come to Diagram No. 5, in which I have 
attempted to indicate the manors or fiefs mentioned in 
Domesday, and which embrace the western portion of our 
Kentish Holinesdale. In this connection we must bear in 
mind the existence of the Wealden portions of the Upland 
manors. Perhaps the most noticeable instance of this is 
found in the estates of Eichard of Tonbridge, which are 
recorded in Domesday. The castle of Tonbridge was doubt- 
less not, as such, liable to Dane Geld, and Tonbridge itself 
is not returned in Domesday. But in the case of at least 
twenty-two of the Upland manors of West Kent, we find 
repeated seriatim "what Richard of Tonbridge holds in 
his lowy is worth " so much. The lowy of Tonbridge is 
the district immediately surrounding the castle of the 
same name, and it is inconceivable that the portions held 
by Richard of Tonbridge in this lowy lay anywhere else 
than the approximate neighbourhood of the castle. When 
it is found that the Upland manors in question include 
places such as Farningham, Northfleet, Stone, Frindsbury, 
Meopham, Milton, Ash, Hailing, Cowling, etc., the only 
logical conclusion is that the portion of each of these 
manors held by Richard was a severed portion lying in the 
Weald of Kent, and that Richard of Tonbridge had, at the 
date of the Domesday survey, succeeded in acquiring the 
whole of such severed portions and consolidated them into 
one great estate. 

It may not be generally known that the western half of 
the parish of West Peckham, next Hadlow, still represents 
a severed part of the hundred of Hoo. Kilburn and the 
Ordnance Survey agree here. The present estate of Meo- 
pham Bank in Hildenborough may be an interesting and 
accurate survival of a feudal connection. 

To return to the diagram. The Domesday Westerham 

Domeaday Fiefs and Manors 



fS'S' Shorsham 

»:::• + 
./<v « .... 


I Kern* 

w < 
1 x 

a * 


X> '. .«* If* 

pt r 

Q " 



# o 

/: ■ ■' CO K .i ^ 



m. ... o 



Ton bridge 





"the valley of holmesdale." 


undoubtedly included the greater part of the present parish 
of Edenbridge, and is so shewn. As to the residue of Eden- 
bridge, the Marsh Green portion appears, from the records 
in my own hands, as part of the manor of Cudham, while 
the western portion constituted the little manor of Broxham, 
of which I happen to be steward, and which was itself a 
severed portion of the Upland manor of Bromley extending 
into Westerham, Hever, and Chiddingstone. Similarly the 
greater part of the parish of Cowden was comprised, 
according to the records in my own hands, in the manor of 
Lewisbam, and the records of Lewisham manor shew clearly 
that at an early date this severed portion in Cowden was 
just as much a part of the manor of Lewisham as the larger 
area now constituting part of the county of London. 

The Domesday Brasted probably comprised neither more 
nor less than the whole of the present parish. The manor 
records in my care bear this out. 

The Sundridge of Domesday was quite a different matter. 
The court rolls in my own bands make it quite clear that 
the manor of Sundridge not only comprised the whole of the 
parish of that name, but the bulk of the present parish of 
Chiddingstone, a portion of Hever, and possibly of other 
parishes, but some portion of Chiddingstone, as well as of 
the adjoining parishes, may well have represented the 
Wealden portions of other Upland manors. 

The Domesday Otford is, perhaps, the most interesting 
of all the Domesday manors in our district. I conjecture 
that in early Saxon times the Otford manor included the 
manors of both Brasted and Sundridge, and from almost 
every conceivable point of view Otford must originally have 
been one of the most important places in West Kent. At 
the time of Cranmer's surrender to King Henry VIII. the 
revenue of Otford manor, and the area of the land actually 
retained in the Archbishop's own hands or let by him at 
rack rentals, proves that it remained to that date one of the 
most valuable estates in the district. At the date of Domes- 
day it undoubtedly included the parishes of Shoreham, 
Otford, Chevening, Sevenoaks, Penshurst, and parts of other 



adjoining 1 parishes. In the early records in my own charge 
Penshurst figures as Penshurst Halemote alias Otford Weald, 
and ultimately Shoreham, Chevening, Sevenoaks, and Pens- 
hurst Halemote became separate reeveships or manors. 

With Otford, from the earliest times, went the hundred 
court of Codsheath, and for a long, if perhaps a lesser, period 
the hundred court of Somerden. The manorial estates with 
their palatial halls of Penshurst Place and Knole were 
undoubtedly merely sub-manors of Otford, the subinfeu- 
dation of the former, equally with other sub- manors in the 
Penshurst district, which are now but farm estates, being 
conclusively proved by the records in my hands. 

As regards Knole, both Otford and Knole were from an 
early date simultaneously in the hands of the Archbishops, 
but the early connection between Knole and the adjoining 
manor of Kemsing,, upon which Hasted lays so much stress, 
may be largely disregarded. 

Proceeding still in the westerly direction we come 
to the manor of Kemsing and Seal. This area figures in 
Domesday as La Sela, and by reason of the hundred in which 
La Sela is there placed, Hasted erroneously concludes that 
La Sela is the manor of Langley-by-Bromley. The manor 
in question is, however, found described sometimes as " The 
Manor of Kemsing with La Sela/' or, "with the Seal lands," 
or in later times as " The Manor of Kemsing and Sele." I 
have no doubt that the explanation of the whole is that 
there was a separate and distinct area lying outside the 
jurisdiction of the neighbouring hundred courts of Cods- 
heath and Wroth am respectively, but including the Saxon 
boroughs of Kemsing and Sele, and also a third, or possibly 
two other boroughs situated in Leigh and Speldhurst. In 
any event, in the earliest remaining records, the bulk of 
which are in my own hands, we find that the resiants in the 
three areas did not attend the hundred court of Codsheath 
or that of Wrotham, but had their own court leet at Kem- 
sing, attended by deceners or tithing men with their tithings 
from Kemsing, Sele, and Leigh with part of Speldhurst 


From a point of view of territorial sub-infeudation the 
claim of the tenant in capite as over-lord was, or early 
became, rather less extensive than his jurisdiction as owner 
of the court leet, being apparently limited to the modern 
parishes of Kemsing and Seal. 

A castle is reputed to have been erected at Kemsing at 
an early date ; possibly it was one of the adulterine castles 
erected in the troublous reign of King Stephen, and 
shortly afterwards demolished. The name is perpetuated in 
"Castle Bank Cottages/' still so called, in Kemsing village. 
The importance of the castle may well have led to the " La 
Sela " of Domesday giving way to the " Kemsing and Sele," 
which was the later description of the manor. 

Still proceeding westwards we come to the Domesday 
Wrotham, an area which doubtless included the Domesday 
(c Little Wrotham," a name still perpetuated within the 
district and marked on the ordnance maps. This Domesday 
Wrotham included the modern parishes of Stansted, Wrot- 
ham, Ightham, Shipbourne, all of which subsequently 
became separate reeveships or separate manors, but, except 
for Shipbourne, which appears to have been detached at 
an early date, the remaining three manors and the hundred 
court of Wrotham have continued to the present time in 
the same hands. Mr. John Knocker is steward. This 
manor was, equally with Otford, part of the estates surren- 
dered by Cranmer to King Henry VIII. 

A study of Diagram No. 5 will shew that on the whole 
the number of the boroughs lying within the jurisdiction 
of the several hundred courts or courts leet at the date 
of Domesday (see page 170) was generally larger than 
the several reeveships or manors into which the original 
Domesday manors gradually evolved. But these manors, 
thus created by subdivision, must not be confused with the 
subsidiary estates created by express sub-infeudation and 
themselves held of the greater manor or honor with which 
we have been dealing. 

The question of sub-infeudation raises a further and 
last point for the purposes of this Paper, and the concludin 



Diagram, No. 6, represents an attempt to classify these 
various sub-manors. 

One of the Domesday manors in question, namely 
Otford, subsequent to its surrender to the crown, became 
elevated into an honor. It must not be forgotten that 
the greater manors throughout England were, in many 
instances, repeatedly forfeited to the crown, and upon their 
re-grant the system of sub-infeudation was on occasion 
varied. Nor have I in every case conclusive evidence to 
offer as to the grouping of the various sub-manors in the 
table. It must be accepted in certain respects as con- 

What then is the conclusion ? That, as part of the lathe 
of Sutton at Hone (Diagram No. 3), the development of the 
Holmesdale was less rapid than the Upland portion of the 
lathe in which the place-name is situate, but more rapid than 
the Wealden portion, which occupies a still more remote 
position. And the same result is reached if the enquiry is 
limited to the bailiwick of Sutton-Bromley, of which the 
Holmesdale forms part. 

Turning now to the question of hundreds (Diagram 
No. 4), we notice the comparatively large size of the two 
hundreds of Ruxley and Axtane, which bound the Holmes- 
dale on the north. The position of the place-names of those 
hundreds suggests greater development to the more open 
north rather than the south, which is reputed to have been 
densely wooded. The positions of the place-names of the 
hundreds, or court leet areas within the Holmesdale, as well 
as their number, clearly suggest a development of earlier 
date and intensity than in the Wealden Valley to the south, 
and, equally of course, than in the southern portions of the 
Upland hundreds of E-uxley and Axtane. 

From the point of view of Fiefs (Diagram No. 5), the 
conclusion is more striking. Here we have half a dozen 
manors, extending in two instances to the Sussex boundary. 
All the manor houses lie along the middle line of the 
Holmesdale and near the northern extremities of each 
manor, pointing to the same superiority of the Holmesdale 

The Honouk or Manor of OTFORD (wi 





— chipstead place 












-pt WEEKE 

of the Reeveships 





-pt WEEKE 




als. DUNTON 




















— DO. JjROCAS ? 

Note. — Cheveniiig, 
Sevenoaks, Otford Wjn,,; 
created by subdivision 

[No. 6. — The Holmesdale Sub-Manors, 

the Great Park and Whitley Forest), 

irds Manors) of 






ah. n: \ sin; EST 


























— wickhur8t 
1 — orkesden 



jTehaui, Otford, 
and Dachurst 
j others by sub- 
















H. W. Knocker, 

Seven oaks. 


over the Wealden Valley, and, to a progressive development 
from the north, southwards. 

As regards the order of importance of the several great 
manors within the Holmesdale itself, Otford (including cer- 
tain fee farm rents payable from Sundridge and Brasted) 
comes easily first ; Wrotham and Westerham follow in the 
order named, with Sundridge and Brasted, each held under 
Otford, next in order. Kemsing-and-Seal is in a peculiar 
position. From an early date there seems to have been no 
manor house, Nihil in clominio, except the manor wastes 
with probably some water meadows on the Kern sing 


( 178 ) 


Prom MS. clxxx., Society of Antiquaries o£ London. 

In the library of the Society of Antiquaries amongst the 
Thorpe MSS. is a thin folio volume,, numbered clxxx., con- 
taining extracts from the Parish Registers of twenty-three 
parishes in West Kent. A list of these is given on pages 40-1 
of The Parish Registers and Records in the Diocese of Rochester, 
published by the Kent Archaeological Society in 1912. Of 
the parish registers named no less than six have unfortunately 
been lost since the extracts were made, and it has been 
thought desirable to place the entries preserved to us in this 
MS. on permanent record in these pages. 

The extracts are all in one handwriting, and appear to 
have been made in 1726-7. The entries it will be noted 
nearly all relate to the clergy and gentry, and apparently 
one of the particular objects of the transcriber was to collect 
the names of the parochial clergy. 

The extracts have not been rearranged, but are printed 
exactly as in the transcripts, since they appear to preserve 
for us the make-up of the original registers. 

SELE, Ao. 1561. 

Transcript. Kegistr. incipit Nov. 18. A 0 l m0 G-ylberti Jenyns 
Vicarii ib: et A 0 Eliz. Begin. 4 t0 . 

1561 Nov. 24 John s. of John Tebold, gent., Bapt. 

1563 May 20 Silvester d. of John Tebold, gent., Bapt. 

1564 Oct, 30 Alyco d. of John Tebald, gent., Bapt. 












































lob 1 

In ov. 

1 o 




A.pi . 














June 14 

R. Eliz., A 0 

































Clemence Tebald d. of John Tebald, gent. 
Thomas s. of John Theobald, gent., Bapt. 
Thomas s. of John Tebald, gent., Bapt. 
A liny s d. of John Tebold, gent., Bapt. 
Robarte s. of John Tebald, gent., Bapt. 
Clemens d. of Gervis (?) Ruse, gent., Bapt. 
Myles s. of Gylberte Jenyns Bapt. 
Rychard s. of John Tebald, gent., Bapt. 
Selvester d. of Stephen Tebauld alias Theabauld, 

gent., Bapt. 
Roger s. of Thomas Nevenson, gent., Bapt. 
Margett d. of Stephen Tebauld, gent., Bapt. 
Rychard s. of Gylberte Jenyns Bapt. 
Dorothy d. of Stephen Tebold, gent., Bapt. 
Katherine d. of Wylliam Gomel], gent., Bapt. 
Rychard s. of John Tebald of Stampett, gent.. 


Stephen s. of John Tebold of the Towne, Bapt. 
Clemens d. of John Teobald Bapt. 
Grysogon d. of John Tebold of Kemsyng, gent., 
Bapt. there. 

Gylbert Jenyns was this yeare Minister of Seale. 

William Potter & Alyce Howell Mar. 
Robarte Olyver & Dorothv d. of James Porter 

John Mongke of Kemsyng & Selvester d. of 

Thomas Olyver of Fauke Mar. 
Feb. 13 Cerys Bure & Eliz: d. of John Tebold, 

gent., Mar. 

Thomas Wale of London, gent., & Katherine 

Tebold of Seele, gentlewoman, widow, Mar. 
Tho: Nevenson, gent., & Anne d. of Richard 

Tebald, gent., Mar. 
Robarte Goclden & Eliz. Ruse, gent., Mar. 
William Gosenoll of the Middle Temple, gent., 

& Katherine d. of Rychard Theabold of y s p'ish, 

gent., Mar. 
Thomas Colleu & Dorothy Theabold Mar. 
James Charles, Min. & Preacher, & Margret 

Teabold, gent., Mar. 
Rychard Holden of Cranbroke & Anne Tebold 

of this parish Mar. 
M r Sylyard was at this time Parson of Ightam. 
Edward Vane of Sevenoke & Alee Wauller of y e 

same, Mar. 

Henry Harvy, Esqr., of this parish & Dorothy 

Sybbeil of Farningham, gent., widow, Mar. 
Robarte Vane & Eme Hatcher, widdow, Mar. 

n 2 


1598 May 8 Edward Myehyll of Redwyche, gent., & Katherine 
Theabold of this p'ish, gent., Mar. 

1509 Jan. 20 Myles Jenyns of y s p'ish & Anne Pattoeke of 
Wrotham, Mar. 

1567 June 18 Clemens d. of M r John Tebold Bur. 

1568 Oct. 21 Thomas s. of John Tebald Bur. 
1568 Mar. 2 M 1 ' Ryehard Tebald Bur. 

1570 Jan. 12 Anne d. of John Tebold, gent., Bur. 

1572 Dec. 18 Robarte s. of John Tebold, gent., Bur. 

1575 Oct. 23 Ryehard s. of John Tebold, gent., Bur. 

1576 May 21 Clement d. of Seryus Ruse, gent., Bur. 

1577 July 6 Semester d. of Stephen Tebald, gent., Bur. 
1577 Febr. 26 John Teabald, gent., Bur. 

1580 July 27 Katherine d. of Seryuse Ruse, gent., Bur. 

1580 Febr. 8 Dorothy d. of Stephen Theabold, Esq., Bur. 

1581 Oct. 3 Sara d. of . . . . Thorpe of London, Bur. 

1582 Oct. 11 Katheren wife of Stephen Tebold, Esq., Bur. 
1584 Jan. 30 John s. of Samson Lennard, Esq., Bur. 
1586 Sept. 10 Joane d. of John Tebold Bur. 

1586 Nov. 8 Avys d. of "William Gosenell, gent., Bur. 

1587 May 4 Joane d. of Ryehard Blage, gent., Bur. 

1587 July 29 Eliz. d. of Ryehard Teabold, Esq, Bur. 

1588 Mar. 20 Katherine wife of John Tebold of y e Towne, Bur. 
1596 Nov. 19 M 1 Richard Holman Bur. 

1598 July 4 Thomas s. of Tho: Gylman of Shoreham, gent. 


1599 June 28 Tho. s. of Tho. G-ylman, gent. Bur. 

Desinit Mar. 28, 1600. 

Added in another hand. — In this Register also are enter'd many 
of the name of Porter of Hall and Charte, Olyver of Faulke and 
Kettells, Potter, Godwine, Rumney, Pelred, Monke, Pollhill, 
Waller, Goodhugh, Hylles, etc. 


Transcript. Registr incipit A 0 1567. 

1567 .... Thomas Baynarde then Parson there ? 

1567 Apr. 2 Margaret d. of Francys Shakerley Bapt. 

1569 Dec. 17 Alexander s. of Edwarde Tylman, gent, Bapt. 

1569 .... Edmund Goddin, Parson there ? It. 1582, 1593 

1567 May 12 Edward Tylman & Margaret Breuer Mar. 

1576 June 24 Rowland Shakerley, gent. Bur. 

1582 Nov. 26 John s. of Edward Goddin Bapt. 

1587 Jan, 7 Edmund s, of Edmund Goddin Bapt, 


1589 Nov. 22 Eliz. d. of Richard Bruer, gent., Bapt. 

1590 Nov. 21 Margaret d. of Richard Brewer, gent., Bapt. 

1592 Apr. 3 Catherine d. of Richard Brewer, gent., Bapt. 

1593 Apr. 30 Martha Brewer, thelder, d. of Richard Brewer, 

gent., Bapt. 

1594 Dec. 22 Martha B., the yonger, y e d. of Richard Brewer, 

gent., Bapt. 

1595 May 6 Richard s. of Thomas Shakerley, gent., Bapt. 

1596 Aug. 24 Marie d. of Richard Shakerley, gent., Bapt. 

1597 Aug. 9 Mary d. of Richard Brewer, gent., Bapt. 

1598 July 27 Wyllyam s. of Rychard Brewer, gent., Bapt. 

1598 Febr. 9 William s. of Richard Shakerley, gent., Bapt. 

1599 July 15 John s. of Richard Shakerley, gent., Bapt. 
1599 Jan. 12 Ellin d. of Richard Brewer, gent., Bapt. 

1593 Oct. 3 Frauncis Shakerley, gent., Bur. 

1594 Oct. 16 Martha d. of Richard Brewer, gent., Bur. 
1596 Apr. 11 M 1S Erasma Shakerley, vidue, Bur. 

1598 Dec. 22 William s. of Richard Shakerley, gent., Bur. 
Desinit A 0 1599. 


Transcript. Registr. incipit A 0 1640. 

1644 Sept. 15 Charles & Tho. sons of Charles Beeseike Bapt. 

1646 Mar. 25 William s. of Tho. Kipping of Tendly Bapt. 

1659 May 10 Robert s. of Robert Remmington Bapt. 

1661 Jan. 23 Isaac s. of Isaac Lafham Bapt. 

1654 Mar. 1 Clemens wife of Robert Remmington Bur. 
1653 [?] May 13 Robert Kipping Bur. 

1662 .... Samuel Van-Luer [or Van-dure] then Vicar of 


Desinit A 0 1661. 


Transcript. Regist. incipit A 0 1559. 

1560 Nov. 4 Robert Lewker, gent., & Johane Bleke, Mar. 

1562 Oct. 4 Mary d. of M r Richard Fane Bapt. 

1563 Mar. 5 Jone d. of M 1 ' Richard Vane Bapt. 

1564 Mar. 26 Mary d. of M 1 ' Robert Walker Bapt. 

1564 Oct. 6 Katherine wife of M r W m Blunt, gent., Bur. 

1565 Jan. 20 William s. of John Budgen Bapt. 


John s. of M r . . . . Walker Bapt. 
Clement d. of M 1 ' John Waller Bapt. 
M 1 ' John Waller Bur. at Speldhurst. He died at 

Henry Alexander & Bridget Lewkner -Mar. 
Edward Ewers & Alice Latter, widow, Mar. 
M r John Styler & M rs Mary Waller Mar. 
William s. of M r Parpoynte Bapt. 
William Eyvers Bur. 
Sybell d. of Edward Eyvers Bapt. 
Eobart Cassinghurst & Jone Bndgen Mar. 
Eliz. wife of M 1 ' Eobart Lewknor, Esq., Bur. 
Katherine d. of M 1 ' Steven Teboll Bapt. 
John s. of John Budgen Bur. 
Eliz: d. of M r Richard Waller Bapt. 
M r G-eo. Wilkyns & M rs Mary Waston d. of 

M* Michaell Waston Mar. 
Martha d. of Edw. Ewers Bapt. 
John s. of M r Eychard Waller Bapt. 
John s. of M r Eychard Waller Bur. 
M 1 ' Michaell Waston Bur. in y e south chancell 
M 1 ' Eobert Lewknor, Esq r , Bur. in y e chancell 
M rs Margaret Banbricke Bur. at Speldhurst 
Edw. s. of Edward Eyvers Bapt. 
Eliz. Eyvers Bur. 

Alice wif John G-oddon, vicar, Bur. 
Thomas s. of M r Eichard Waller Bapt, 
.... d. of Eichard Polhill Bapt. 
Eychard Johnson & Hellen Budgen Mar. 
Henry s. of M r Nicholas Draper Bapt, 
Eychard Thorpe & Bridget Coale Mar. 
John Chart, minister of this parish, & Clemenc 

Clark d. of John Clark, Mar. 
Margaret d. of M r Eychard Waller, gent., Bapt. 
Erauncis s. of M r Shakerley Bapt. 
John Smith & Eliz. Combridge, widow, mar. 
Thomas s, of Eychard Polhill Bapt. 
.odecimo Baptizatus decimo quinto die mensis 
Marcii Joannes h'lius Joannis Chart ministri et 
concinatoris de Leigh. 
1592 June 10 John s. of John Chart, dark, Bur. 
1592 Dec. . . M r Henry Lea, vicar of Linton, & Joane .... 

1592 Jan. 2 John s. of M c Eichard Waller Bapt. 

1593 July 24 Barbara d. of Eichard Polhill of Tonbridge Bapt. 
1593 July 29 Anne d. of M r John Werton Bapt. 

1593 Jan. 18 An infant of Nicholas Gybbyns. minister and 

preacher of y e word of God, Bur. 
1593 Eeb. 1 Anne wife of Thomas Baker, gent., Bur. 







15 137 




Sept. 26 





























June 11 


























June 29 
































Sept. 29 


Natus d 


Tho. Budgen & Alice Ryvers Mar. 
Joan wife of John Budgen Bur. 
Olyver Budgen & Eliz. Goldsmith Mar. 
Joan d. of Olyver Budgen Bapt. 
Thomas s. of Jonn Chart, minister of Leigh, 

M r Richard Waller, Esq., Bur. 
Eliz. d. of Olyver Budgen Bapt. 
John Martin, gent., & Mildred Stace Mar. 
John Budgen [Bur.] 
Thomas Baker, gent., Bur. 
Mary d. of Olyver Budgen Bapt. 
Edward By vers, yeoman, Bur. 
[Regist desinit hoc anno. 

Signed Jo. Charte, Vicar of Lighe.~\ 

Added later. — In this Register also are enter'd several of the 
names of Watson, Walker, Shiler, Children, etc. 

1 c^QQ 









1 PC Q K 



1 KQK 


June 22 















































Sept. 26 





Sept. 29 




















Incipit A 0 1562. 

William Cloughe, Parson of Luddesdowne, Bur. 
Henrye Jacson, person of Luddesdowne, Bur. 
Robert Downes, curate of this p'ish, Bur. 
G-usanne dau. of M r Wiseman of Cookestone 

William s. of Cadwalader Lewes, p'son of this 

parishe, Bapt. 
Ursula d. of Cadwalader Lewes, p'son of this 

p'ish, Bapt. 

Thomas s. of Cadwalader Lewes, p'son of y s P'ish, 

Katherine d. of M r Cradocke Bapt. 

Rachel! wife of M r Cradocke Bur. 

Eliz. d. of M r Barlowe Bapt. 

Nevill s. of M r Cradocke Bapt. 

Johannes Cradocke sepultus. 

Eliz. d. of M r Cradocke Bapt. 

Thomas Ditchfeild, p'son of this p'ishe, and 

Mabell Coye Mar. 
Herbert Shell y, gent., & Mary Cooke, gent, Mar. 
Mary d. of the. Ditchfield, p'son of y s P'ish. 


Mary wife of Tho. Ditchfeild, p'son of y s P'ish, 


1615 Mar. 7 M r Charles Nevill, Esq r , Bur. 
1615 Mar. 21 M r Tho. Nevill, Esq 1 ', Bur. 
1615 Mar. 24 M 1 ' Jhon Nevill, Esq 1 ', Bur. 
1620 Oct. 1 Joanne d. of M r Norton Bapt. 

1628 Sept. 5 Thomas Ditchfeild, Rector of Luddesdowne, Bur. 
1631 Sept. 29 Jane d. of John Johnson, Rector of Luddesdown, 

& Benedicta his wife Bapt. 
1633 Aug. 29 William s. of John Johnson, R 1 ' of Luddesdown, 

1642 Mar. 25 Frances d. of M r W m Wiseman & Anne his wife 


1643 July 27 Charles s. of M 1 ' W m Wiseman & Anne his wife 


1636 June 30 Henry Selby of Roch r & Mary Evans of Lond. 

1638 Sept. 22 Augustine Cosar of Roch 1 ", Physician, and Alice 

Dering of Luddesdowne, dau r of M r Einch 

Dering of Charing, Mar. 
1642 Apr. 22 Nicholas s. of John Johnson, Rector of Lnddes- 

downe, & Eliz. dau. of Tho. Browne of Cuxton 


1629 Dec. 26 Captain Charles Johnson father of John Johnson, 

Rector of Luddesdow r ne, Bur. 
1657 Mar. 20 John Johnson, Rector of this parish, Bur. 
1659 Apr. 21 Bartholomew Pinckney, Rector of this Parish, 


1659 July 12 William Whittle seems to have been soon after 
this time Rector of Luddesdowne. 

1659 . . . . Benedicta wife of John Johnson, R r of y s p'ish, 

1661 Sept. 12 Hester d. of W m Whittle, R r , and Anne his wife 

1663 July 23 Thurston s. of W m Whittle, rector, etc., Bapt. 

Here are also enter'd several other children of M r John Johnson 
& M r Whittle, rectors of this Church. 

M 1 ' Thornton informs me that M 1 ' W m Whittle was son of 
M 1 " .... Whittle, Vicar of East Mailing, and he believes he was 
buried at East Mailing near his Father. 

M 1 ' Burleston succeeded M r W m Whittle in this Rectory and 
exchanged it with M 1 * Stephen Thornton (the present Rect 1 ') for the 
Rectory of Warehorne. M r Burleston had also the Rectory of 
Midley. He was buried either at Teston or Watringbury ; sed 

At the end of this Register-book are enter'd several Christnings , 
Marriages, and Burials, solemnized by M 1 ' John Johnson at several 
churches in this diocese, during the time he was sequestered from 
this Benefice, in the great Rebellion. 

EXTRACTS from lost: KENTISH registers. 185 

On a separate sheet of paper : — - 

W ra Spriver was Buryed the 3 rd Nov. 1694 at Ludsdown. 
Eliz. Kipps, widow, was Buryed the 6 May 1707 at Ludsdown. 

Taken from Ludsdown Register y c 29 th Oct r 1726. 

Per Hen. Jackson, 

CI. to M 1 ' Sheafe. 

Ineipit Anno 1559. 
Guilielmus Hubbert f uit vicarius. 

1575 Nov. 21 Nicholas Bushop, vicare, godfather to Eose da. o£ 

Stephen Erauncis. 
1575 Nov. 23 George Wilkin s, godf. to Jane da. of Ei chard 


1575 Nov. 30 Tho. Copinger, godf. to Tho. son of Tho. Eandoll, 
1575 Nov. 30 William Pelham, godf. to the same. 
1575 Nov. 30 Eliz. Wilkins, godm. to the same. 
1575 Jan. 1 Eliz. Wilkins, godm. to Eliz. da. of Tho. Steven. 
1575 Jan. 10 M ra Erauncis Copinger, godm. to Erancis da. of 
W m Kent. 

1575 Jan. 10 Eichard Torke, gent., godf. to the same. 
1575 Mar. 3 Thomas Copinger, Esquier, godf. to Tho. son of 
W m Berrie. 

1575 Mar. 3 Mistris Erancke, godm. to the same. 

1576 Mar. 29 Richard Yorke, gent., godf. Eich d son of Alexander 


1580 July 3 Agnis da. of Nicholas Bishop Bapt. 

1581 Aug. 27 Eliz. da. of Ealphe Copinger, gent., Bapt. 

1582 Jun. 15 John son of Nicholas Bishop, vicar, Bapt. 

1583 June 9 Ambrose son of William Copinger, gent., Bapt. 
1583 June 23 Ann da. of Eaphe Copinger, gent., Bapt. 
1585 Sept. 5 Nicholas son of Nicholas Bishop Bapt. 

1585 Dec. 25 Erauncis da. of Eaphe Copinger, gent., Bapt. 
1587 Apr. 9 Urcilla da. of Eaphe Copinger, gent., Bapt. 
1589 Apr. 27 Ambrose son of Eaphe Copinger, gent,, Bapt. 
1589 Nov. 22 Raphe son of William Hubbert Bapt. 

1592 May 21 John son of Eaphe Copinger, gent., Bapt. 

1593 Mar. 25 Susan da. of George Wilkins, Bapt. 

1595 Mar. 30 Eaphe son of George Wilkins, gent., Bapt. 
1595 Apr. 27 William Posthumus son of W m Copinger, gent., 
deceased, Bapt. 

1597 May 1 Michaell son of George Wilkins, gent., Bapt. 
1599 Mar. 25 Eliz. da. of Thomas Eandolph, gent., Bapt. 
1599 Dec. 18 John son of W m Hubbert Bapt. 


1600 Feb. 22 Frauncis son of W m Hubbert Bapt. 
1603 Oct. 9 John son of "W m Hubbert Bapt. 
1605 Apr. 4 George & John sons of Raphe Copinger, Esquier, 

1608 A ug. 24 Eliz. da, of Henry Grimstone Bapt. 

1609 Sept. 13 Eliz. da. of Raphe Copinger Bapt. 
1609 Sept. 24 Francis da. of Raphe Copinger Bapt. 
1613 May 2 Ann da. of Raphe Copinger, Esquier, Bapt. 
1622 May 12 Thomas son of Raphe Hubbert Bapt. 
1625 Jab. 28 Eliz. da. of Ralfe Wilkins Bapt. 

1627 Dec. 23 Emme da. of John Spencer, clerke, Bapt. 

1628 Nov. 16 Erauncis da. of Ralphe Wilkins Bapt. 

1629 Sept. 22 Thorn asine da. of John Spencer, Clarke, & Ellyn 

his wife Bapt. 

1634 Mar. 19 John son of John Spencer, vicar of this Parish, 
& Katherine his wife Bapt. 

1637 Apr. 30 Eliz. da. of John Spencer, Clarke, & Katherin his 

wife Bapt. 

1638 Apr. 29 John son of Thomas Miller & Dorothy his wife 


1639 Nov. 10 Anne da. of Thomas & Dorothy Miller Bapt. 

1642 Mar. 31 Thomas son of Thomas & Dorothy Miller Bapt. 

1643 Eeb. 18 John son of Thomas & Dorothy Miller Bapt. 
1647 Eeb. 26 Dorothy da. of Thomas & Dorothy Miller Bapt. 
1656 Sept. 19 Rebeckah Gwyn da. of Henry Gwyn, vicar of 

Stoake, and Susanna Fulthorpe his wife, was 
born & bapt. 
James son of Edward Wilkins & Anne his wife 

borne ; & bapt. Sept. 6. 
Ann da. of Edward & Ann "Wilkins Bapt. 
Thomas son of Edward & Anne Wilkins Bapt. 

Nicholas Bishop & Margrett Sprake mar. 
George Wilkins, gent., & Elizabeth Woodward 

William Copinger, gent., & Elizabeth Costen, 
widow, mar. 

Richard Weaver, parson of S 1 Maries, & Alice 

House, widow, mar. 
Raphe Copinger, Esquier, & Ann Wilkins mar. 
Christopher Powell & Elizabeth Wilkins mar. 
Richard Dawling, gent., <fc Marie Wilkins mar. 
Augustine Morland of Stroud, widower, & Mar- 
garet Balam of S L Margaret's, widow, mar. 
John Spencer, vicar of this parish, & Katherine 
Parks of Little Thurrock in Essex, widow, mar. 
Nicholas Webbe of Stoke, gent., & Eliz. Mattingle, 
widow, mar. 








May 26 












































June 12 























Sept. 12 
































June 14 




















June 24 














































Richard Wilkins Bur. 

John son of Nicholas Bush op Bur. 

John Wilkins, gent., Bur. 

John Gmninges, servant to M r Yorke, Bur. 

Steven Yorke Bur. 

Ric. Saunder, dwelling with Ricard Yorke, gent., 

Margrett da. of Nicholas Bushop Bur. 
Ambrose son of W m Copinger, gent., Bur. 
Elizabeth wife of William Copinger, gent., Bur. 
M rs Brigett Bur. 
M 1S Anne Poole Bur. 
Margrett Bishop, widow, Bur. 
Urcilla da. of Raphe Copinger, gent., Bur. 
Widow BishopBur. 

John son of Raphe Copinger, gent.. Bur. 
Thomas son of George Wilkins, gent., Bur. 
Suzan wife of Raphe Copinger, gent., Bur. 
Thamison wife of Tho. Randolph, gent., Bur. 
John son of William Hubbert Bur. 
Marie wife of George Wilkins, gent., Bur. 
George Wilkins, gent., Bur. 
John son of William Hubbert Bur. 
Francis wife of Henry Grimstone, Bur. 
Elizabeth Grimstone Bur. 
Margrett Weaver Bur. 
John Busshop Bur. 
Thomas Hubbert Bur. 
M rs Sommersby Bur. 
M r Hubbert, viccar of Stoake, Bur. 
William son of Ralfe Wilkins of Rochester Bur. 
Helen Hutching, servant of John Spencer, Clarke, 

Sibbell Hubbert, widow, Bur. 
John Hubbert son of widow Hubbert Bur. 
Joane Spencer wife of John Spencer, Clarke, Bur. 
Eliz. da." of Ralfe Wilkins, Bur. 
Ellyn wife of John Spencer, Vicar of this parish, 

John Spencer, Vicar of Stoke, Bur. 
John Miller Bur. 

Thomas son of Thomas & Dorothy Miller Bur. 
Alexander Sumerson Bur. 
Dorothy Miller Bur. 

James son of Edward & Ann Wilkins Bur. 

Henry Gwyn, Vicar of Stoke, Bur. 

John son of Dorothy Miller, widow, Bur. 

Susan da. of Suzan Gwine Bur. 

Edward son of Edward & Anne Wilkins Bur. 


1064 Aug. 29 Edward son of Edward & Anne Wilkins Bur. 
1064 Aug. 30 Peter Almard [?], Vicar [?] of Stoke, Bur. 
1666 Apr. 27 Anne wife of Edward Wilkins, Bur. 

1653 Sept. 21 Thomas Miller was vicar of Stoke 

1071 Jan. 29 Humfrey Williams was vicar of Stoke. 

1066 Jan. 7 Anne da. of Edw. Wilkins & Anne his wife Bur. 
1667 Mar. 26 Edw. Wilkins husband of Anne Wilkins Bur. 
1712 Jan. 6 Edward Turner, widower, & Mary Grraham, widow, 

1673 Eeb. 4 William son of Humfrey Williams & Eliz. Bapt. 
& Borne. 

1075 Feb. 15 Mary da. of Humfrey & Eliz. Williams Born, 
& Bapt. Eeb. 29. 

1077 Sept. 9 Humfrey son of Humfrey & Eliz. Williams Born ; 
Bapt. Sept. 25 

1713 Oct. 20 Edward son of Edw. Turner, Vicar, and Mary his 
wife Bapt. 

1715 Jan. 0 Thomas son of Edw. Turner, Vicar, & Mary his 
wife Bapt. 

1717 Feb. 11 Thomas son of Edw. Turner. Vicar, & Mary his 
wife Bapt. 

1719 Oct. 1 Mary dau. of Edw. Turner & Mary his wife Bapt. 
1721 July 13 John son of Edw. Turner, Vicar, & Mary his wife 

1723 Feb. 9 Mary dau. of Edw. Turner & Mary his wife 

1066 Jan. 7 Anne da. of Edward & Anne Wilkins Bur. 

1666 Mar. 26 Edward Husband of Anne Wilkins Bur. 

1674 Apr. 13 Eliz. da. of Humfrey Williams Bur. 

1676 Mar. 20 William son of Humfrey Williams Bur. 

1677 May 5 Mary da. of Humfrey Williams Bur. 
1712 Nov. 16 John Wilkins Bur. 

1717 May 9 Tho. son of Edw. & Mary Turner Bur. 

1719 Dec. 26 Mary da. of Edw. Turner & Mary his wife Bur. 

1670 Mar. 5 Edward Turner was Vicar of Stoke. 

1680 [?] Aug. 6 Sam. Gibson was Vicar of Stoke. 

1692 Nov. 13 Was collected a Brief for Tunbridge Wells. 

1671 Jan. 29 Humfrey Williams, Vicar, receiv'd the Parish 
Kegister from M r Turner. 

Extracted Sep 1 30, 1726. 

( 189 ) 



The following is transcribed from the original among the 
Lambarde papers at Sevenoaks. The paper is, in places, 
much decayed, and the writing indecipherable. It is 
endorsed in the handwriting of William Lambarde : — 

Presentment for the Lower division of Sutton at hone 
25 Maii 1594 for Hospitalls Collected. 

Sevenocke. The Answer of Thomas Browne of Chidingstone .... 
to certeyne articles exhibited hir majesties Commission ifor 
enquiery of lands given towards the mayntenaunce of the 
power etc. 

1. To the furst article we answer that in the towne of Sennock 
ther is an allmeshouse erected by one Wm. Sevenock commonly 
called the Allmeshouse of Sennocke founded with a Cramer scole 
in the beginning of King hennry the lifts Reign and was incor- 
porat in the Second yere of hir Majesties reigne that now is, the 
governors of it are two churchwardens of the same parishe and 
fower inhabitauns called assistauns yerely chosen. 

2. The Condicon of the power meynteyned in the aforesayd 
almeshouse is this, they are to be chosen of the power aged per- 
sons men or woomen that have dwelt the space of 12 yeres within 
the parishe of Seaunock. 

3. To the 3 article we answer that the said Wm. Seavennock 
gave tenn shillings yerely to every of the power peopell yerly 
chosen and placed into his allmeshouse to the number of sextene, 
and within this tenn yeres Mr. John Lennard esquiere tenn shil- 
lings eight pence to be quarterlye distrubited amongst the sayd 
power, and Mr. John Pett of Sennock gent, gave five pounds yerly 
to be disposed in like sort, which is collected and wholly bestowed 
accordinge to the founders intent by the churchwardens quarterly. 



The tenement oute of which Mr. Win. Scvennocke annuity arisethe 
is (nere to the tower wharfe in London) in the occupacon of one 
Arnold Jemes of London bearbrugh, the land which are charged 
with Mr. Lennard his legaci is (Sennocke Weald) in the tennory of 
one Richard Everest of Sennocke w r ild, and the land which he 
bound to pay Mr. Petts his anewitie are (at Ryver hill in Sennocke 
aforesaid) nowe in the occupaton of one Grorg pococke of Sennock 

4. All the power of the foresayd Allmeshouse are to be ametted 
and placed by the two Churchwardens and fower assistauns afore- 
sayd, and are to be governed and Ruled by Certeyne orders made 
by the Wardens and assistauns and Ratified by the archbishope of 
Canterbury's grace whoe is apoynted generiall visitor of the gramer 
scoles and allmeshouse by exprese word of the Corporation. 

5. The names of all the power placed in the Allmeshouses of 
Sennocke : 1. Thomas pidenden of the age of 85 yeres. 2. Robert 
Lamburd his age 80 yers. 3. Robert Moyles 70 yeres. 4. Robert 
Holmes 60 yers. 5. John Gierke 60 yers. 6. Robert Durtnold 
80 yers. 7. Ales lewes hir age 56 yers. 8. Ales Rumneye 60 years. 
9. Ales hartuin 70 yers. 10. Margret bullie 80 yers. 11. Mar- 
gret Wood 80 yers. 12. Hellen Custimnce 82 yers. 13. Anne 
Coxe 57 yeres. 14. Anne Johnson 60 vers. 15. Catheren Roben- 
son 80 yers. 16. Anne Everest hir age 40 yers. 

6. Ther is none of these that have any reversion of any Allmes 
kome because theye . . ['*] . . pplied by the wardens and assistanc 
onlve upon a vocacon and bounde to be resident. 

7. There visitor of our scole and allmes house is the arch- 
bishoppe of Caimterbury for the tyme beinge, and within this tenn 
yeres hath benn no visitacion at all. 

8. Ther is a yerely pencion of his. 4d. issuing out of some of 
the said land to the person, vicar and two churchwardens for the 
oversight and collection of the Revenue of the power. 

9. There hath bene no pencyon or somes of mony asigned to 
any (beside their own) almeshouse. 

10. Wee know not any other lands revenewes pencions or 
somes that have benne given otherwise then is aforesayd. 

11. The Costodye of all the evidences deeds and incorporacon 
of our Allmes houses is in the Common Vestuer of our church 

* Paper much decayed, and writing difficult to decipher. This is indicated 
by — E.L. 



within a chest with 3 lockes and keyes in the keping of the person, 
Vicare, and Churchwarclenns of our parishe. 

Also wee present that John Porter of London, fishmonger, yet 
lyving, by his dede beringe date the xx th daye of December in the 
xxi st yere of the reigne of our souereigne ladye Queue Elizabeth 
dyd geve a yerelye pencyori of x'ull. for ever to be payd yerely 
after his decease to the stocke of Senoke yssuinge out of all his 
lands in Seale and Byrlinge nowe in the occupacon of the said John 
Porter and his assignes. 

1593. Brasted. The 29 of September 1587. Margaret Apelbee 
gave by her last will and testament to the power of Sundrishe five 
pounds, and to the power of Brasted five pounds, and to the power 
of Westerham five pounds, and the sayd mony to be distributed 
unto them at such tymes and to such persons as it shall seme good 
to her executors. 

All this is performed accordingly. 

Sundriche. Item the 30 of Maye 1585. John Appelbe, clerke, 
late parson of Sundriche, by his last will thus dated giveth to Lar- 
raunc hunte of Brasted a house in Brasted called Paynnsted with 
a gardyn and orchard to yt payinge unto the sayd margery Hilt. 
yerly duringe hir life and paying further within one quarter of a 
yere after the death of the sayd margery to the hands of the 
Churchwardens of Sundrishe xxli. at one inteer payment to be 
Imployd unto the use of the power ther from tyme to tyme at the 
discression of the sayd minister that shalbe incombent of the same 
parishe for the tyme beinge and of the Churchwardens collected 
for the pooer and syde men of the same parishe for the tyme 
beinge, and further by that will he giveth xx nobles to the pooer of 
Brasted in like sortt as is aforsaycl of the xxli. given unto the 
pooer Sundrishe, the sayd xx nobles to be payd by John Turner, 
clerk, out of a meadowe in Sundrishe called Beaches and out of a 
nuitie j l he bought in Sundrishe aforesayd Which anuitie is 
liiis. 4x1. and with all a proviso in that will that if either of the sayd 
Larrance hunte of Brasted and John Turner of Kingsdoune shall 
fayle in payment of the 2 severiall somes aforesayd that the sayd 
house lands and anuitie should goe to the poorest fellowe and scol- 
lere of the Queen's Coleg in Oxford. All which payments are 
made and performed accordinge to our knowledge, 



Brasted. Item Thomas Jordayne of Brasted in the County of 
Kent, tamior, late deceased, gave by his last will to Martyne his 
sonne and hes heyers certayne launds in Brasted called Ryshutt 
meade, Great feld and long Croft, paying yerely out of the said 
lands unto Alee Ware his sister for terme of her lyf vis. viiid. at 
thannunciacon of St. Mary, and after hir decease to paye yerely one 
the sayd feast daye for ever iiis. iiii<#. unto the church wardens of 
Brasted for the tyme beinge to be distributed amongst the pooer 
of Brasted or to the schollinge of some pooer child as shall seme 
best unto the cunstable or church wardens for the tyme beinge 
with a clause of distrese in the sayd lands for the none payment, 
which was payd to the sayd Alee Ware dueringe hir life to our 
knowledge, which also is lately dead; and wee do not .... but it 
is ment to be payed to the use of the poore also according to the 
said wille. 

Wee fynd that the pooer of Brasted are very many, and that 
there are fewe inhabytaunce there that able to give any thinge 
towards there releef . 

Sundrish, Kent. Accordinge to a coppie of certayne articles 
puplished ther in the parishe church of Sundrishe aforesayd 
which doe concerne a inquiery to be made of the lands tene- 
ments and somes of mony etc. as have bene given to the 
power, and which articles are anexed to hir Majesties Com- 
mission as by the same coppie beringe date the 30 th day of 
September in the xxxvth yere of hir Majesties reigne more 
playnly doth apere wee whose names hereafter ensue doe 
present as hereafter followeth : — 

(Look in Brastede before and kepe these bothe together.)* 

1. Furst wee doe present that one John Apelbe late parson by 
his last will and testament (which is .... in Brasted before) did 
give towards the Releef of the power of the same parishe the some 
of twenty pounds, which sayd some of xxli. is in the hands of one 
Richard Cucott whoe answereth yerly to the power of the same 
parishe for the use of the same some, the some of xh. quarterly 

2. Item wee doe present that the sayd John Appelby did by his 
sayd last will give unto the power of the same parishe iiis. iiiid. for 
ever esuinge out of a certayne tenement in Brasted aforsayd no we 

* This note is in the margin in the same handwriting as the text. 



in the occupaeon of William bowle or his assi'gnes who payethe the 
same accordingly. 

3. Item wee doe present that Margery Appelbye, wyddow, let 
wife of the sayd John Apelbye did by hir last will and testament 
give toward the mayntenance of the power peopell in Sundrishe 
the some of five pounds, which five pounds is in the hands of John 
Larannce, Brikleyer, whoe Answereth yerely for the same towards 
the relef of the sayd power peopell the somm of tenn shillings by 
yere. So as in all ther is towards the relef aforsayd given by the 
sayd John and margery Appelbye the some of litis, iitiV?. by the yer 
which sayd some of litis, mid. togither with the some of six pounds 
xiiis. iiiiJ. of the yerly collection of thinhabitauns wilbut hardly 
suffice to releve the power peopell within the same parishe so as 
every one maye have a littell and yet wen any extraordynary charges 
hath happened the parishioners ther are vayne to make ther asese- 
ment to supplie the same. 

1593. Dartford, Kent. A certificate to the enquiery of Lands 
geven to the mayntenance of the pooer made by the Church 
Wardens and inhabitaunce of Darford the xth of March 
1593 whose names are here under wrighten. 

The Spitelhouse or hospitall in Darford (setuate nere the high 
wye at the West of the said toune*) soe called one John Hurlocke 
commonly called the gyderf beinge Impotent and decrepped ; the 
foundacon made by John Beer, Esquier, in the 16 yere of King 
Hennry the Eight, the name of the foundacon the Spitellhouse. 

The pooer that are ther to be kept ether men or women beinge 
Lazzars Inocent leporus or decriped and at the decresion of the 
founder and his heires then beinge are ther to be placed. 

The lands in generall belonginge to the sayd house conteyne 
13 acars, the Stock of the house in Eedy mony ys xli., the provision 
of bread corne is yerly one bushell of wheat and one of Eie payd 
per the parishe of horton duering the life of John hurlock now 
gider for his cominge thither, the provits of the which come yerely 
to the Relef of the pooer and power house and have it in ther occu- 
pacon that is to saye the house called the spittell house with the 
Croft or orchard to the same. 

* These words have been added subsequently above the line, in the same 
handwriting. This is the case with all words in ( ). 

f Guider = the title of the head officer of certain charitable institutions 
(I6th— I7tb century).— N.JE. Diet, 




Item ix acars of earrable land at 3s. 4d. . . . 30s. 

Item 2 acars climd of earable 8s. M. 

Item 1 acar di. of salt marshe at xs. the acar . . 15s. 
All the which premises the provits wherof the power have had 
and now have. 

The gifte hath all wayes benne in the patron (or founder) then 
beinge and allso the placing of the power in the sayd house is at 
the descrecion of the sayd patron, the admytaunce of the guyder 
now is by Nicholas Bere, esquier, patron therof at this tyme. 

Item John Hurlock guyder Impotent and lame of the age of 
34 yers, Barbarra Hurlock his wife 36 yers, Robt. Kynde of the 
age of 27 yers an impotent lame and dum, Gyllian Tomlyn of the 
age of 24 Impotent and lame, Richard Bold ane innocent of the age 
of 30 yers : not resident ther but bycause he has a strong abell 
bodye and the house but pooer he is placed with Sur Thomas Scott 
by the descresion of the patron. 

The Visitacon therof dothe belonge to the patron then beinge 
or for defalt of his visitacion to the bishopp of the diouse then 

To this Article is given by John Bere of Darford Esquier 
deacesed fower tenements or Allineshouses with 4 gardens in dar- 
ford and to every of the sayd howses vis. viii^. quarterly to be payd 
for ever by the heyers of the sayd John Beer to 4 pooer aged 
women the which is and hath been by his heyers hetherto conn- 
tinued, the names of the pooer wemen nowe ther beinge widdow 
lowds, wyddow Bright, wyddow thatcher and mother margret, the 
yongest of them beinge at the least threscore and tenn yers old. 
Wee thinke the heyers of the sayd John Beer hath the evedinces 
of the sayd premises. 

A messuage or tenement with a garden sett in the high streat 
of darford given by Win. Vaughan one of the yomen of the Chamber 
of our sovereigne Lady Queene Elizabeth the twentyth daye of 
September in the eleventh yere of the reigne of our sovereigne 
Ladie to John Bear and hennry Appolltun Esquiers, Nicholas Beer, 
John Rogers, frauncis Rogers and Wm. Death gent, and other feo- 
fees to the use of the pooer in Darford. The Remit of xxvis. viii^. 
reserved quarterly to be payd to the collectors for the Relef of the 
power for the tyme beinge, w r hich is accordingly employed [?]. 

Three tenements or cotages and three gardens annexed to the 
same tenements with ther appurtenaunces set lyinge and beinge in 
a certayne street called hive street in dartford gyven by John 



Sogers of Darford gent, deacesed the xiiiitli day of December in 
the third yere of the Reigne of our sovereigne Lady Queene Eliza- 
beth to John Beer esquier, henry Beer, Nicholas Beere, Wm. Death 
gent, and other fefees to the use and intent that the sayd John 
Beer, henry Beer, Nicholas Beer and the other feoffees and ther 
heyers should stand seaced of the sayd tenements and gardenes 
with ther appurtenances to the entent that as well Wm. Gayller 
and Steven Tordox then churchwardens of the parishe of Darford 
as allso all other churchwardens of the sain parishe Church for the 
tyme beinge should demise and to ferine lett the sayd three tene- 
ments and gardeynes with ther appurtenaunces to whome they would 
and the Rents and profits of the same tenements and gardenes with 
the appurtenaunces therof comynge and growinge over and above 
the Rent and services therof dew to the Cheef lord or lords of the 
fee to be payd and allso over and above the Charges of the Repera- 
cion of the sayd tenements and other the premises to be kepte 
and sustayned the Churchwardens there and all other Church- 
wardens after them succedynge of the parishe Church of Darford 
aforesayd should Receave and take the Rents and provits of 
the sam tenements and gardens and the same Receved and taken to 
bestowe yerely uppon the pooerest Inhabitaunce of the parishe of 
Darford when most need is according to ther dischression. 

[Note. — What rent is commonly receaved and whether is the 
rent rightly employed.]* ( 

Item the moytie or one half of a mesuage or tenement with a 
garden sett in a certeyne street in Darford called upstret alias 
SpitteJl strett given by hierom Warren Surgion deceased the third 
daye of December 1570, t the rent of xs. yerly receved by the church 
wardens and given to the pooer of Darford allwayes upon S* Thomas 
daye before Crismas which is and hath benne continewede ever 
synce the gyft therof and shall remayne for ever by the last will 
and testament of the sayd Hierom W arren. 

1593. Chiddingston, Kent. Allso wee present thatt John 
. Ashdowne of Chiddingston yomon deceased did by his last will in 
wrightinge datted the 22 August 1590 give unto Ann Ashdown his 
wife all that his tenements and lands then in his occupacon lying in 
Chiddingstone aforesayd so long tyme as shee shall keep her self 

* The notes in square brackets [ ] are marginal notes in a different hand, 
f By a transposition of the two middle numbers of the year 1570, this is 
recorded in John Landale's book on Partford Charities (1829), p. 67, as 1750. 

o 2 



wydowo she payinge therfore yerly all that tyme to his overseeres 
apoynted by the same wyll the some of sixe pounds of good 
and lawfull mony of England att the 4 usual fests of the yere 
quarterly, allso he willed (unto W. ashdowne) one other tenement 
and certayne lands conteyninge by estemacon 12 acars (now let- 
tened by Win. father and others) or ther abouts the Eent being 
sex pounds per the yere for the terme of ix yers which he bequeved 
and apoynted in mannor and forme following viz. furst he hath 
givene out of these two severyall tenements and lands to be payd 
unto one Richarde Ashdown of hollanden in the parishe of Lygh 
the some of fortye shillings every yere dueringe the life of the 
sayd Richard to yssue out of the foresayd Rent and lands which he 
before willed unto Wm. Ashdowne sone of the foresayd Richard 
Ashdowne to be paid at the fest of Saint Michael and Thannun- 
ciacon of our Lady by even portions. Allso he willed out of the 
sayd tenements and lands SU. 6s. Sd. to be paid and distributed to 
certayne power mayddens mariges of the parishe of Chiddingston 
at the deschression of his ovarseeres, allso he willed forty shillings 
yerly out of the same rent of 12li. to be bestowed yerly upon the 
reparacon of the tenements and howses duering the terme afore- 
sayd and so much moar mony as shalbe needfull at the descresion 
of his overseres, and all the residewe of the Rent above sayd to be 
distributed to the power peopell of the parishe of Chiddingston at 
the discresion of his overseres and one of the Churchwardens of 
the same parishe for the tyme beinge soe that for the tenements 
and lands afore willed unto Wm. Ashdowne by the will of the said 
John Ashdowne hath bene ever since paid and distributed according 
to his will but for the other xili. which Anne his wife should paye 
out of the other tenement which she occupieth we have received 
since his decease but the some of fortye shillings the Rest she 
stayeth as shee answereth for the Reparacon. 

[Note. — Remember the appropriation, and whether they do 
answere anything to the poore yerely or noe, and what the some is.] 

Westerham. Allso wee present that Alice Plumlye of Westram 
in the Countye of Kent wydowe dyd by her last will made the viith 
daye of August in the xxvith yere of the reigne of our sovereigne 
ladye Quene Elizabeth will and bequethe out of a tenement called 
Stakes and one garden lyinge in the sayd parishe of Westram the 
some of xxs. yerely to be payd for ever unto tenne poore people of 
the sayd parishe to be distributed and payd unto them upon the 



feast of the byrthe of our lord god and the feaste daye of Ester or 
at any of the said feasts to evry one of the said poore people xiid. 
which sayd yerelye pencyon hathe byn hytherto contynually payd 
and nowe last by Robert plumlye sonne and hayre of the sayd Alice 
which sayd Robert hathe the sayd tenement and garden in his pos- 

Lullingstone. Allso we present that in consideration of some 
guifte made to the Companye of the Grocers in London by Sir 
John Peache knyghte deceased the said corporation dothe . . . . 
three alureshouses scytuated in lulliugston aforesayd in the county 
of Kent a yerelye pencyon of \U. that is to saye to every almes- 
house xxxiiis. iiii^. which hathe byn payd accordinglye and nowe is 
payd out of the Grrocers hall in London, the names of the poore 
Thomas Hudson, Thomas Clyfford, Richard Kettle. 

Orpyngton. Also wee present that Sir Parcyvale Harte knyghte 
deceased dyd geve for ever unto three almeshouses standing at 
Orpington .... and builded by him xxvs. viiid. a yere by his heires 
to be payd yerelye which hathe bene payd and is accordinglye by 
parcyvale harte esquier heyre of the sayd Sir Parcyvale, the names 
of the poore William Browne, William flecher, .... Rows wydower. 

Chyddingstone. Also wee present that John Asbdowne yeoman 
late of Chyddingstone in the sayd Countye of Kent by his last will 
in wrytinge bering date the 22 daye of August 1590 dyd give the 
sume of iiili. vis. \ii\d. issuinge out of one tenement and certeyne 
lands cont. by est. xii acres in Chiddingstone aforesayd nowe in the 
occu paeon of Willm. ffathers to be dystrybuted and payd to poore 
maydens maryages of Chiddingstone by the dyscressyon of henrye 
pygot and Richard Stretfeld his overseers of his will which said 
overseers heve receved that sayd iiili. vis. viiid. and also dystry- 
buted yt according to the sayd will. 

[Note. — Theise 2 be for a tyme only and therefore omitted.] 
Also wee present that the sayd John Ashdowne by his sayd last 
will gave unto Anne his wyf one tenement and lands in Chydding- 
stone aforesaid duringe her wydowhedd shee payenge therfore 
yerelye and quarterlye duringe the sayd terme unto his sayd over- 
seers yiU. wherof xls. yerelye and soe muche more as the said 
overseers should thynke fytt should be to the reparacons of the 
tenement aforesayd and the resydue to the poore people of Chyd- 



dingstone aforesaid to be payd by the dyscressyon of the said over- 
seers and one of the churchwardens of Chyddingstone aforesayd 
which sayd overseers have thought fytt that iiuti. of the sayd vili. 
should goe to the reparacons aforesayd and x\s. resydue to the 
poore people aforesayd. All which sayd hath bene yereiye 

receved and bestowed accordingly, and that she the said Anne is 
yet lyving sole and unmarried. 

Also; wee present that the sayd John Ashdowne by his sayd will 
gave iiliU. yerely duringe ix yeres yssuiuge out of one tenemeut 
and certeyne lands in Chyddingstone aforesayd no we in the occu- 
pacon of William ffathers to be payd yerely unto his Overseers 
wherof so muche as the sayd overseers should thinke fytt to be 
bestowed upone the reparacons of the sayd tenement and the 
resydue to be bestowed upon the poor people of Chyddingstone by 
the dyscression of his sayd overseers which sayd overseers have 
though te fytt that xls. of the sayd iiiifo'. should be bestowed upon 
the reparacons of the sayd tenement and the other xls. yerely unto 
the poore aforesayd, all which said iiiili. hathe bene contynuallye 
payd dystrybuted and bestowed accordinglye and is yet to have 
.... as may appeare by the .... the date of the said wille. 

Pensherst. Also wee present that .... Bulfynche late of Pens- 
herst in the Countye of Kent deceased by his last will gave fyve 
kyne for the relyeff of the poore people of pensherst aforesayd and 
for the reparacons of bredges within the sayd paryshe. And also 
willed that the Churchwardens of pensherst for the tyme beinge 
should let dyspose or grant the said kyne yereiye for ever to those 
that would take them and the takers to stand charged to the said 
churchwardens for the pryce of every Cowe xxs. and for the profytt 
of every cowe for one yere xxd., after the death of which said 
[blank] Bulfynche the said churchwardens of pensherst dyd let and 
grant the said fyve kyne unto [blank] whoe payd unto the said 
Churchwardens for the profytt of the said kyne yereiye viiis. iiiiJ. 
which said churchwardens dyd dyspose and geve vs. parcell therof 
yereiye to the poore people of pensherst aforesayd and iiis. iiii^. 
resydue therof to the repayringe of the bredges of penshurst 
aforesaid and soe this yereiye profytt of the said kyne was by the 
space of [blank] yeres or there abouts by the church wardens for the 
tyme beinge receved and payd yereiye as is aforesayd untyll 
the said churchwardens with the consent of the parishioners dyd 
sell the said v kyne for vli. which yH. the said churchwardens dyd 



receve and therof dyd buyld a cottage for the use and behoof!: of 
the said poore people and reparacons of bredges aforesaid upon a 
parcell of land geven by Sir Eobert Sydney (the Rent to S, 1 ' R. 
Sydney iii red roses at mydsomer*) knyght to the use of the said 
poore for 1000 yeres in pensherst aforesaid whis is yerlye letten 
by the said churchwardens for viiis. mid. above all charrges 
wherof sythence the buyldinge therof there hathe bynne vs. yerelye 
payd to the sayd poore people and the other iiis. mid. resydue to 
the reparacon of bridges in pensherst aforesaid and the said cottage 
is in the occupacon of Anthony Willyanis. 

Also wee present that Edward harte late of Tounbridge deceased 
by his last will dyd geve unto the poore of pensherst aforesaid one 
yerelye rent of iii&\ inn/, for ever yssuinge out of his lande called 
Jorday nes in the pari she of Rotherfeld in the Countye of Sussex 
which sayd lands are in the possessyon of Willm. ffarmer. But the 
sayd rent was never payd. 

Also we present that Sir Olyver Grodfrye parson of pensherst 
deceased [blank] daye of [blank] in the xxxiii yere of the reigne of 
Henrye the VIII dyd geve one yerelye rent of xxxs. for ever yssuinge 
out of certayne lands in pensherst aforesaid nowe in the occupacon 
of Willm. Moyre for the wages of the saxten of pensherst for the 
tyme beinge which contynuallye hathe byne payd and nowe is payd 
by the said Willm. May re. 

[Note. — A private use and so omitted.] 

Also wee present that Elizabeth Pas water wydowe deceased 
about fyve yeres nowe last past by her last will gave xli. to be 
delivered unto Willm. Dartnell parson of pensherst aforesayd and 
to be by his discressyon dystributed emongest xx honeste poore 
maydens towards the amendement of their maryages wherof he 
hathe alredye distrybuted vili. xs. and soe there remaynethe mli. xs. 
therof in the hands of the sayd parson. 

[Note.— Not durable and so omitted.] 

And the sayd Elizabeth Paswater by her last wyll dyd geve all 
the residue of her goods (after her debts and legacyes were payd) 
to be ymployed upon Charytable uses by Thomas Groldinge gent,, 
Ackenwall parkyns gent., and the sayd parson which resydue dyd 
amount unto the value of xiiiZ*. wherof there is xi/^. bestowed upon 
buylding a house for the poore of pensherst to dwell in upon a 
parcel! of land geven by the said Sir Eoberte Sydney knyghte to 

* A marginal note, but in the same handwriting as the text. 


SOME KENTISH MAfclTlfeS, 1594. 

the use of sayd poore people of pensherst aforesayd for 1000 yeres 
scytuate in pensherst aforesayd. 

[Note. — The rent iii red roses at mydsomer.] 

And soe there remaynethe in the hands of the said Thomas 
G-oldinge xls., the names of the poore people which nowe dwell in 
the said house are Darothye Brooker wydowe and Elizabeth Olmer 

Kemsinge. Also wee present that (upon the apperpriation of 
the parsonage of Kemsyng and Chappel of Seale) the Abbott and 
Convent of Barmondsey anno dni 1402 dyd geve a yerelye pensyon 
of iiis. iiiic?. for ever yssuinge out of there parsonage of Kemsinge 
to be payd in money or Victuals to the poore people of Kemsinge 
which hathe bene deteyned by Thomas Wale gent, which nowe 
occupyeth the said parsonage by the space of xii yeres or there 
abouts and contynuallye before yt was payd. 

Also wee present that Margery Bowls by her last will beringe 
date the [blank] in the xxxvth yere of the reigne of our Sovereigne 
ladye the Quene that now is dyd geve vs. Yerelye for xx yeres to 
the poore of Kemsyng aforesaid to be payd by her executor which 
contynuallye hath bene payd by John Tyboll of Kemsing aforesaid 
gent, her executor. 

[Note. — Not durable.] 

Leighe next Tunbridge. Also wee present that one Symon 
Bartlet by his dede beringe date [blank] dyd geve one parcel! of 
land called the Vagge lyeinge in the parishe of Leighe nere Toun- 
bridge in the said Countye of Kent for ever to the use and behouff 
of the poore people of leighe aforesaid which poore people longe 
tyme dyd receve the profytt therof, which lands and profites 
therof are nowe lately withholden from the said poore by one 
Willm. Bysshop of leighe aforesaid whoe nowe occupyethe the same 
(some evidences of which lands do remayne in the handes of Greorge 
Stane of merewoorthe yeoman). 

Shorham. Also wee present tjiat one John Boos (otherwise 
called Jenkyns Bose) somtyme of Shorham in the Countye of Kent 
was seised in his demesne as of ffee of and in the manor of ffyleston 
and other lands called Andrewes and Skypps in Shorham afore- 
sayd and soe beinge seised infeofted one Ralff Bustumer, James 
Peckhame Esquyer, John Somer and others in ffee to thentent to 



performe the last will of the sayd John Eoos and after the said 
John Eoos the xiith daye of ffebraarye in the yere of our lord 
1473 and in the 13 yere of Edward the 4 declared his last will and 
by the same willed that his sayd feoffees and executors should sell 
the sayd manor and other the premysses and with the money 
comyng therof should edyfye and buylde three almeshouses within 
the said paryshe of Shoreham .... suffycyentlye endowed with 
lands .... in the same three almeshouses ther .... poore men or 
women of the said .... of Shorham and willed unto every of the 
. . . . viid. by the weke and also willed that .... after the decease 
of every suche poore man or woman that ther should be one other 
poore man or woman put in by the discressyon of hym that then 
should be owner of the said manor of f yleston, and after the said 
John Eoos dyed, after whose deathe the said feoffees or executors 
sold the sayd manor of ff yleston and the other sayd lands to one 
Richard Page gent, to the entent and upon condycon that the 
said page should performe the sayd will of the sayd John Eoos. 
By reason wherof the said Eichard Page buylded the sayd three 
almeshouses and set in them three poor almesfolkes according to 
the entent of the will of the said John Eoos. And afterwards the 
said James Peckham and other the feoffees aforesaid infeoffed the 
said Eichard Page in ffee of the said manor and other lands afore- 
said upon condycion trust and consyderence that he the said 
Eichard Page his heyres and assignes should mainteyne and kepe 
the sayd three almeshouses and also paye the sayd weklye pencyon 
for ever according to the entent of the last will of the said John 
Eoos which said almeshouses have bene by the said Eichard Page 
and others which for the tyme have byn owners of the premisses 
contynuallye maynteyned and kepte, and also the said weklye pen- 
cyons payd accordinge to the entent of the said will of the said 
John Eoos. 

Also wee present that the said manor and other the premysses 
are novve in the possessyon of Thomas Petley gent, of Shorham 
aforesaid who dothe likewyse maynteyne and kepe the said three 
almeshouses and in every of them their is one poor man or wooman 
kepte. And also the sayd Thomas petley hathe contynuallye 
sythence he hathe had the possessyon therof payd to every of the 
sayd poore people wekelye viicL the names and ages of the sayd 
poore people are Thomas Groodborowe of the age of lx yeres, Kate- 
ryne Crene of the age of lxx yeres and Willm. hole of the age of 
1 yeres. 


Edenbridge. Also wee present that certeine persons yet lyving 
(wherof Bertram Calthorpe of [blank] in the countie of Norifolk 
Esquier, Willm. Medherste and Greorge Combe alias Blomebee three) 
do stand seised to them and there heires for ever of and in certeine 
parcelles of lands cont. by estimation in all 14 acr. and lying in 
Edenbridge aforesaid and brastede upon speciall consideracion [?] 
and to the use and entent to maynteyne and repaire continuallye 
the stone bridge scituate in Edenbridge aforsaid, as by certeine 
writings [?] to be seene in the handes of Robert leighe one of ... . 
and Richard Bowie .... now wardens of the said Bridge may at 
more large appeare. Which said lands are letten for the yearely 
Rent of mill, and is continually bestowed upon the said bridge by 
the said wardens with the advise of the parishioners there, which 
said wardens doe yearely accompt therof to the said parishioners. 

Thomas Browne. Robert ffrenche. 

H. Baker. Edward Wyllyams. 

Walter Woodgat. John Jordane. 

Richard Kyps. Edward Best. 

Edward Ryvers. Thomas ffrythe. 

Henrye Pigott. Richard Wylson. 

Robert Pelsat. Richard Newes. 

The manuscript is in various handwritings, as though those 
who sign their names at the end had been divided up into local 
committees and each had taken a district. 

( 203 ) 


(Harleiau Charter 83 A. I.) 

The Charter, which is the subject of this Paper., contains 
the names of a number of places in the Weald of Kent early 
in the ninth century ; and since this district is nearly 
unnoticed even in the Domesday Survey, this early list is of 
great interest. 

The Charter runs as follows : — 

*h In nomine Dei summi Igitur anno dominice incarnationis 
dcccxiiii regni uero nostri a Deo concessi xviij Ego Coenwulf rex 
Mereiorurn Suiuobe meo comite terrain i aratrorum in propriam 
possessionem 7 libertatem sibimet uel suis heredibus in perpetuum 
fruere perdonabo scilicet juxta silua quae dicitnr CiERT cum 
campis cum siluis cum pascuis cum pratis xh carra de feno 
capientia cum una molina 7 ])aldbera piolhtrmgden 7 ftorningabyra 
7 beardingaleag 7 focgingabyra 7 speldgisella 7 hegeftonhyrs 
7 hrrSden 7 cunden 7 begcgebyra 7 sponleoge 7 oetfirhde bituihn 
longanleag 7 Sem sub tune 7 5a snadas illuc peutinentia cun (cum) 
antiquis terminibus liberabo predictam terrain a notis causis 7 
ignotis a magnis uel modicis aetiam nomina testium infra 
adscribuntur pro cautella futuri ambiguitatis augentis hanc 
donationein meam a misericordissimo domino aeternam bene- 
dictionem conseqnantur. Si quis uero regum uel principium seu 
prei'ectum hunc libertatem meam infringere aut minuere uoluerit 
sciat se separatum esse in die iudicii a consortio sanctorum nisi 
digne emendauerit ante reatum suum. 

(Witnesses Subscription.) 
[Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in British Museum, Part II, 
1876. Birch Cart. Sax., vol. L, p. 480, No. 343.] 

The following translation was made for me by Mr. H. J. 
Bell of the British Museum^ who remarks : " The Latin of 


the Charter is very bad indeed, and in some places means 
nothing as it stands, but my rendering, I think, gives the 
sense intended " : — 

In the name of the Most High God : Therefore in the year of 
our Lord's incarnation 814, and of our reign granted by God 
the 18 th , I, Coenwulf, King of the Mercians, to Suithnothe my 
companion (comes = earl) will grant one plough land to his own 
possession and liberty, to be enjoyed for ever by himself or his 
heirs, namely (that) next to the wood which is called Caert, with 
fields, with woods, with pastures, with meadows yielding (?) 12 
cart(loads) of hay* with one mill and the pannage (waldbera) 
of Wiolhtringden and Thorningabyra and Beardingaleag and 
Focgingabyra and Speldgisella and Hegethonhyrs and Hrithden 
and Cimdenand Begcgebyra and Sponleoge and the frith f between 
Longanleag and the South town (Set tirhde bituihn longanleag 7 
Sem suStune) and the plots of land J thereto appertaining with the 
ancient boundaries. I will acquit the aforesaid land from known 
causes and unknown, from great or small. Moreover, the names 
of the witnesses are added below for a guarantee in case of dispute 
(that) fortifying this my grant they may obtain from the most 
merciful Lord eternal benediction. But if any King or prince or 
ruler shall infringe or lessen this my liberty let him know that he 
is cut off on the Day of Judgement from the fellowship of the 
Saints unless before his indictment he has made worthy reparation. 

As far as I am aware, this Charter is not alluded to in 
any Kentish history or topographical work ; and the 
suggested identification of the place-names in the Official 
Catalogue are in many cases so hopelessly impossible, that it 
is best not to discuss them. On the other hand, in the 
Index of Charters and Rolls, by H. J. Ellis and F. B. Bickley 
(1900), the editors appear to have got on the right track, 
tentatively identifying the parishes in which the places are 

* The sentence as it stands has no construction, but I take it that this is 
what is meant : Capientia for Capientibus. — (Note by H. J. E.) 

t This is probably the meaning of firhde, but, from the Oxford Engl. Diet,, 
a.v. frith, it should be firhSe.— H. J. B. 

J fta snadas ; see Bosworth and Toller, Anglo-Saxon Diet. s.v. snaed : "a 
piece of land toithin defined limits, but, without enclosures, a limited circumscribed 
woodland or pasturage, or (?) a clearing in a wood. — H. J. B. It should bo 
noted many woods in Kent are still called Snoad.—R.. S» C. 


Map to illustrate Harleian Charter 83 A. I. 


situated, though in most cases not giving their present 
names — considering possibly that such identifications are 
provocative of controversy. 

Nevertheless, I am quite certain that a number of these 
places can be identified with certainty, and others with a 
considerable degree of probability ; and in any case the 
printing of the list may lead to research which may identify 
those that are now doubtful. 

1. Caert. Undoubtedly Chart, now called Chart Sutton 

(Certh in Domesday). Waldbera, i.e., Pannage. 

2. Wiolhtringden. This is the most doubtful of any. 

Looking at the four or five names which follow, four 
of which I claim to be certain, I am inclined to 
identify this as the modern Wierton in Boughton 
Monchelsea. But there was also Wornden in Marden 
(Furley's History of the Weald, ii., 832) and Witherden 
farm, north of Headcorn ; but the last is probably 
modern, taking its name from the Witherden family. 

3. Thorningabyra. This is Dun bury, a lonely farm on the 

edge of the sluggish .River Beult. We find it as a 
family name in the Marden Court Rolls. Robert 
Donyngberi, 48 Edward III., and John Dunbery, 
22 Edward IV.* I regard this identification as not 
open to question. 

4. Beardingaleag. Bardingley, a similar farm less than 

a mile south-east of the last. 

5. Focgingabyra. This is much more uncertain. There is 

no Eolkingbury now in this district, but there was 
apparently such a place-name in Marden in the time 
of Edward I. (Eolkingbery ; see Furley's History of 
of the Weald, vol. ii., p. 133), when it belonged to 
Lord William de Valence of Sutton. I am strongly 
inclined to believe that the name now exists in a 
corrupted form in Earthing Green, which is close to 
Bardingley and Dunbury. 
* See author's Loddenden and the Ushornes of Loddenden, 1914, p. 39. 



6. Speldgisella. This is Spilsill, Spilshill, etc. (various 

spellings), a small manor half a mile east of Staple- 
hurst Church. As a family name it was Speldesell in 
time of Edward III. 

7. Hecethonhyrs. The interesting old timber manor 

house of Aydhurst was about half a mile north-east 
of '< Stapiehurst Church, and was only pulled down a 
few years ago. It was a denne and a manor under 
Sutton Valence. It was spelled Heythehurst in the 
time of Edward I., which is fairly near the A.S. form, 
and Haithhurst temp. Edward III. 

8 and 9. Hritiiden and Cunden. There is Riseden near 
Goudhurst and Risden between Hawkhurst and Sand- 
hurst, Camden between Cranbrook and Stapiehurst, 
and Cumbden in Sandhurst. I have marked both on 
the map. 1 am inclined to the Sandhurst identification 
as forming a group with Sponleoge q.v. 

10. Begcgebyra. Unquestionably Bedgebury. 

11. Sponleoge. The only place I can suggest is Sponden 

in Sandhurst, and this is probably correct, the " ley " 
having been dropped. 

12 and 13. Longanleag and Sudtune. Undoubtedly Lang- 
ley and Sutton Valence; and the "frith between" 
them must be the western extremity of "Kingswood." 

It will be seen that the majority of these names are 
identifiable with tolerable certainty ; and it is most interesting 
to find isolated farms still bearing the names they had 
eleven hundred years ago. Langley (Langulei) and Sudtone 
are both in Domesday, but there is nothing about the others. 

Lastly, as to the Charter itself, Mr. J. A. Herbert of the 
Department of MSS., British Museum, calls my attention to 
the fact that Bond and Thompson, after a, careful examination 
of all the Charters, formed the opinion that Earl. Charter 
83 A. I. is not the original Charter of 814 a.d., but a copy 
made in the late ninth century. 

[Alex. Ridley, Tenterden, 


( 207 ) 



The Church of St. Mildred the Virgin at Tenterden — one of 
only four 1 which bear this dedication in the county of 
Kent — is a building of much interest. The lofty and 
beautiful tower at the west end has the uncommon feature 
of a double doorway, and has been carefully restored within 
the last few years. It was erected during the second half 
of the fifteenth century. This tower, or rather one that 
preceded it, is well known in connection with the legend of 
Tenterden Steeple being the cause of the Goodwin Sands. 
The purpose of this paper, however, is not to give a history 
or description of the building, but to give a list of those 
clergy who have ministered in the church at Tenterden for 
over seven hundred years. The earliest name on record is 
that of — 

HUGO NORMAN, clerk, temp. Henry II. and Richard I., 

Who is stated 2 to have been presented to the Church of Tent- 
warden by the Abbot (Roger de Lurdingden) of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, in the time of King Richard I. (1189—1199). At a 
visitation by the Archdeacon in the year 1240, he is said to have 
been Rector for sixty years and more, 3 and, because he had held it 
for so long a time, the right of patronage had come to be in doubt. 
On the decease of Hugo Norman the Pope (Innocent IV.) 

HENRY: DE WTNGHAM, clerk, c. 1252, 

To the Church of Thendwardenne. His appointment is alleged 

1 The others being the churches at Preston near Wingham, Nurstead by 
Gravesend, and one in the City of Canterbury. 

3 Year-books of the reign of Edward III., year xvii (1342-3), 509. 

3 Hist. Angl. Scri-ptores, x., 1652, Chronicle of William Thorn of 



to have been the cause of an affray and disturbance 1 which led to 
the death of Henry de Smaleide, who, " coming with armed force 
to the Church of Tentwardenn, attacked sundry persons and was 
wounded by them, whereof he afterwards died. . . . The King has 
already pardoned the said wounding and death." This took place 
about the year 1252. Henry de AVingham was a native of the 
parish of that name in East Kent and became much in favour with 
Henry III., who bestowed on him various Kentish livings. He 
ultimately became Lord Chancellor of England, and in 1259 Bishop 
of London. Died at his manor house at Stepney 1262, and was 
buried in Old St. Paul's. 

In consequence probably of the trouble before mentioned, the 
right of presentation to this church was vested as follows : — 

5 Kal. June (28 May) 1255, at Naples. Grant (by Pope 
Alexander IV.) to the Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, of the Church of Tentwardene in that diocese, of their 
patronage, to take effect on itsvoidance without the consent of the 
Diocesan or Archdeacon ; a jDortion for the Vicar being assigned, 
and the rights of the Diocesan preserved. 2 

Sir "WILLIAM, capellanus, ob. 1259. 

In the year 1259 Archbishop Boniface issued a mandate to his 
official, Hamon Doge, to enquire concerning this vicarage. The 
result of the enquiry 3 shewed that the Church of " Tendyrdenn " 
was vacant " per mortem domini Willielmi capellan' qui ultimo 
fuit vicarius in eadein." 

JOHN, c. 1300-1, 

Who, with sixteen other Kentish Eeetors and Vicars, was ex- 
communicated and imprisoned at Canterbury 4 by Archbishop 
Winchelsey during the controversies between him and the Abbey 
of St. Augustine. " Johannes, Vicarius Ecclesiaa de Tenterdenne " 
(together with the others), was released from prison by order of 
the King, who directed a writ to the Sheriff of Kent, dated from 
Lincoln 18th Feb., 29 Edward I., for that purpose. And on August 

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, Henry III. (1247 — 58), 1G9. See also Furlev's History 
of the Weald of Kent, ii., 31, 32. 

2 Cal. Papal Letters, i. (1198—1304), 322. 

3 Thorn's Chronicles in Decern Scriptores, 2100. 

4 The History of ... . the most illustrious King Edward I., etc., by 
William Pry nne, Keeper of the Records (1670), 905.' Also Cal, Close Rolls, 
Edward I. (1296—1302), 427. 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


14th, 1302, from Westminster the King directed a further order to 
the Sheriff to " cause all lay or armed force to be removed from the 
Church of Tenderdenne (and others) in the County of Kent." 

Dns JOHN GLADEWYNE, presb., 131J— 1318, 

Is the first Vicar of Tenterden whose name is to be found 

in the archepiscopal registers at Lambeth. He was admitted by 

the Archbishop at his manor at Teynham on 24th February 

1311-12 ; the record being as follows r 1 — 

M°CCC m0 Xl°. " Tentredenne. Itm. eodem anno apud Tenh'm 

vj Kaln Marcii admisit dris Johem Grladevvyne p'sbrm ad p'petua' 

Vicari' ecclie de Tenterdenne Cant. dioc. vacantem & ad p'sent'oem 

Abbis & Co'vent S l Augustini Cant.," etc. 

JOHN SCRl r P, presb., inst. 1318, 

Succeeded and was admitted by Archbishop Eeynolds at 
Lambeth 3 on the 2 Id. Junii (12th June) 1318. 

JOHN PIKAED, late Vicar, 1323, 

Was the next, but the date of his institution does not appear to 
be entered. He is mentioned as late Vicar in 17 Edward II. Almost 
at the end of the Archbishop's register 3 may be found the record of 
a prohibition, by writ of consultation. 4 - on behalf of John Pikard, late 
Vicar of the Church of Tenterden. Edward, King of England, etc., 
to Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, greeting, etc. Restraining the 
Archbishop from impleading " Joiiem Pikard vicari' ecclie de Tent'- 
denne," we being ready to render to you and to all others full and 
speedy justice in our own court. Witness, etc., at Notingham, xiiii 
die Nouemb. anno E. n'ri deci'o septi'o. 

Three weeks later, by a further writ dated " Eavenesdale vii die 
Decemb. anno E. n'ri deci'o septi'o," this prohibition was withdrawn. 
The King was unwilling to hinder matters appertaining to the Eccle- 
siastical Court, and gave leave to the Archbishop to proceed against 
the Vicar of the Church of " Tant'denn " in a Court of Christianity, 
for not residing on his vicarage, and for other offences. 

EALPH DE CLYEFTONE, presb., 132f— 1327. 

Admitted "adVicariam ecclie de Tent'denne" by Archbishop Eey- 
nolds from his manor at Otford, 5 7 Kal. Feb. (26th January) 132f. 

1 Reg. Archbp. Winckelsey, fol. 169. 

2 Reg. Archbp. Reynolds, fol. 23. 3 Ibid., fol. 308 a , 308 b . 

4 The statute of the Writ of Consultation, relating to Ecclesiastical Courts, 
was made in 24 Edward I. 5 Reg. Archbp. Reynolds, fol. 251\ 




WILLIAM BE CASTELLO, Diac, 1327—1333. 

Admitted " ad Vicariam ecc'ie de Tentrdenn " also by Arch- 
bishop Reynolds (who at the time was at the manor of Orsett in 
the diocese of London) 1 on the 14 Kal. Oct. (18th September) 
1327. Six years later he exchanged benefices with John de Bourne, 
of St. Martin's, Canterbury, which is recorded on the Patent Roll 
as follows : 3 — 

26 November 1333. Clarendon. Presentation of William de 
Castro, King's clerk, Vicar of the Church of Tenterdenne, to the 
Church of St. Martin without Canterbury, in the diocese of 
Canterbury in the King's gift by reason of the voidance of the 
see, on an exchange of benefices with John de Bourne, King's 

JOHN DE BOURNE, King's clerk, inst. 1333. 

The third Rector of St. Martin's, by exchange, became Vicar of 
Tenterden, and was instituted to this benefice by the Prior 
(Richard Oxenden) and Chapter of Canterbury — the see being 
vacant 3 — on 22nd December 1333, on presentation by the King. 
In 1334 the Abbot of St. Augustine's received from the Pope a 
ratification of grants made of various possessions, including the 
Church of Tenterden. 4 John de Bourne appears as Rector 5 of 
Snargate 1320—1324, and he is perhaps the same who became 
Provost of Wingham College, which he held at the time of his 
decease in 1351. 

Dns JOHN DE BRADWEY, c, 1342. 

In the year 1342 an action was brought by Sir Michael de 
Ponynges, John de Seagrave of Folkestone and others, 6 against the 
Abbot of St. Augustine's in respect of a presentation to the Church 
of Tenterden. In connection with these proceedings 7 we have the 
name of " dominum Johannem de Bradwey Vicarium ecclesie de 
Tentwardene." The patronage was claimed as being part of the 
inheritance of the Barony of Averanches, but judgment was given in 
favour of the Abbot, who produced the grant made by Alexander IV. 
John de Bradwey afterwards appears to have been Rector of 

1 Reg. Archbp. Reynolds, fol. 265. 

2 Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edw. III. (1330—1334), 480. 
;{ Sede Vacante, Reg. Q., fol. 177. 

4 Cal. Papal Letters, ii., p. 401. 5 Arch. Cant., XIII., 425. 

0 Year-books of Edw. III., year xvii. (1342-3), pp. 189, 501. 
7 Thorn's Chronicles in Decern Scriptores, 2080. 

ST. Mildred's, tenterden. 


Trottescliffe, from whence he exchanged to Itchen. near South- 
ampton. The right of patronage does not, however, appear to have 
been definitely settled, according to the following presentation : — 

WILLIAM MOGGE, pres. 1346, 

Concerning whom the following is entered 1 on the Patent Roll 
of Edw. III.: — 

22 December 1346. Eltham. Presentation of William Mogge 
to the Church of Tenterdenne in the Diocese of Canterbury, in the 
King's gift by reason of his late custody of the lands and heir of 
Agnes, sometime the wife of Thomas Ponynges tenant in chief. 
William Mogge was no doubt followed by — 

JOHN GILBERT, exch. 1347, 

But at what date I cannot ascertain. He exchanged to the 
living of Trottescliffe as may be seen from the following: — 

JOHN EVERYNG, 1347—1349. 

1 January 1347. Eltham. Presentation of John Everyng, 
Parson of the Church of Trottesclyve in the Diocese of Rochester, 
to the Vicarage of the Church of Tenterdenne in the Diocese of 
Canterbury, in the King's gift by reason of the temporalities of the 
Abbey of St. Augustine, Canterbury, being in his hands, on an 
exchange of benefices with John Gilbert.' 2 John Everyng had been 
Rector of Trottescliffe 3 since 1341 ; but he did not remain at 
Tenterden very long. 

Dns ADAM DE LILLYNGSTON, inst. 1349, 

Was presented by the Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine's to 
be Yicar of the Church of Tentwarden, and owing to the see being 
vacant, 4 the Archbishop-elect (John de IT fiord) having died a week 
previously, he was instituted to this living by the Prior (Robert 
Hathbrand) and Chapter of Christ Church, Canterbury, on 
28th May 1349. A month later, the 27th June, Adam "Lyvingstan," 
Yicarius de Tenterden, with other neighbouring clergy, 5 appointed 
proctors to parliament and convocation. 

Dns JOHN TAILLOUR, exch. 1390. 

The date of his institution to this vicarage I have not found. 

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edw. III. (1345—48), 227. 2 Ibid., 217. 

3 Arch. Cant., XX., 188. 4 Sede Vacante, Reg. G., fol. 122 b . 

5 Cant. Sede Vacante, Scrap-book, p. 303. 

? 2 



On the 18th May 1390, at Croydon, Archbishop Courtenay 1 sanc- 
tioned an exchange of benefices between " d'nm Joh'em Taiilo 1- 
p'petum Vic' eccl'ie p'och de Tentwarclyn Cant, dicec " and " Thoma' 
Newman p'pet. Vic' eccl'ie p'och de Middelton Cant, dicec." Within 
three months John Taylor again exchanged, this time to the Vicar- 
age of St. John in Thanet (Margate Parish Church). 

THOMAS NEWMAN, 1390-1394, 

Formerly Vicar of Middleton (Milton Regis), now became 
Vicar of Tenterden. He remained here four years, when he 
obtained leave to exchange into the West of England. On the 6th 
December 1394, at Maydeston, Archbishop Courtenay and Henry, 
Bishop of Worcester, agreed to " Thoma' Newman Vicarium eccl'ie 
p'och de Tynterden Cantuarien dioc." and " Rob'um Noreys 
Vicarium eccl'ie p'ochis de Stonehous Wygornien dioc." exchanging 
benefices. 3 

ROBERT NORREYS, inst. 1394, 

Previously Vicar of Stouehouse, Gloucestershire, then in the 
Diocese of Worcester, by exchange became Vicar of this parish, 
but how long he remained here is not shewn. 

WILLIAM DERWENT, exch. 1404. 

His institution to this vicarage has not been found. On the 
26th October 1404, at Coventry, Archbishop Arundel and Edmund, 
Bishop of Exeter, permitted an exchange of benefices 3 between 
" Will" 1 Humberston, Rectorem eccl'ie p'och de Schokebrok sue 
Exonien. dioc." and " Will' Derwent, Vicar'm ecc'ie p'och de 
Tent'den Cant, dioc." 

Dfis WILLIAM HUMBERSTON, 1404—1407, 

Eormerly Rector of Shobrooke near Crediton, Devon, held this 
vicarage for three years only, resigning in 1407. 

Dns WILLIAM ACHECOTE or ATSSHCOT, cap., 1407—1436. 

Archbishop Arundel, 4 on the 26th June 1407, at Lambeth, 
admitted " d'ns Willm. Achecote, cap us ad p'petuam Vicariam ecc'ie 

1 Reg. Archbp. Courtenay, fol. 276 a . 

2 Reg. M.D.B.C., Courtenay section, fol. 219. 

3 Reg. Archbp. Arundel, fol. 298 b . 

4 Ibid., fol. 315\ 


p'och de Tenterden Cantuarien' dioc. p. lib'am resignacionem d'ni 
Willi' Humberston ultimi Vicari ejusdem vacantem." He remained 
Vicar of Tenterden for nearly thirty years, and resigned in 1436. 

Dfis NICHOLAS WIDMERE, cap., 1436—1443, 

Succeeded. His admission to this benefice is thus recorded: 1 — 
" Vicar' de Tendirden. Duodecimo die mensis Septembris anno 
dm cccc c xxxvi to in manerio suo de Maydeston. Admisit dominum 
Nicholaum Widmer capellanum ad Vicariam p'petuam eccrie 
p'ochialis de Tenterdenne sue dioec. p. liberam resignacionem domini 
Will 111 Aysshcot ultimi ibidem vicarii vacantem," etc. Seven years 
later he exchanged into the diocese of Chichester, being admitted, on 
the presentation of John, Duke of Norfolk, to the Rectory of West 
(xrinstead near Horsham, on the 6th July 1443, by the Bishop 
(Richard Praty) of Chichester at his house at Amberley. 2 

Dfis WILLIAM COVENTRY, 1443— c. 1459. 

Previously Rector of West Grinstead, Sussex. He is stated to 
have been presented to Tenterden by the Prior and Convent of 
Christ Church, Canterbury, on an exchange with the last. William 
Cok of Tenterden, by will 3 dated 15th May 1449, made a bequest 
of 3s. 4<d. to Dom. William Coventri. On 24th November 1458, 
at Westminster, a pardon of outlawry in the hustings of London 1 
was granted to William Coventry of West Grenested, Sussex, alias 
of Tenterden, co. Kent, clerk, for not appearing before the justices 
touching a debt of 40 marks, and another of 40 shillings. 

He probably held this living about fifteen or sixteen years, the 
next of whom we have record being — 

JOHN HENTON, clerk, c. 1460—1464, 

Who was Vicar of Tenterden in 1461, his name appearing as a 
witness to the will of Henry Esteagh of Tenterden, dated 31st 
October in that year. Like his predecessor, he also received a 
pardon of outlawry, 5 dated 18th April 1464, at Westminster, " for 
not appearing before the Justices of the King's Bench to answer 

1 Reg. Arohbp. Chiohele, i., fol. 212. 

2 lieg. of Bishop Praty of Chichester, quoted iu Sussex Liecord Society , vob 
iv., 128. 3 Archdeaconry, i., L 

4 Cal. Pat. Rolls, Henry VI. (1452—61), 450. 

5 Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward IV. (1461—67), 314. 


Walter Stalworth of Westminster, co. Middlesex, " taylour," 
touching a debt of forty shillings." 

A few months later he exchanged into Sussex. 

JOHN DEVE, pres. 1464. 

Presented by K. Edward IV. to this vicarage, according to the 
following entry in the Patent lioll : l — • 

10 November 1464. Wycombe. Presentation of John Deve, 
Parson of tile Parish Church of Iwerst (Ewhurst) in the diocese 
of Chichester, to the Vicarage of the Parish Church of Tentwarden 
in the diocese of Canterbury, on an exchange of benefices with 
John Henton. 

How long John Deve remained Vicar of Tenterden is uncer- 
tain. Apparently the living had been vacant prior to the year 
1476, as a commission was issued in that year by Archbishop 
Bourchier to Mag. Simon Hoigges, the official of the Archdeacon, 
to enquire on the vacancy of the Parish Church of " Tentwarden," 
and, if found to be still vacant, to admit Mag. Edmund Hovynden 
to the same. 3 

Mag. EDMUND HOVYNDEN, ll.b., 147f— 1478, 

Already, since 1465, Vicar of St. Paul's, Canterbury, was now 
admitted to this vicarage on the same being found vacant. Arch- 
bishop Bourchier's commission of enquiry was issued from Lam- 
beth 22nd March 147f, but in a little over a year he was 
permitted by the same Archbishop to exchange benefices 3 with 
Will : Pope, Rector of Blackmanstone, the patrons, the A. and C. 
of St. Augustine's, and Sir William Hawte, Kt., respectively, 

By his will 4 dated 17th June 1497, Vicar Hovynden desired to 
be buried in the chancel of St. Mar}^ in the Church of St. Paul, 
Canterbury. He made many interesting bequests to the Abbey of 
St. Augustine, and "to my Church of Blakmanston one vest- 
ment," but makes no reference to Tenterden Church. 

Mag. WILLIAM POPE, 1478—1479, 

Rector of Blackmanstone in Romney Marsh, now became Vicar 
of Tenterden, but he also only held the living a little over twelve 

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward IV. (1461—67), 353. 

2 Reg. Archbp. Bourchier, fol. 115". 3 Ibid., fol. 118 a . 
4 Archdeaconry, vii., 9. 

ST. ivIildked's, tenterden. 


months, dying about the end of the summer in 1479. His name 
occurs as a witness to the will of one of his parishioners, Thomas 
Sharpey of Tenterden, made 13th January 147$-. 

Mag. JOHN MOEER, a.m., 1479—1489, 

Followed. His admission to this benefice is thus recorded: 1 — 
" Quarto die mens. Octob'r anno d'ni Mill'mo cccelxxix mo apud 
Maghfeld d'ns admisit magr'm Joh'nem Moeer in artib's magr'm 
ad Vicariam p'petua' S'ce Mildrede de Tent warden Cant. dioc. p. 
mort' mag'ri Willi' Pope ult° vicariu' ib'm vacan' ad qua' p. Abb'tem 
& Conventu' mon' S'ci Augustioi ext' muros civitat Cant.," etc. 
John Moeer or More, who may probably have been connected with 
the family of Sir Thomas More, held the vicarage of Tenterden 
for ten years, dying in 1489. His will, dated on Palm Sunday in 
that year, is one of much interest, and shews him to have been a 
man of considerable learning. A brief notice of the same may not 
be inappropriate. 2 He desired to be buried in the chancel of St. 
Mildred of Tenterden, and bequeathed to the repair thereof 10s. ; 
to the repair of the nave 13s. 4i. Bequests to the house of Friars 
Carmelites at Losenham ; the House of Trinitarians at Headcorn ; 
the House of Friars Minors at Winchelsea ; the Brotherhood of 
St. Mary in Tenterden Church ; the maintenance of the Chapel of 
Smallhythe, and to the Chaplain of the same; numerous personal 
legacies; and a unique list of books which were bequeathed by 
name to various colleges, etc., and among many of the neighbouring 
clergy. Those who thus benefited included : the College of Eton ; 
the Students of Christ Church, Canterbury ; the Students of St. 
Augustine without Canterbury ; Magdalen College and Canterbury 
Hall at Oxford; the College of Wye; the College of Ashford ; 
the Ministers of Biddenden, Sandhurst, Chartham, St. George 
Canterbury, Benenden, etc. ; the Church of St. Benedict, Bucklers- 
bury, London; Sir John Gilford, Kt. (a parishioner), and others. 
In addition to which certain books were to be chained in the eastern 
part of the choir of Tenterden Church. An interesting bequest is 
that of ten pounds and some books to Thomas Lynaker, then a 
student at Florence ; this was Thomas Linacre, afterwards known 
as the famous Greek scholar and physician to both Henry VII. 

1 Reg. Archbp. Bourchier, fol. 122 a . 

2 Por further interesting details see Boohs mentioned in Wills, a paper 
read before the Bibliographical Society, 19th October 1903, by H. E. Plomer, 
Esq., to which the writer is indebted for the information regarding the books. 



and Henry VIII. The will 1 was proved at Lambeth 16th Novem- 
ber 1489. 

JOHN HYCHECOKE, 1490—1493, 

No doubt became Vicar on the decease of John More, but the 
date of his institution has not been found in the Archepiseopal 
registers. His name occurs in wills 2 of Tenterden folk dated 1490 
and 1491. Possibly he died about the end of 1493, his successor 
being admitted early in the year 1494 to the benefice, being then 
"Vacant per mortem ultimi incumbentis." 

Mag. PETER MARSHALL, s.t.b., 1494—1512. 

Archbishop Morton, at Lambeth on the 11th March 149f, 
instituted 3 "Mag'rm Petrum Marchall in sacra theologia bachellar' 
ad vicariam p'petuam eccl'ie p'och de Tentwarden suo Cant, dicec." 
Mr. Marshall's name appears as witness to many wills of his 
parishioners. One, Robert Clerk, by will 4 of 24 December 1495, 
bequeathed to Magister Peter Marchall, Vicar of Tenterden, as a 
mortuary 10s., and to the said Vicar, to pray, etc., 6s. 8d. A 
Chantry in Tenterden Church was founded about this time, which was 
afterwards known as Peter Marshall's Chantry. Some interesting 
particulars concerning this may be found in Appendices II. and VII., 
pp. 238, 243. Mr. Marshall resigned this vicarage in 1512, and his 
name occurs as Rector of St. Edmund, Lombard Street, E.C., 
1510—1516. By his will, 5 dated 28 July 1518, he bequeathed to 
the poor of Tenterden 20s., and in works of charity 10 marcs, but 
makes no bequest to the Church or Chantry, whereas his brother, 
William Marshall, left considerable legacies thereto. Possibly he 
was not so well oft' as his brother, as he seems to have needed a 
retiring pension of twenty marks yearly from the vicarage of 
Tenterden to be paid by his successor, who was : — 

Mag. WILLIAM BROKE, a.m., 1512—1539. 

The record 6 of his institution is as follows : " Nono die mensis 
Septembris anno d'ni M u Quingentisimo duo decimo apud Knoll 
d'ns adinisit Mag'rm Will'm Broke artium mag'rm ad vicariam 
p'petuam eccl'ie p'ochialis de Tentwarden Cant. dioc. p. liberam 
resignationem Mag'ri Petri Marschall clerici ultimi incumbentis." 
This is the last recorded presentation to the vicarage of Tenterden 

1 P.C.C. Wills. 20, Milles. 2 Archdeaconry Wills, Cant. 

;1 Reg. M.D.B.C., Morton's Section, fol. 156 b . 4 Archdeaconry, vi., 5. 

5 Consistory, xii. } fol. 158. 6 Reg. Archbp. Warham, fol. 316\ 

st. Mildred's, tenteuden. 


by the Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine's, Canterbury. On 
being instituted by Archbishop Warham, Mr. Broke took the usual 
oaths touching continuous and personal residence, etc., and also 
agreed to pay an annual pension of 20 marcs (£13 6s. 8d.) to the 
aforesaid Mag. Peter Marshall, to be paid at the four quarters of 
the year in equal portions, namely, on the Sunday which is called 
Albis} on the first of July, the sixth of October and the first 
of January, during the time of his holding the said vicarage. 
Mr. Broke appears to have been Bector of Fordwich from 1509 
till 1512, when he resigned. During his vicariate of 27 years 
he appears to have carried out his undertaking and to have 
resided among his parishioners, his name occurring in many of 
their wills — in some as witness, in others as legatee. He seems 
to have found it difficult to keep pace with the times in which he 
lived, as in 1534 we find Sir John Dudley — who at that time held 
Kenchill in Tenterden — writing to Lord Cromwell 2 concerning him : 
"This day the Vicar of Tenterden exhorted his parishioners to 
stand on their old fashions and to fly this new learning, etc." 
Dated at Halden, Sunday afternoon, 11 October 1534. The com- 
plainant was one of Cromwell's servants named Brikenden, and 
Dudley would not have written to Cromwell about it " had he not 
already been before you," which seems to imply that Vicar Broke had 
been previously called to account. In the Valor Eccle&iasticus, which 
was compiled in 1531-5, Mr. Broke is named as being Vicar here. 
The particulars relating to Tenterden will be found in Appendix 
No. III., p. 210. About the year 1521 there appears to have been 
made a Grant 3 of the next presentation to the vicarage of 
Tenterden (and two others) to John liest, Alderman of the City of 
London, and Thomas Perpoynt. The living not falling vacant, 
however, for some sixteen or seventeen years after that date, the 
next presentation was made by Dr. Eichard Layton, as shewn later. 
The date of the decease of Mr. Broke has not been found. 
Administration 4 of his goods was granted to " Sir " Kobert Idley of 
Ebony, clerk, kinsman of the deceased, on the ex' or renouncing, 
16 Jan. 154^. The following item is from the Lydd Corporation 
records 5 : " Paid in reward unto a Priest of Tenterden when he 

1 The first Sunday after Easter, which is called "Albis" (Breviaram 
Sarum, p. 517). 2 State Papers, Henry VIII., vol. vii., 1251. 

3 Catalogue of MSS. iu ZA. in the Library of Cant. Cath., by Rev. C E. 
Woodruff (1911), p. 70. 

4 Archdeaconry Administrations, vol. viii. (1536—17). 

5 Lydd Chamberlain's accounts (1520 — 1521), fol. 59. 



came to preach on Mid-Lent Sunday . . . 18 d ." The name not 
being given, it is uncertain whether the preacher was the Vicar or 
the Chantry Priest of Tenterden. 

Dns PETER BAKER, a.m., 1539—1545. 

Probably a native of Tenterden or lived there while young, his 
father being John Baker (who had a business in the town), and 
grandfather, Symon Baker of Faversham. 1 William Gervis, Jurat 
of Tenterden, by his will 2 dated 1525, bequeathed to Peter, the son 
of John Baker, 13s. 4<d., and also £6 13s. 4>d., upon condition that 
he be a priest. Evidently he was already studying at Oxford, as 
he took his degree of B.A. there early the following year. His 
father became Bailiff of Tenterden in 1530, and died in 1539. By 
his will 3 made in 1537, he bequeathed to his son " Sir " Peter Baker 
a gray gelding, and to his son Xtopher a bay ditto. "William Broke 
the Vicar, dying probably in 1539, Peter Baker was presented to 
the living by Dr. Layton, and recorded as follows : 4 — 

Institutio Vicarie ecclie p'och de Tenterden. " Vicesimo primo 
die mensis Junii anno d'ni Mill' mo Quingentesimo xxxix 0 apud 
Lambehith d'ns admisit d'nm Petrum Baker artiu' mag'rm ad 
vicaria' p'petuam eccl'ie p'och de Tenterdem suo Cantuar dioc. per 
mortem naturalem d'ni Will'mi Broke cl'ici ultimi incumben' ib'm 
vacan ad quam per M'rin Richardum Layton legum doctorem vigore 
cuiusdam advocationis ex in hac parte fact hac viro patron', etc." 

Mr. Baker, like his predecessor, apparently found it not easy to 
give up the form of worship in which he had doubtless been trained, 
and in consequence came under the notice of Archbishop Cranmer. 
Eor particulars see Appendix No. V., p. 241. 

This Vicar's name occurs in two charters preserved in the British 
Museum. In the first 5 he is stated, in conjunction with John 
Lydyat, citizen and ironmonger of London, to have entered into a 
bond to pay £3 6s. Sd. to Roger Plat, citizen and merchant tailor 
of London, at the Eeast of the Nativity of St. John Baptist then 
next ensuing (24 June). This is dated 10 May, 36 Henry VIII., 
1544, and bears the signatures of Peter Baker and John Lydyat. 
The second 6 is a bond by John Maynard, citizen and mercer of 
London, to pay Peter Baker, Vicar of Tenterden, by the Eeast of 
St. Peter ad Vincula next ensuing (1 August) the sum of £40 in 
consideration of his having failed to carry out certain agreements 

1 The Genealogist, vi. (1890), p. 242. 2 Archdeaconry, xvi., 12. 
:{ Archdeaconry, xxi., 9. 4 Re£. Arohbp. Cranmer, fol. 367 b . 

0 Harley Charter, 45 F. 26. 6 Harley Charter, 53 D. 27. 

$t. milbred's, Tenterden. 


relating to the tithes of the Church of Tenterden. This bears 
date 10 July, 37 Henry VIII., 1545, and has the signature of John 
Maynard with a seal. 

Bp. RICH AH D THORNEDEN, d.d., 1546-1555, 

Succeeded Peter Baker. He is well known to the student of 
ecclesiastical history as the second Bishop Suffragan of Dover, to 
which office he was appointed in 1545. It is unnecessary here to 
recount the varied incidents of his career, and it will be sufficient 
to remark that he changed his opinions according to the times, and 
was rewarded with many lucrative benefices. The exact date of 
his appointment to Tenterden does not appear to have been 
recorded, but according to the following entry 1 he compounded for 
first fruits of that living in 37 Henry VIII. : ' c Vicesimo die Aprilis 
xxxvij Hen. VIII. Kane. Rich'us Thorneden ci'icus intravit 
comp' sua' prim' Vicar de Tenterden ext ad xxxiij u xij s x d xma inde 
lxvij s iij d ob. Obligantur idem Rich'us, Johes foreman et Thomas 
Batherst, Ald'ri Civit. Cantuar." This may therefore be the 
year in which he became Vicar of Tenterden. In addition to 
holding this vicarage, Bishop Thorneden also obtained the valuable 
livings of Lydd 1540, Bishopsbourne 1544, Wrotham 1546, Great 
Chart 1555, and Adisham 1557. He died at his benefice of 
Bishopsbourne 2 in February 155|-, and at Tenterden was succeeded 
Mag. WILLIAM DARRELL, m.a., res. 1556, 

A member of the chapter at Canterbury, being the third Canon 
in the third prebend, to which he was appointed by Queen Mary in 
1554, and which he held till his decease. As in the case of his 
predecessor, the exact date of his institution to Tenterden has not 
been found. He was probably a member of the Kentish family of 
Darell or Darrell of Little Chart, and was an antiquary of some 
note, writing an account of the castles of Kent and of Dover Castle 
in particular. He was M.A. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; 
Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth 1560, Sub-dean of Canterbury 
between 1565 — 1570, and Chancellor of the Diocese of Bangor. 
Nominated to the Archbishopric of Armagh in 1567, but, owing to 
the opposition of Archbishop Grrindal, did not obtain the appoint- 
ment 3 . He held many and various livings; those in Kent included 

1 Composition Books, Series I. (1536—1660). iii., 85 b . 

2 Antiquary, vol. xxiii. (1891). 3 Diet. Nat.Biog. 



Little Chart 1546, Milton Gravesend 1549, Upper Hardrcs 1550, 
and Nether Hardres in 1561 ; to the latter he compounded for 
first fruits 10 th July, 3 Elizabeth. Vicar of Monk ton 1562, and 
of Benenden 1563. 

At the primary Visitation 1 of Archbishop Parker held at Canter- 
bury in 1560, each member of the chapter duly appeared, and the 
answer of Mr. Darrell may be of interest : " D'ns Wili'mus Dar- 
rell ; Prebend arius and Vice-Decanus. M 1 ' Darrell saith that the 
schollers of the grammer schole goe not orderlie in theire apparrell; 
also that Master (Theodorus) Newton, one of the prebendaries, is 
supposed to be no preste. Also M r Darrell confesseth that he hath 
three benefices with cure within the dioces of Canturbery, and 
hathe dispensacon but for two onlie." Mr. Darrell did not hold 
the benefice of Tenterden very long, as he resigned it in the. 
summer of 1556. He died in 1580. 

The Abbey of St. Augustine having been surrendered on the 
31st of July, 30 Henry VIII. (1538), the patronage of the vicarage 
of Tenterden was bestowed upon the Dean and Chapter of Canter- 
bury,- in whose gift it remains to the present time. " Grant to 
the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury (among many other rectories 
and advowsons of vicarages) that of Tent warden alias Tenterden in 
co. Kent, which belonged to the late monastery of St. Augustine 
by Canterbury. Dat. 16 May, 33 Hen. VIII., 1541." 

JOHN SPENDELOVE, presb., 1556—1560, 

Was the next Vicar, and was the first, according to the arch- 
episcopal registers, to be presented by the Dean and Chapter of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, "the trne and undoubted patrons thereof." 
The record of his admission is as follows : 3 — 

" Tenterden Vicario Institntio. Auno d'ni millimo quingen 0 
quinquagesimo sexto. Vicesimo sexto die inensis Angus fci anno pre- 
dicto apud Lambehith d'ns admisit Joh'em Spendelove p'b'm ad 
vicariam perpetuam eccl'ie p'ochialis de Tenterdeu Caiituarien' 
dioc. et jurisdictionis per liberam et spontaneam resignationem 
Mag'ri Willini Darrell ultimi Vicarii et incumbentis vacan., etc." 
Mr. Spendelove appears to have been Vicar of Charing in 1554. 
His name is not found in the Composition Jijoks, although he held 
the living about four and a half years. 

1 Reg-. Arohbp. Parker, i., fol. 304. 

2 letters aud Papers, Henry VILL, xvi. (1543-L), p. 425. 
:i Reg. Arohbp. Pole, fol. 69 b . 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


JOHN BEND ALL, clerk, 156^—1571, 

Was admitted "ad Vicariam p'petuam eccl'ie parocliialis de 
Tentwarden Cant, dice." by Archbishop Parker 1 at Lambeth, on 
the 7th of February according to tbe computation of the Chnrch 
of England 1560, and compounded for first fruits on the 24th of 
March following 3 . He appears to have been non-resident at Ten- 
terden, and, according to the presentments made at the Arch- 
deacon's visitations, many complaints were alleged against him, 
e.g., 1560, The vicarage is in decay. 1563, There is no hospitality 
kept and nothing given to the poor, and the vicarage and church- 
yard in very decay by the Vicar's default. The Vicar hath two 
benefices, by what order they know not. 1564, The vicarage and 
churchyard is in ruin and decay, but they do provide for the amend- 
ment thereof. 1565, Our vicarage is not fully repaired but is in 
great decay. 1566, We present John Bendall, clerk, our Vicar, 
for that he is not resident with us, but serveth a cure at' Halden, 3 
two miles from us, and that he hath letten out his vicarage to farm, 
and hath not reserved any part thereof for his curate, which we 
think inconvenient in both • and further, what relief he cloth give 
to the poor we know not. At the visitation of Archbishop Parker in 
1569, Mr. Bendall was reported to be married; not resident there; has 
many benefices ; not hospitable there ; preaches and has license to 
preach, and is a graduate. His Curate, Mr. Cockes, was also reported 
to be married ; has no benefice ; does not preach ; has no license to 
preach, and not a graduate. Householders, 194; communicants, 586. 

During Mr. Bendall's absence from Tenterden he had William 
Cockes, or Coxe, as his Curate here ; he resided upon the benefice 
and acted as the friend and adviser of the parishioners, as he is 
found drawing up their wills and witnessing them, etc. But 
eventually, he fell on troublous times, it being recorded that on the 
18th November 1569 William Coxe, " Curatus de Tenterden," was 
summoned to appear in the Consistory Court at Canterbury, 4 and 
admonished to henceforth observe the injunctions of the Queen's 
Majesty under a penalty of tenpence. 

G-EORGIE ELIE, m.a., 1571—1615, 

Or as it is variously spelt, Eley, Elye, Ely, was, on the 
16th April 1571, also admitted by Archbishop Parker " ad Vicaria' 

1 Reg. Archbp. Parker, i., fol. 347 b . 2 Comp. Rooks, vii., 114. 

3 His name does not appear in a list of the Rectors of High Halden, com- 
piled by Wynford R. Grimaldi, Esq. (1900). 4 Consist. Court Acta 1569. 



perpetua' eccl'ie p'ochialis de Tenterden Cant, dioc." on the pre- 
sentation of Dr. Thomas Godwin, ST. P., the Dean of Canterbury, 
and also the Chapter of the same. 1 He compounded on the 24th 
of the same month." Mr. Elie was an Oxford man, taking his 
degree there of B.A. in 1566, and M.A. 15G9. He was appointed a 
Lower Master at the King's School, Canterbury, 3 in 1568, in 
succession to Edward Caldwell, but resigned that on being 
presented to this vicarage three years later. During his long 
tenure of this office he was at times non-resident, and at the 
presentments made to the Archdeacon we find the following : 
" 1576. The clarke George Haffenden doth read in the Vicar's 
absence, not being licensed." Between the years 1584 and 1604 
many further presentments were made respecting the condition 
of the church and churchyard. 

In the year 1599 a curious dispute arose between the Vicar and 
some of his parishioners concerning the right of the latter to use a 
small door leading out of the north chancel ; the record of the 
whole matter may be seen in Appendix No. IX., pp. 245 — 250. 
Mr. Elie, by his will 4 dated 13 August 1615, made numerous 
bequests to his family and appointed as his executor his son 
Samuel, who, however, failed to carry out some of the provisions 
of bis father's will, as the following is to be found in a list of 
excommunicated persons 5 for the period 1628 — 1639. " Samuelem 
Elie paroch de Tenterden, Cant, dioc," for not appearing at the 
instance of Margaret Ely, legatee in the will of Mr. George Ely, 
clerk, deceased. Dated 28 September 1631. Margaret was a grand- 
daughter of Vicar Elie, being the daughter of his son Nathaniel, 
deceased. Her portion was £6 13s. 4>d. at the age of 18 or day of 
marriage. A few years later a second excommunication is recorded. 
" Samuelem Elye p'oc. de Tenterden, Cant, dioc," executor of the 
will of Master George Ely, clerk, his late father, for not paying 
ten pounds of lawful money at the instance of [blank] Elie legatee 
(legatarii) in the will of the said deceased. Dat. 14 January 163f . 
Shortly after making his will (in which he left twenty shillings to 
the poor of Tenterden) the Vicar passed away, the parish register 
recording : " Mr. George Elie Vicar of Tent'den buried 21 August 

1 Reg. Archbp. Parker, i., fol. 404°; ii., fol. 66. 

2 Comp. Books, viii., 243 a . 

:i History of the King's School, Cant., by Rev. C. E. Woodruff and 
H. J. Cape, M.A. (1908), p. 90. 4 Consistory Court, 43, fol. 215. 

5 Liber Shedulorum Excommunicationum, 1628 — 39. 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


JOHN SIMPSON, s.t.p., 1615—1619, 

Succeeded, and was instituted 1 by Archbishop Abbot on 
9 December 1615, "ad Vicariam de Tenterden per mortem 
naturalem Georgiu' Elie Clerici ultimi Vicarii & incumben. vacan." 
and compounded for first fruits 2 on the 9th February following. 
He was B.A. of Corpus Christi 3 Coll., Oxon., 1598, M.A. 1603, 
B.D. from Lincoln Coll. 1610, and D.D. from Corpus Christi 1614. 
In the latter year he became a Canon in the seventh prebend at 
Canterbury. After holding this benefice a little over three and 
a half years he was collated to the rectory of Aldington with 
Smeeth, and thereupon resigned this vicarage. In April 1626 the 
Archbishop gave him the rectory of Sandhurst, which he held by 
dispensation with Aldington. Dr. Simpson (or Sympson) died in 
1630, aged 51, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, where his 
gravestone remains in the south-west transept. 4 

WALTER PARGTTER, m.a, 1619—1626, 

Eollowed. He was admitted 5 " ad Vicariam eccl'ie p'ochialis de 
Tentarden predict, per resignac'oem voluntariam Johannis Simpson 
in Sacra Theologia Professoris ultimi Vicarii et Incumben' ibidem," 
by Archbishop Abbot on the 1st July 1619, and compounded 6 on 
October 1st. Mr. Pargiter was a native of Northamptonshire and 
matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxon., 1600, when aged 15, B.A. of 
Oriel Coll. 1604, M.A. 1608. He was instituted to the vicarage 
of Stone in the Isle of Oxney, an adjacent parish, 2nd September 
1618, on presentation of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, but 
resigned on being preferred by the same patrons to the vicarage 
of Tenterden. He was twice married, 7 first in May 1618, being 
then described as of the Precincts, Canterbury, and secondly in 
July 1624. By his will 8 made the 6th February 162|, Mr. Pargiter 
desired to be buried beside his wife Marie (his first wife) in the 
chancel of the Church of Tenterden. He left his study of books 
to his godson Theodor Pargiter "if he prove a scholar and minister, 
if not, then to my nephew William Pargiter his brother, that now 
is student and graduate in Oxford." In the autumn of the year, 

1 Reg. Archbp. Abbot, i., 414 b . 2 Comp. Books, xv., 3. 

3 Foster's Alumni Oxoniensis, ii., 1358. 

4 Memorial Inscriptions in Canterbury Cathedral, by J. M. Cowper, Esq., 
p. 298. 5 Reg. Archbp. Abbot, ii.,"fol. 315 b . 

6 Comp. Books, xvi., f. 26 a . 

7 Canterbury Marriage Licences, Series I. and II, 

8 Consistory Court, xlvii, fol. 160. 



but in the prime of life. Mr. Pargiter died, and is commemorated 
in the parish register, " Mr. Walter Pargiter, late Vicar of 
Tenterden, buried 20 October 1626." 

ISAAC BATiGRAVE, d.d., 1626—1627. 

Born 1586. B.A. and M.A. of Clare Hall, 1 Camb., M.A. 
(Oxon) 1611. D.D. (Cantab) 1622, Prebendary of Canterbury 
1622, Dean of Canterbury 1625. Instituted 3 by Archbishop Abbot 
"ad vicariam p'petuam eccl'ie parochis de tendarden (sic) predict 
p' mortem na'Jem Walteri Pargetter cl'ici ult' Vicarii and Incumb., 
etc.," oti the 12th December 1626, and compounded on the same 
day. 3 Dean Bargrave held this living but a very short time, 
resigning about the following March. In September 1627 he 
received the valuable vicarage of Lydd, but held it scarcely as long 
as he did that of Tenterden. In June 1628 he became Rector of 
Chartham, which he retained till his decease. Died January 164§, 
set. 56, and is buried in the Dean's chapel of the cathedral, where 
his memorial may yet be seen. 

RICHARD SEYLIARD, m.a., 1627—1633, 

Also admitted by Archbishop Abbot 4 "ad Vicariam de Tentar- 
den per spontaneam resignaconum Isaaci Bargrave in Sacra Theo- 
logia Professoris ultimi Vicari et incumbentis ib'm," on the 13th 
April 1627, and compounded on the 30th of the same month. 5 
Mr. Seyliard appears to have been a member of, or connected with, 
the family of that name in the adjoining parish of Biddenden. He 
was married 0 at Kennington by Ashford in January 162f , when 
his age was given as 25; according to this he would be but 23 
when appointed Vicar of Tenterden. He held the living a little 
more than six years, dying in 1633 when still a young man. The 
parish register records, " Richard Silliard, Vicar, bur. 6 Aug. 

JOHN GEE, M.iV., 163f—1639. 

Instituted by Archbishop Laud 7 on " Decimo quarto die mensis 

1 Diet. Nat. Biog. 2 Beg. Archbp. Abbot, fol. 350". 

3 Comp. Books, xvii., 107. 4 Reg. Archbp. Abbot, fol. 351 n . 

5 Comp. Books, xvii., 120. 

0 Cunt. Marr. Licences. J. M. Cowper, Esq. Series II. 
7 Beg. Arcbbp. Laud, fol. 308 b . 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


Januarii anno d'ni juxta 1633 .... Johannes Gee cl'icus in artibus 
mag'ri ad vicariam perpetuam eccl'ie par'alis de Tentarden in com. 
Kancia .... per mortem na'lem Richnrdi 'Seyliard ultimi viearii et 
incumben ib'm." Nine clays later, the 23rd of January, he received 
the rectory of St. Mary's in Romney Marsh, and paid the compo- 
sition for both livings on the 29th May following. 1 He was born 
in 1596, being the son of John Gee, Incumbent of Dunsford, 
Devon; matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxon, 1612, B.A. of 
Exeter College 1617, and M.A. in 1621. Eirst beneticed in Lan- 
cashire in 1622; Vicar of Chislet, 1624—1628; Sector of Old 
Eomney, 162S— 1634, and of St. Mary's in the Marsh, 1634—1639. 
Early in his career Mr. Glee became a member of the Roman 
Church, and was present at the Eatal Vespers at Blackfriars, 
26 October 1623, when many were killed. He escaped unhurt, 
and shortly afterwards, at the entreaty of the Archbishop and of 
his aged father, he became re-united to the Church of England in 
the following year. To prove the sincerity of his conversion, he 
published a number of pamphlets and works against the Eoman 
Catholic Church, some of which passed through many editions. 2 
He also published a sermon which he preached at Paul's Cross in 
1624, entitled "Hold East." During his incumbency here, some 
families emigrated in 1635 from Tenterden to New England in 
America, members of whom — Hinkley and Tilden — rose to be 
Governors of Colonies. Mr. Gee as Vicar, together with John 
Austen the Mayor, and Ereegift Stace, a Jurat, each signed their 
certificates as to their conversation and conformity to the orders 
and discipline of the Church before they were permitted to embark 
at Sandwich 3 . On the inner cover of the parish register at Ten- 
terden, among other matter in a contemporary hand, is this : 
" John Gee, Vicar of Tenterden in the Countie of Kent, Batchelor 
of Divinity, beeing Vicar here in Kinge Charles Eaiglme, 1635, May 
the 26 th ." He died at his benefice here in 1639, and according to 
Hasted^ is buried in the Church. Erom the burial registers : 
" John Gee, Vicar, was buried y e 20 th of July 1639." 

HUMPHREY PEAKE, s.t.p., 1639— c. 1645, 

Was the next Vicar, and was instituted 5 to this living on the 

1 Comp. Books, xvih., 119 a . 2 Diet. Nat. Biog., xxi., 107. 

3 Boys' Hist. Sandtoich (1792), pp. 750-1. 

4 Hist. Kent, fol. ed., iii. (1790), 102. 

5 Liber Institutionem, v., Series A. 19. 




15th October 1039. The composition books record his payment on 
the san e date. 1 Hasted says he was a younger son of the family 
of Peake, of Hills Court, Ash-next-Sandwich. 2 He became Pre- 
bendary of Lincoln in 1626, and of Canterbury in 1632. Presented 
by the king to the rectory of Kingsnorth 1626, to Acrise 1628, 
and to Lyminge in 1634. By reason of his general neglect of the 
duties of his office, his harsh treatment of the poor, non-residence, 
and failure to provide a curate to perform the services, a petition 
of some importance was presented against him to Parliament in 
1641, the full text of which may be seen in Appendix No. X., pp. 
250 — 253. This was considered by Parliament, who ordered him to 
allow a lecturer the use of his pulpit ; in default he was to attend 
before the House and give an explanation. Dr. Peake died about 
the year 1645. 

NATHANIEL BARRV, c. 1645-1654. 

Recommended to the parishioners of Tenterden by the House 
of Commons in answer to the petition against Dr. Peake. The 
order 8 reads as follows : " Mercurius (Wednesday) 13° Aprilis 1642. 
Prayers. The humble petition of the parishioners of Tenterden 
for .... (sic). Ordered: That M r Barry shall be recommended to 
the Parishioners to be their Lecturer to preach every Lord's Day 
in the Afternoon, and every Friday in the week, and that D r Peake 
do permit the said M r Barry the Use of his Pulpit every Sunday 
in the Afternoon, and every Friday, without any Let or Disturb- 
ance. And if the said D 1 ' Peake shall not forthwith yield obedience 
to this order, he is then required to attend the House to give an 
account thereof." 

Mr. Barry's name appears as Incumbent of Tenterden at the 
time of the Parliamentary Survey made in 1649 (see Appendix, 
No. XL, pp. 254-255). Hasted appears to have mis-read his name 
in this record, and therefore, in his History of Kent* he states 

that: " Barnes was Vicar of Tenterden in 1649." A brief 

entered in Tenterden register, dated 31 July 1653, is signed 
" Nath. Barry, Min 1 '." In the following year he was invited to 

1 Corap. Books, xviii., 30 a . 

2 Hist, of Canterbury, ii. (1801). 

3 Journal of the House of Commons, vol. ii., p. 524, 

4 Vol. iii., fol. ed„ 102. 

ST. mtldbed's, tenterden. 


become the Minister of St. Mary's Parish Church, Dover, 1 where 
he remained till 1662. He died in 1675. 

GEOEGE HAWE, 1655—1662. 

On Mr. Barry being chosen as the Minister of the parish 
Church at Dover, Mr. Hawe was nominated to Tenterden, and, as 
the record of a presentation made by Oliver Cromwell may prove 
interesting, it is here quoted in full : 3 — 

" Tenterden. George Hawe, pres. 20 June 1655. 
" Know all men by these p'sents that the twentieth day of June 
in y e yeare one thousand six hundred nifty and five. There was 
exhibited to y e Commission 1 * 8 for approbation of publique preachers, 
a p'sentation of M 1 ' George Hawe, ck., to the Vicarage of Tenter- 
den in the County of Kent. Made to him by his Highness Oliver, 
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, &c, the Patron 
thereof under his seale manuall. Together with a testimony in 
the behalfe of the said George Hawe of his holy and good conver- 
sation. Upon perusall and due consideration of the p'mises, and 
finding him to be a person qualified as in and by y e ordinance for 
such approbation is required : the Commission eis above menc'oned 
have adjudged and approved the said George Haw to be a fit 
person to preach the Gospell, and have graunted him admission 
and doe admitt the said George Hawe to y e Vicarage of Tenterden 
aforesaid to be full and perfect possessor and Incumbent thereof. 
And doe hereby signify to all persons concerned therein, that he is 
hereby instituted to y e profitts and perquisits and all Rights and 
dues incident and belonging to y e said Vicarage, as fully and 
effectually as if he had beene instituted and inducted according to 
any such Lawes and Customes as have in this case formerly beene 
made, had, or used in this Realme. In witnesse thereof they have 
caused the Com'on Seal to be hereunto affixed and y e same to be 

1 The following from the Churchwardens' Account Books of St. Mary's, 
Dover, is kindly communicated by Rev. T. S. Prampton : — 

" 20 Sept. 1654. 

" It is now Ordered that an Answer be given to M r Barrey of Tenderden to 
his L're now read, and he thereby Intreated to preach every Lord's Day in this 
Parish Church by the space of 6 months, & he to have for his Pains therein 
50 u , to be levyed by way of AssessmV 

" 10 June 1660. 

cc A Committee appointed to audite, &c, and to make a sess and to State the 
Acco ts with M r Barrey the Minister, and to treat and conclude with him touching 
his continuance or leaving the s d Parish as Minister thereof." 

2 Augmentation of Livings, etc., 1647—1658, vol. 996, 126. 

Q 2 



attested by the hand of the Kegister by his Highnesse in that 
behalfe appointed. 

" Dated at Whitehall, the 27 th day of June 1655." 
In the margin are the names of the Commissioners :— 

" Greorge Haw, cert d afores d by Bi. Wilkinson. 
And: Simpson of Bethersden. W m Goodrich of Cranbrook. 
Step : Man of Woodchurch. Jo : Crawford of Halden. 
W 1 "' Hormer of Biddenden. ffra : Drayton of Little Chart. 
Jo : Jackson of Harrietsham." 
Mr. Hawe's name appears in the parish register at various dates, 
and to three briefs, each dated in 1661, is appended, " Greorge Hawe, 
Yiccar." He was deprived under the Act of Uniformity which came 
into force on the 24th August 1662, and became the Founder and 
first Minister of the Presbyterian congregation in Tenterden. 

NATHANIEL COLLINGTON, m.a., 1662—1682. 

Archbishop Juxon, 1 on the 13th November 1662, instituted 
" Nathaniel Collington cl'icus et in Artibus Magister ad vicariam 
eccl'ie paroch'is de Tenterden in Com. Cantii," on presentation of 
the restored Dean and Chapter. Mr. Collington was " Chaplayne 
to the Ho ble the Earl of Winchelsey," and " Vicar of Godmers- 
ham w th the Chappell of Challock annexed," before coming to 
Tenterden, but resigned these benefices 10 January 166f , and on 
the same day received a dispensation 3 to hold with the vicarage of 
Tenterden, then "valued in y e King's Books at 33 1 '," the rectory 
of Kenardington alias Kenarton, which was valued at 12 [i , "both 
livings being w th in the distance of six miles each of other." In 
1668 Mr. Collington appointed Mr. Stephen Haffenden (a native 
of Tenterden) to be his Curate at Kenardington. 3 A note on the 
condition of the parish 4 in the year 1663, as viewed from an eccle- 
siastical standpoint, is interesting, but not very flattering : — 
Value in 

Com. Value. 

Tenterden, V 

King's Books. 



Ch. of Cant. 
Imp. and Pat. 


Mr. Nath. 

* A very good man. S r Ed. Hales, tenn 4 to y e Church of Cant. A Parish 
much corrupted. Geo. Haw, late Incumb 1 Presbyt. ; a great seducer. A cor- 
porate towne, and not one honest J ustice in it. M r Hulse lives neere, but hath 
no power there. The town is a member of Dover. The Court there can only 
protect y° minister, who is dayly affronted, but Q : of Dover Justices 5 (sic). 

1 Reg. Archbp. Juxon, fol. 139 b . 

2 Act Book of the Archbishops, i., 34-35. :< Act Book, ii., 135. ' 

4 "A Catalogue of all the Benefices and Promocons within y° Diocese and 
Jurisdicon of Canterbury, with the state of every Particular Parish as it stood 
at October 1663." (Lambeth MSS,, 1126.) 5 Q : = quaere = query. 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


Mr. Collington was twice married, 1 the second time in December 
1663, to Catherine Becknam, who survived him. By his first mar- 
riage he had a son who bore the same name as himself. This has 
led to some confusion, as it was the son who held the rectory of 
Pluckley 3 for the long period of fifty-nine years, dying there in 
1735. He was executor to his father, who, by his will 3 dated 
5 December 1682, bequeathed to him his house and lands in Thurn- 
ham, Kent, and all personal property, etc. Mr. Collington remained 
Vicar of Tenterden until his decease, which took place soon after 
he had made his will. His burial is recorded in the parish register : 
" M 1 ' Nathaniel Collington, Vicar, buried 23 December 1682." 

JONATHAN MAUDE, b.a., 168f— 1709. 

Instituted by Archbishop Sancroffr, 4 " Decimo tertio die mensis 
Jan uarii anno domini (Stilo Anglie) 1682° .... Jonathanem Maude 
cl'icum in Ar'bus Baccalaureum .... ad Vicariam perpetuam de 
Tenterden per mortem na'lem Nathanielis Collington cl'ici ultimi 
Vicarii et Incumbentis ibidem." From some cause or other Mr. 
Maude's christian name was not clearly understood by those whose 
duty it was to record such matters. In one place 5 we read, 
" Thomas Maud, B.A., exhibited a presentation of himself to y e 
Vicarage of Tenterden, in y e County of Kent, and Dioces, from y e 
Deane and Chapter of Canterbury, and prayed Institution, there- 
upon granted by Fiat, 12 th January 16 8 3 2 ;" and in another, 6 " Jacob s 
Maude, inst. 13 Jan. 1682." 

During Mr. Maude's incumbency the communion table was 
placed in its present position and railed in ; the order of the Con- 
sistory Court concerning this may be seen in Appendix No. XII., 
pp. 255-256. Mr. Maude was chosen to be a freeman of the Corpora- 
tion of Tenterden 7 13 June 1709, but did not enjoy that honour 
very long, as he died on the 13th of September following, aged 53. 
Prom the parish register : " Jonath' Maud, Vic, buried Sept. 17 th , 

ROBERT TURNER, m.a., 1709—1723, 

Succeeded, and was instituted 8 to this vicarage on 21 December 
1709. He was educated at Pembroke Hall, Camb., and was 

1 Cant. Marr. Lie, Series III. 2 Arch. Cant., xxii., 92. 

3 Archdeaconry, lxxvi., 24. 4 Reg. Arclibp. Saucroft, fol. 399 b . 

5 Act Book, iv., 304. 6 Lib. Inst., vol. vi., Series B., 50. 

7 Corporation Records. 8 Act Book, v., 340. 



Ordained ]J. 1699, and P. 1700, both by the Bishop of Peter- 
borough. 1 Mr. Turner married at Bethersden, in 1719, Mary the 
daughter of Rev. Jonathan Winston, Rector of that parish, but 
she died two years later, November 1721, and was buried in that 
Church. Six new bells were placed in the Church tower during 
Mr. Turner's vicariate, according to an inscription formerly on the 
tenor: "Richard Phelps made these six bells in 1717." In 1884 
the tenor and three others were re-cast. 

The note book" of a former Archdeacon of Canterbury, 
commenced about the year 1715, contains some interesting memor- 
anda on each of the parishes in the diocese. From this source the 
following notes are taken : — 

" Tenterden. Vicarage, value £140. 
Patrons. The Church of Canterbury. 

Robert Turner, vicar, 17 Dec. 1709. Of good manners, honest, 
proud. Aged 40. Resides. Parish contains 260 families. Service 
twice on Sundays, once on Festivals, also on the fourth and sixth 
days [i.e. on Wednesdays and Fridays]. He catechises in Lent. 
Communion on the Great Festivals, also every month." 

Of Mr. Turner's qualifications, the first two apparently out- 
weighed the third, as the following tribute to his memory is recorded 
in the register : — 

" 172f March 13 th . The Rev d M 1 ' Robert Turner, Vicar of 
Tenterden died, much lamented by all his parishioners and those 
who had any acquaintance with him." From the burial register : 
" 172f March 18, M 1 ' Robert Turner, Viccer." 

THEOPHILUS DE L' ANGLE, m.a., 1723—1763, 

Of Christ Church, Oxon, B.A. 1716, M.A. 1719. Instituted 3 to 
this vicarage, void by the death of Robert Turner, the last incumbent 
thereof, on the 10th July 1723. Rector of Groodnestone next 
Wingham from 1745, and in 1756, being "Chaplain to Elizabeth, 
Countess Dowager of Essex, and already possessed of the vicarage 
of Tenterden, of the real value of about £130 p. ami.," was collated 
to the rectory of Snargate, 4 of the real value of about £70 per annum. 

1 Act Book, v., 340. 

2 Notitia Diocoesis Cantuar. (1715— 1758), fol. 22. This MSS. belonged to 
Archdeacon Thomas Green, who was appointed Bishop of Norwich in 1721, and 
of Ely in 1723. It has been overlooked for same years, and only recently has 
besn placed in the Cathedral Library at Canterbury (see Cant. Dioo. Gazette, 
April 1915). 

3 Lib. Inst., vol. ii., Series C. 4 Act Book, ix., 245. 



l)ated 2 April 1756. Mr. De L' Angle resided at Tenterden about 
sixteen years (see Appendix No. XIV., pp. 257 — 260). His curate 
here, the Rev. John Holland, acted as such for twenty-one years 
and died in 1760. Mr. De L'Angle died at Groodnestone in 1763, and 
was succeeded in that benefice by his son, John Maximilian De 
L'Angle, M.A. (who was born at Tenterden 25 March 1727). By 
his will, 1 dated 22 May, 27 George II. (1754), Mr. De L'Angle 
appears to have owned property in the parishes of Chartham, 
Halden, Cliff in or near the Hundred of Hoo, Grravesend, Ivychurch 
and New Eomney. No reference to Tenterden occurs throughout 
the will, which was proved in the P.C.C. 6 September 1763. The 
following, in the handwriting of his successor, appears in the parish 
register : " 1763, June 29 th , The Bev d Theophilus De L'Angle, A.M., 
died at Groodnestone after he had been Vicar of this parish 
40 years. He was an accomplished man and excellent preacher. 
He resided here about 16 years, and then went to the more easy 
cure of Groodnestone, near Wingham, from whence he only 
occasionally came to Tenterden." 

MATTHEW WALLACE, m.a., 1763—1771, 

A native of Moffat, Scotland, who succeeded the Rev. John 
Holland as Curate of Tenterden 3 in 1761, was, on the decease of 
Mr. De L'Angle, appointed Vicar. He was instituted 3 on 10th 
December and inducted on 26th December 1763. Mr. Wallace 
was M.A. of Edinburgh University. Ordained Deacon 11 May 
1760, and Priest three weeks later, 1st May, in the chapel of 
Lambeth Palace, 4 by Archbishop Seeker. During the time that 
Mr. Wallace was Vicar, in May 1768, a riot was threatened 5 in 
order to induce the farmers to sell their wheat at £10 a load, and 
threatening the millers if they gave more. The threats included 
destroying the mills of such millers who gave more than the above 
price, and the breaking of the right arm of those who refused to 
assemble and raise a mob ! The Home Office ordered a detachment 
of soldiers to march to Tenterden to assist the magistrates if 
required. 6 Mr. Wallace died in 1771, and is commemorated by a 

1 P.C.C. Wills. Caesar, 425. 

2 Parish Register. 

3 Lib. Inst., vol. ii., Series C. 

4 Act Book, iii., 388-389. 

5 Gentleman's Magazine, May 1768. 

6 Cal. Home Office Papers (1766—69), 896. 



tablet 1 on the north wall of the chancel, which refers particularly to 
his being a Scotsman, while the burial register lias the following 
entry : "1771, November 19, The liov' 1 Mat. Wallace, Vicar, A.M., 
Batchelor, aged 43." On the decease of Mr. Wallace the liev. 
William Taswell, Vicar of Brookland since 17G4, was nominated to 
succeed him, but before being instituted to this vicarage, obtained 
the consent of the patrons, the Dean and Chapter, to exchange to 
that of Rainham in Kent, 3 where he remained till 1777, going 
thence to Aylsham in Norfolk, where he died in 1800. 

JOSEPH MATTHEW, m.a., 1772—1795, 

Therefore followed Matthew Wallace. He appears, according 
to an entry in the parish register, to have been " presented to this 
living by the Dean (Dr. Moore) and Chapter of Canterbury upon 
the particular recommendation of the Hon b5e and most Rev d Father 
in G-od (D r Cornwallis), by Divine Providence Arch. Bishop of 
Canterbury, Primate of all England and Metropolitan," and was 
instituted 3 on the 11th June and inducted on the 11th July 1772. 
Mr. Matthew appears to have been well regarded by Archbishop 
Cornwallis, as in addition to recommending him for this vicarage, 
he gave him the Lambeth degree^ of M.A. 19th February 1770. 
Before coming to Tenterden Mr. Matthew had been Rector of 
Newick, near Lewes. He died in 1795, an entry in the parish 
register stating : " 1795, Nov. 17, The Rev d Joseph Matthew, many 
years vicar of this parish, deceased." 

JOHN LUXMOORE, d.d., 1796—1800. 

Born at Okehampton, Devon, 1756. Eton 1775, D. 1779, 
B.A. and Eellow of King's College, Camb., 1780; P. 1781, M.A. 
1783, D.D. (Lambeth, by Archbishop Moore) 1795. Tutor to the 
Earl of Dalkeith, afterwards Duke of Buccleuch, 5 who gave him 

1 The inscription reads as follows : <; To the memory of the Rev. Mathew 
Wallace, sou of the liev. Dr. Wallace, of Edinburgh, Vicar of Tenterden, 
Doctor of Law, who was born on the 28th of November 1728, at Moffat in 
Scotland, and died at his Vicarage on the 14th of November 1771, aged 43 
years and six days. Agreeable manners, great benevolence, and excellent parts 
unite! to extensive learning, pastoral fidelity and discourse, uncommonly 
elegant as well as instructive, rendered him universally beloved, esteemed, and 
respected in an English parish, even in times during which the natural 
prejudices that had formerly subsisted were again attempted to be highly 
inflamed between the Northern and Southern divisions of Groat Britaiu." 

2 Hasted, fol. ed., iii., 102. :i Lib. Inst., vol. ii., Series C. 
4 Act Book, x., 293. 5 Diet. Nat. Biog., etc. 

Mildred's, tenterden. 


the rectory of St. George the Martyr, Queen Square, Holborn, in 
1782, which he held till 1806. Prebendary of Canterbury, by 
George III., 1793 till 1800. Vicar of Tenterden 179(3 5 instituted 
to the same 28th April and inducted on 7th May. Dean of 
Gloucester 1799 till 1808. " The Dean of Gloucester voided this 
vicarage of Tenterden 29 September 1800 " {Parish Reg.). Eector 
of St. Andrew, Holborn, 1806—1815; consecrated Bishop of 
Bristol 1 October 1807 ; translated to Hereford 2 July 1808 ; Bishop 
and Archdeacon of St. Asaph 1815; died at the palace there 
21 January 1830. He published a few charges and sermons, and is 
described as being a man of mild manners and gentle and amiable 
disposition. 3 

THOMAS COOMB E, d.d., 1800—1805. 

Born in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 12 October 1747 ; came to 
England and was ordained D. 1769 and P. 1771 by the Bishop of 
London ; went back to America and ministered for a time in his 
native town ; returning to England became Chaplain to the 
Marquis of Rockingham 1771, and to the Earl of Carlisle while 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 4 in 1780 ; D.D., Trinity College, Dublin, 
1781 ; Chaplain to King George III. and Minister of Curzon 
Chapel, Mayfair, 1791. Dr. Coombe was made a Canon of Canter- 
bury by the King 5 in January 1800, succeeding to the stall vacant 
by the resignation of Dr. Luxmoore, and at the end of the same 
year he again succeeded Dr. Luxmoore, the Dean and Chapter pre- 
senting him to the living of Tenterden, which the Dean of 
Gloucester had just vacated. To this vicarage he was instituted 
29 December 1800, and twice inducted, 24 January 1801 and again 
(on account of some informality in the mandate) on the 18th July 
following, each time by the Rev. J. A. Argles, Curate of Tenterden. 
Dr. Coombe resigned this vicarage on 30th December 1805, on 
being presented by the Dean and Chapter to the rectory of St. 
Michael, Queenhithe, E.C., which he retaiued together with his 
canonry till his decease. Dr. Coombe formed a magnificent 
collection of ancient Bibles, thirty-seven in all, and also other books 
of great value ; after his decease they were presented by his sons 
to the library at Canterbury Cathedral. He was a preacher of 

1 Gazette Promotions {G-entlemans Mag., 1807), p. 1053. 

2 Ibid. (1808), p. 913. 3 Annual Register, 1830. 

4 Misc.. Gen. et Her.; Novum Repertorium (Hennessy), etc. 

5 Act JBook, xiii., 57- 



remarkable eloquence, and was in close friendship with Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Dr. Johnson and Benjamin Franklin. 1 He died at his 
house in Hertford Street, W., 14 July 1822, and a memorial was 
placed to his memory in Marylebone Church. 

JOHN EICHE COOMBE, m.a, 1806—1830, 

Eldest son of Dr. Thomas Coombe by his first wife. D. 1797 
by Bishop of Norwich, P. 1800 by Bishop of Dromore. Public 
Preacher 2 in the Diocese of Canterbury 1806. Presented to this 
vicarage on the resignation of his father, instituted thereto 
11th January 1806, and inducted on the 22nd of the same month, 
also by the Hev. J. A. Argles, LL.B., the curate. Mr. Coombe 
had the old yew tree 3 in the churchyard taken down, and himself 
planted a new one close to the vicarage gates 9th February 1807. 
He resigned this living on the 25th March 1830, and afterwards 
lived in the adjoining parish of Rolvenden. 

PHILIP WARD, m.a., 1830—1859. 

Trin. Coll., Oxon, B.A. 1816, M.A. 1822. Instituted 4 to this 
vicarage 10th August 1830, and inducted on the 14th of the same 
month by the Rev. William Temple, 5 curate. Mr. Ward married 
in 1822 Horatia Nelson Thompson, the adopted daughter of Lord 
Nelson. 6 She died at Pinner, Middlesex, 6th March 1881, aged 81. 
One of the principal events of Mr. Ward's tenure of office was the 
lengthy and expensive lawsuit between himself and the parish in 
connection with the tithes', which was eventually compromised in 
1842. The costs were estimated to be about £6000 on each side, 7 
and much feeling must have been engendered during the progress 
of the suit ; but time, the great healer of most things, did its work 
here also, and long before Mr. Ward died he became greatly 
respected and beloved. The churchyard having become too crowded 
for further interments, an additional burial ground was secured, 
which was consecrated by Archbishop Howley in 1847 ; this, how- 
ever, had to be closed in 1903 and a new cemetery acquired. 

1 Erom a biographical and obituary notice in an unknown magazine quoted 
by the late Canon William Benham (1900). 

2 Act Book, xiii., 251. 3 Parish Register. 4 Lib. Inst., iii. } Series C. 

5 Afterwards, for 48 years, Rector of St. Alphege, and Vicar of St. Mary 
Northgate, Canterbury, and for 37 years Master of Eastbridge Hospital in that 
city. Born 1797; died 1887. 

6 Notes and Queries, 1891, i., 153. 

7 Furley's Hist. Weald Kent, ii., 648. 

St. Mildred's, tentehden. 

Mr. Ward died on the 16th January 1859, and the parishioners, 
once so opposed, placed a stained-glass window to his beloved 
memory in the east wail of the north chapel. 

HENEY ROBERT MERE WETHER, b.a., 1859-1881. 

St. Alban's Hall, Oxon, B.A. 1810. D. 1842, P. 1843 by 
the Bishop o£ Hereford. Having served in various curacies, 
Mr. Merewether was promoted from that of Latchingdon in Essex 
(where he had been since 1851) to the vicarage of Tenterden, to 
which he was inducted on the 9th April 1859. The church was 
thoroughly restored in 1864, the galleries being removed and the 
seating rearranged. Mr. Merewether was also instrumental in 
having the new vicarage house erected in 1872. Chaplain of 
Tenterden Union 1879—1884. Resigned this vicarage 25th March 
1884, on being preferred to that of East Peckham near Tonbridge, 
where he remained till 1900, when he went to live at Chelsea. Hied 
in London 1904. 

SAMUEL CAMPBELL LEPARD, m.a., 1884—1906. 

Born 1832. B.A. 1857 and M.A. 1860 at Worcester College, 
Oxon. His first curacy was at Ashford 1857 — 1861. Curate of 
St. Martin and St. Paul's, Canterbury, 1862—1877, Chaplain of 
H.M. Prison there 1861—1883, Rector of St. Andrew's, Canterbury, 
1877 — 1884. Instituted to this vicarage 29th April, and inducted 
thereto 17th May 1884 by the late Canon Jefferys, Vicar of 
Hawkhurst, and R.D. Mr. Lepard was also Chaplain to the 
Union, Chairman of the Burial Board, and Surrogate for the 
Diocese. During his ministry many handsome gifts were made to 
the church : a new clock in the tower in honour of Queen Victoria's 
Jubilee 1887 ; a new set of chimes in 1889 ; new altar rails 1898 ; 
new choir seats and screen, chancel screen, pulpit and lectern in 
1899 — these were dedicated by the late Archbishop Temple on 
Wednesday, 10th January 1900 ; while in 1906 the last of a series 
of handsome stained-glass windows in the north aisle was erected. 
Mr. Lepard passed away suddenly on 21st December 1906, and is 
buried in the cemetery. 


Rugby 1858. New College, Oxon, 1861. B.A. and M.A. 1872. 
D. 1873, P. 1874 by the Bishop of Lichfield. Mr. Babington has 


been connected with the scholastic profession for over forty years 
and, on the decease of Mr. Lepard, was promoted from a mastership 
at Tollbridge Grammar School to this vicarage. He was instituted 
on the 16th April and inducted on the 24th April 1907 by the 
Rev. Canon Bell, Vicar of Cranbrook and R.D. Through 
Mr. Babington's untiring exertions and unflagging energy, the 
noble tower of his church was successfully restored in 1909 — 11 
at a cost of nearly £2000. Archbishop Davidson, to mark his 
appreciation of the successful completion of the work, preached 
at the Commemoration Service held on the 12th January 1912. 

Many useful notes received from my friend Mr. Arthur Hussey, of 
Tankerton on Sea, have been incorporated into the foregoing list; while the 
Rev. Claude Jenkins, the Librarian at Lambeth Palace, has very kindly 
rendered much help in verifying entries in the arch-episcopal registers, etc. 
To both gentlemen I tender my sincere thanks. — A. H. T. 

st. Mildred's, tentekden. 




At the visitation of Archbishop Warham held in the year 1511, 
injunctions concerning which were " Dat. in man 10 de Knoll xviij 
die mens' Augusti, anno d'ni mill'mo quingen m0 undecimo, et 
trans' anno octavo," the following presentments were made from 
Tenterden : — 

Eccl'ia de Tenterdene. 
Compcrtum est. That Aleyn Blechynden came before the Officiall 
and sware upon a booke for a testame't that shuld have be'n 

provid that it was the true last will and hole will of oon (sic) 

dede. And after that came w th anoth 1 ' and testified the same the 
which was not true. 

Itm. That James Grodard w th draweth from the church xx u the 
wdiich Thomasyn Piers bequethid. 

Itm. That William Gervase w th draweth liii s iiij d of a pece of lond 
bequethed to the said church by Will" 1 Piers. 

Itm. There is in the hand of John Clerk and John Netter 
executors to Thomasyne Pyers for a preest to syng divine 
s'vice in the said Churche by half a yere iij 11 vj s viij d . 

Itm. There is many other somes of money bequethed by the same 
Thomasyne as may appere more playnly by hir will in the 
hands of John Netter, that is to say xiij s iiij d . 

Itm. That Johane Henley bequethed iij li vj s viij d the which is in 
the hands of Edward Horden. 

Itm. That John Blecheiiden bequethed to the said churche that 
Barthu' ffoughill kepith in his hands, xl s . 

Itm. The executors of John William bequethid to the said 
Churche lxvj s viij d . 

Itm. There is in the hands of Jamys Grodard and William Hamp- 
ton executors to John Duneham 1 for a preest to syng divine 
s'vice by the space of a q'ter of any yere xxxiij s iiij d . 

1 John Dounham, will made 2G March 1505, prob, G May 1505, (Arclu 
deacon ry ix., 2.) 



Itm. There is in the hands of John Hodges executor of the testa- 
ment 1 of William Tobill for a preest to syng divine s'vice by 
the space of a yere iii 1 vj s viij d . 

Itm. That Alice Raynold was detected of heresy and remayneth 

Itm. That Kateryn Carder was detected of heresy and not 

Itm. Tha,t there is buried in the churchyard of Tenterden oon 
Agnes Roeh which was comenly knowen an heretike. 

Itm. John ffrank w th div'se other evill disposed p'sons use in the 
tyme of d'vine s'vice to be in the churchyard comenyng and 
talkyng, and many other use to sit still in the churche atte 
procession tyme. 

Itm. John Grorell of Tenterden kepith not his s'vice in his parissh 

Itm. William Hornest toke not his eighth this ij yers. 

Itm. Jamys Grodard toke not his eighth oon yere. 

Itm. Alice the wif of Thomas Sharpe toke not hir eighth by the 

space of ij yeres. 
Itm. William Forten toke not his eighth by viii yeres. 
Itm. Bride ffermer and Kateryn Mannyng are vicious and suspect 

women of their bodyes. 

("Register of Archbishop Warham^fo. 54 a and 55.) 


Extract from the will of William Marshall, clerk, Parson of the 
parish church of Werehorn (Warehorne) in Kent. Dated 
21 January 1523-4. 
To be buried in the conventual church of the Holy Trinity in 
the City of London, before the altar of St. Gregory in the said 
church .... bequests for masses and to pray for the souls of me 
and my brother Maister Peter Marshall .... 

" Also I will that two substanciall chalyses shalbe made of all 
my silver plate as well gilt or parcell gilt as not gilt, being in my 
chamber at Christ Church in London, except ii silver candelsticks. 
And the one of the said chalises so to be made I bequeth to the use of 
the said parishe churche of Werehorn, and the other chaleys to the 

1 William Tobill, will made 2 June 1501, prob. 10 December 1504. (Arch- 
deaconry ix., 3.) 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


use of the Chauntrye lately founded in the parish church of 
Tenterden in the Countie of Kent, there to deserve for the masses 
to be said by the Chauntrye prest as long as it shall endure, and 
I will that these chalises shalbe delivered by one of my executours 
as sone after my decesse as it may be conveniently doon, to that 
uses to the custody of the church wardeyns of either of the said 
churches of Tenterden and Werehorn there to remayne to the said 
uses. [A bequest of twenty pounds towards vestments for Ware- 
horne Church is followed by :] And I bequeth and wille that iiij 1 
in like manner to bye a vestment w th th'apparell to be delivered to 
the Churchwardeyns of the said church of Tenterden to th'use of 
the said Chauntrye prest to say his masse therein in the principall 
and festyvall daies as long as it shall endure. Also I will and 
bequeth that ij silver candelsticks which I have in my custody shall 
by my executours be delivered to the said churchwardeyns of the 
said church of Tenterden there to remayn, and every principall and 
festyvall day to be sett at the aulter where the said Chauntry prest 
useth and shall say his masse and so to deserve in that manner 

aslonge as they shall endure Itm. I bequeth to pour people 

in the parishe of Tenterden iij 1 ' vj s viij d .... Itm. I will myn 
executours shall aske, recover, and receyve of George G-uldeford, 
esquier, tenne pounds which he owes me, and then I will that the 
same tenne pounds be distributed and bestowed by myn executours 
towards the purchasing, bilding, or making of a convenient house 
for the said chauntry prest for the tyme being at Tenterden to 
loige and to teche his scolers accordingly . . . ." To Christopher 
Hales for helping, ayding, and councelling my executours a horse 
and a silver pott, and if he choseth the said silver pott the same to 
be deducted out of the bequest made for the chalices .... 

The witnesses include : John, Priour of the said Conventual 
Church; Master Rowland Phillippe ; Mathewe Smythe, principal 
of the College of Brasenose in Oxford ; Xpofer Hales ; Peter 
Hayman ; and others. 

Prob. in Cath. S. Pauli Loud., xij die mens ffebruarii anno d'ni 
millmo quingesimo xxiij 0 . 

(P. CO. Wills, 18, Bodfelde.) 




The survey of ecclesiastical property made in the years 1534-35, 
and known as the Valor Ecclesiasticus, contains the following 
information concerning Tenterden : — 

Possessions of the " Monasteriu' S'ei Augustini extra et prope 
muros civitat Cantuar." 
Tentwarden Rectoria. £ s g 
Reetoria ib'm valet an'ualim ad firma' in de- 

nariis ..... 




XJl LlcLytito I t/LlLL Lift U LJIJOllu ctLL iCLl/UIla 1U III • 



Et reman' 




The Deanery of Charyng. 

Tent'den. The certificat of S r Willm. 

Broke, Vicar ther'. 

First, a house and an orchard cont' one acre 

of land . . 




It'm, one yerd of land 



It'm, in p e cliaall p'sonall and other tythes yerly 







Whereof to be deducted for p'xies paid yerely 

to the Archdeacon of Cant'berye. S'ma 


v i 

And so remayneth de claro 



X ma inde . 



iij ob. 

Decanatus de Charyng (Summary). 

Tenterden. Vicarius M 1 ' Willm s Broke 



X ma inde . 

0 xlviij 

0 ob. 

(Valor. JEccl., vol. i., 19, 62, 96.) 


Looking upon the Bible. 

Depositions before Edw. Eelvp, Bailiff of Tenterden, John 
Parker and Thomas Austen, Jurats there, 9th December 30 
Henry VIII. (1538), concerning the sayings of Sir John 
Puller, priest. 

Richard Hope of Tenterden, innholder, says that on 8th Sep- 
tember last in his dwelling-house he heard Sir John Fuller say, 
" That as for the looking upon the Bible men should not be the 

st. mildeeu's, tenterden. 


nere before Domesday ;" and one Stephen Cowper said, " Te do 
naught to discomfort any man for looking upon the Bible." Chr. 
Baker confirms this, and says further that the said 8th September 
Fuller said in the Parish Church of Tenterden, " Well, ye shall see 
another world shortly." BaTier then said, "I would advise you to 
speak no more thereof, for if ye do it will be to your displeasure." 
Fuller replied, " In faith if I die I care not, for there will a thousand 
die more than I." Chapman and Stephen Cowper confirm Hope's 
deposition. Cowper says he rebuked Fuller, saying, " The King's 
Grace hath set it out for every man to look upon." Fuller then 
denied his words, which denial Hope confirms. 

(Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, 
Henry VIII. , vol. xiii., fart ii., p. 433.) 


Cranmer and the Heretics of Kent. 
Preserved in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Camb., is 
a MS. volume numbered 128, dealing with the above subject. 
It has already been noticed in Arcliceologia Oantiana, XXVI., 
pp. 339 — 42, except that no reference is made therein to 
Tenterden. Those portions relating to this parish are as 
follows : — 

Depositions against different clergymen, A.D. 1543. 
Sir Humphrey Cotton, Chantry Priest at Tenterden. 
" He said that there be heresies in the Bible. 
" He said that every Christian man being baptized and holpen 
by the grace of God is in as full state of free will as Adam was 
before his fall. 

" He hath a book of prophesies." 

The Vicar of Tenterden [Peter Baker ?]. 
" He hath not put out of the manual which he daily useth the 
Bishop of Rome's name, his usurped autoritie and pardon expressed 
in the rubric and last absolution of extreme unction." 

Hugh Cooper of Tenterden. 
21 September 1543. On the 18th February last Hugh Cooper 
of Tenterden said that God was neither pleased with fasting nor 
discontent with eating. On the 4th March last he preached that 
neither alms deeds, fasting, nor prayer did help the soul, but faith 
only ; also, that whosoever trusted to have help by the prayers of 



any person that ever God made, committed idolatry. He inverted 
the order of the " confiteor," omitting the name of Mary and All 
Saints. On the 28th April he preached that God did not regard 
the prayers but the persons. (Added by Cranmer.) On the 6th 
May he said, " On Saturday you shall have "Whitsun Even ; you 
need not to fast except you will." 

These towns are specially to be remembered that in them be 
placed learned men with sufficient stipends : Sittingbourne, Dover, 
Folkestone, Ashford, Tenterdeist, Cranbrook, Faversham, Herne, 
Whitstable, Marden, Maidstone, "Wye, and Wingham. 

{Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, 
Henry VIII., vol. xviii., part ii.) 


Particulars for Sale of Colleges, etc., A.D. 1545. 
The Parishe of Tenterden. 
i. The ffraternitye called o r ladyes Brotherhood founded 
w th in the p'ish Churche of Tenterden, by whom it is 
not known: 

The yerelie value of the lande 

thereto appertainmge . . viii s 
rent resolute .... viij d 
and remaineth clear ... vij iiij 

ij. Obit rentes there gyven and bequethed by the last wille 
and testament of Peter Marshall, 1 William Preston, 2 
and Thomas Woode, 3 for the keeping of theire sev'all 
obits w*in the said p'ishe Church of Tenterden for ever. 

The same rentes are by the yere . xxij iiij 

iij. Light rente gyven to the parishe Churche there by the 
laste will and testament of Johan Ingeham 4 to the 
rinding of ii tapers before the high aulter w*in the 
said churche for ever 

The same rente is by the yere . xvj d 

1 Peter Marshall, Vicar, ob. 1519. 

2 William Preston, Bailiff of Tenterden in 1486. Will made 19 Dec. 1493 ; 
prob. 26 May 1494. (Archdeaconry vi., 1.) 

3 Thomas Wood, Bailiff in 1519 and 1525. Will made 19 June 1526 ; 
prob. 31 July 1526. (Archdeaconry xvii., 7.) 

4 John Ingham, of Woodchurch and Tenterden, temp. Hen. VI, and 
Edw. IV. 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


iiij. The Cbauntrye called Sheryngton's Chauntry founded 
(within the Cathedrall Churche of Saynt Paule in 
Loudon) by one Sheryngton to the intent that ij 
prestes should celebrate Divine Service there for the * 
soule of the founder and all Xten soules for ever. 

The yerlie value of the land and ten ts to the 
same chauntry belonginge . xx 1 

whereof in rents resolute . ij vj 

perpetual tenth . . . 

and so remaineth clear ..... 

{Chantry Certificate, 28, No. 92.) 


Peter Marshall's Chantry. 

The Chantry within Tenterden Church called Peter Marshall's 
Chantry is worth in yearly rent issuing from land — from a messuage 
called Dinney in the Parishes of Tentwarden and Woodchurch, and 
in the tenure of George Sorrell, by the year . . . . lx s 

A messuage with appurtenances called " Pypars " and all those 
lands in Tentwarden upon the Denes of South Sandeherst and 
Igollynden formerly in the tenure of William Gybbon, now in that 
of Jeffrey (G-alfred) Harynden, by the year . . . . vj u 

And from a messuage called Blossoms upon the Denes of 
Mynster and Harrynden, formerly in the tenure of William Pyeres, 
now in that of John ffiowle, by the year . . . xlvj s viij d 

And also from another messuage of land in Tenterden aforesaid, 
in the tenure of Thomas Bromefield, yearly . . xlvj s viij d 

And also from a messuage and garden with land in Tenterden 
aforesaid, upon the Dene of Castwysell formerly in the tenure of 
Eichard Pyeres, now in that of John Stace, yearly . . xij s 

Also from a certain rent charge of xvj s per ann. issuing from 
a messuage there called the Woolsack formerly in the occupation 
or tenure of John Hodgys and for the use and support of a 
chaplain there, as well for celebrating service in the Church afore- 
said as for teaching in the Grammar School. Paid by the year 

x K X s 

{Chantry Certificate, 29, No. 117.) 

R 2 




A Seditious Sermon. 

A letter (numbered 243) from the Privy Council dated at 
" Grrenewich the 11 th of Maye 1546," signed by Lord Chancellor 
Wriothesley, the Bishop of Durham, the Bishop of Winchester, 
and others ;' addressed to " our assured loving freinde Sir William 
Petre, Knight, oon of the two principal secretoryes to the Kinges 
Majeste." Extract : " This daye was also presentid unto us an 
informacion subscribed by certaine of th'inhabitauntes of Tenterden, 
Kent, of a mervaillous abhominable and sedicious sermone made at 
Tenterden uppon Easter Wednesdaye, which we send to yow here- 
with to be signified to the Kinges Hieghnes. In the meantyme we 
have sente t'apprehende the preacher, and therefore pray you sende 
again unto us the saide instructions which is the original." 

Letter No. 246, dated at " Grrenewich the 14 th of Maye 1546." 
Erom the Council to Sir William Petre, Knight. Extract : " This 
daye we have also had the men of Tynterden, who aflirme that 
bil, but the prest we have not yet apprehended." 

The Privy Council. "At Grenewich the xvij of May 1546," 
before the Lord Chancellor, the Duke of Norfolk, Lord Privy Seal, 
Bishop of Winchester, etc. 

Eour persons were committed to the Tower for their ' erronyous 
opinions,' and " lykewise a prest for making of a lewde sermone at 
Tynterden in Kent, was committed to Newgate." 

The Privy Council. "At Grrenewiche the xix th of Maye 1546," 
before the Council. 

"This daye Sir Rychard Blostoke, the parish prest of Tenter- 
den, was examined before the Counseill, and for his asseveracion 
before them that in the halowing of Holy Brede and Holy Water 
there was heresie he was com'itted to warde to be further at more 
ley sour examyned." 

The Privy Council. " At Westminster the xxiiij th of Julye 
1546, before the Lord Chauncellour, Lord Grreate Master, the Lord 
Pryvey Seale," etc. 

" Sir Bostok, prest, late curate of Tynterden, who by him- 

selfe and a light prest which he maynteined in his parsonage had 
brought sondry of his parisheners to light opinions concerning 
religion and therefore committed to the Marshalsie, was this daye, 

ST. Mildred's, tenterden. 245 

upon repentaunce o£ his faulte, with a good lesson dismissed uppon 
bond of C 1 ' to make his apparance at any tyme within twelve 
moneths when he shall be called for." 

{State Papers, Henry VIII., Letters, vol. i. Acts 
of the Privy Council, 1542 — 1547, pp. 418-9, etc. 
Also, letters and Papers, Henry VIII, New 
Series, vol. occci., part i., pp. 391, etc.) 


During the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth a 
dispute arose between the Vicar of Tenterden and some of his 
parishioners concerning the right to use the north chancel door of 
the parish church. The whole controversy is thus recorded : — 

6 September 1599. 

Before the Archdeacon and his official ; appeared personally 
G-eorge Ely, perpetual Vicar of the parish of Tenterden, and 
Herbert Whitefeild of the same parish, gent., also Thomas Hatche, 
warden of the same parish, with certain other parishioners and 
inhabitants of Tenterden. 

It was alleged that Martha, the wife of the said Herbert 
Whitefeild, sat in a certain seat within the parish (sic) of 
Tenterden in a certain place called the north chancel on the north 
side next to the chancel of the Church, where the said Martha sat 
at present and her predecessors dwelling in the house of the same 
Herbert Whitfeild from a time when the memory of man was not 
to the contrary, and that leading to the seat of the said Martha 
Whitfeild was a way by a certain door called the chancel door ; but 
G-eorge Ely, now Vicar, made objections to the same Martha 
Whitfield using that way to the seat, saying that the chancel door 
of the Church was, and is, the door for the Vicar of the Church to 
enter and go out of the Church both by right and ancient custom. 

Reasons alleaged by G-eorge Elie, Vicar of Tenterden, why the 
Chaunceil dore theire should not bee common to y e p'ishoners 
but private to y e minister. 
Imprimis. It is thought by lawyers and others y 4 ye chaunceil 
dores in churches were at y e firste made and appointed for y e ease 
and use of the ministers and if all theu this amongst y e rest. 


Item. Ye Chauncell dore at Tenterdcn is builtc on the north 
side of y e churche nexte to y° minister's house as such like dores 
bee in other parrishes. 

Item. This dore is a very little lowe dore by y e w ch theire can 
but one passe at once far unlike y e other three dores by w ch y e 
p'ishioners do usuallye passe in and oute. 

Itm. There is noe handsome waye made for ye p'ishioners to 
go in and Oute into ye churche by j l dore and in winter and fowle 
weather it is soe fowle and deepe, y l women w th out some trouble 
cannot passe that waye except it bee frostie weather. 

Itm. It can not bee proved y* ye p'ishe clarke hath at anie 
time had y e keepinge of y e key of y e chauncell dore to open and 
shutte upon Sondayes, Holidayes, and other service dayes, as he 
hath y e keyes of ye other dores. 

Itm. Onelye y e minister of Tent'den hath kepte y e key of ye 
chauncell dore, who in favour suffered some other to have keyes to 
come in yt way for theire ease, as namelie, old M rs Hales whome 
this gentlewoman y* now is succeedinge, and fin din ge a keye of that 
dore doth many times but not alwayes come in y* waye w th her 
famelye. Also theire was one olde M res Nethersall y* had a key to 
that dore before mye cominge ; and theise as they had keyes to 
open y e dore so did they diligentlie looke to y e lockinge of it when 
they went oute, and soe doeth M res Hales nowe. 

Itm. Touchinge M I-es Whitfilde shee never had a key till w th in 
theise fowre yeares, and then shee p'curred it by a sinister and 
indirecte meanes. 

Itm. Whereas theire are above fiftie houshouids in Tent'den 
yt come in at the same churche gate y* M r Whitfild dothe, and 
might w th as good righte challenge ye benefit of ye chauncell dore 
as hee, yet none of ye said houshoulders come in at y e saide dore, 
nor chalenge it for a common dore for ought y* I heare or knowe, 
thoughe theire seates bee nearer to that dore then anie other. 

Itm. Whyleste olde M rs Nethersall lived, havinge a keye, she 
came y l waye, but not her husbande, and soe now M rs Whitefilde 
comes that way, but not her husband. 

Untruths in M 1 ' Whitfild's information. 

First. It is not trewe y* M 1 ' Whitfild w th his wife doe usuallye 
passe into y c churche by y e chauncell dore, but shee w th out him. 

st. mildked's, tenterden. 


Secondly. It is untrewe y 1 anie other houshoulders goe usuallie 
into ye church by y e chauncell dore beside M rs Hales and M rs Whit- 
fild accompanied. w th theire famelies excepte they ]eavinge y e 
dore open and unlocked, some boyes and yonthes and negligent 
fellowes cominge late to y e churche, slide in y 4 way, fearinge 
to come in at ye common dores leaste they should be seene and 

Thirdlie. It is untrewe y* latelie I have caused y e dore to 
bee kept shutte, but I confesse ye key that was lefte to me 
by my p'dicessores I have kepte to my selfe, neither have I 
used to set open ye dore for others, nor thinck my selfe bound 
so to doe. 

Inconveniences followinge y e leavinge open y e dore in time 
of divine service. 

Imprimis. There is muche runninge in and oute of y e churche 
when y e chauncell dore is left unlocked in time of divine service, 
to ye offence of manie. 

Item. Ye openinge and shuttinge of y* dore because it makes 
a greate noise, doth disturbe ye hearers, who finde them selves 
greeved w th it. 

Lastlie. M rs Hales her pew beinge directive opposite againste 
y e chauncell dore and verie neare unto it, y e winds and stormye 
weather arisinge oute of y e northe if ye dore bee lefte standinge 
open, doth verie greatlie annoie her and those that sit neere unto 
her to y e indangering of theire healths. 

M r Whitfilde and Richard Holman contrary to them selfes 
in this chalenge. 

First. As longe as M rs Whitfilde's key would open the dore, 
neither M 1 ' Whitfild nor Richard Holman nor any other that I 
knowe or heard of did chalenge the chauncel dore to bee 

Item. Whether in this monthe M r Whitfild said that his owne 
mother in her life time had a key of that chauncell dore. 

Item. Sithens ye time y* M 1 * Whitfilde and Richard Holman 
toulde me in y e hearinge of John Roberts and Mathew Austen, y t 
ye lock should be set on againe conditionallie y l I would keepe 
y e keye to myselfe and lett none come in. 




Thomas Harris of Tenterden in the Co untie of Kent, black 
smithe of ye age of lx yeares and more. Confesseth uppon bis 
owne knowledge yt he knewe a locke on y e chauneell dore for 
fortie yeares agoe at leaste ; and to this if hee bee lawf ullie ealed 
hee will bee sworen. Confessed in the p'sence of Daniell Pickard 
and Elizabeth Leedes. 

Signum dicte 
Thomae x Harris. 

Margaret Browne, widow of Thomas Browne, late Bailife of 
Tenterden, deceased, beinge of the age of three score and ten yeares 
and upwards, doth well remember and doth confesse y* one 
M ,s Nethersall had a keye of the chauneell dore aforesaide longe 
afore M r Elie's time, and that she used to have y* key with her 
dwellinge neare the Churche for feare she should forgett it at 
home or lose it, or should come afore old M IS Hales and soe bee 
driven to goe aboute ; and this she will affirme upon her oathe 
if it may bee w th out her trouble or travill. Confessed in the 
p'sence of Daniell Pickard and Elizabeth Leeds above writte'. 

Maye it please your worship, that we whose names are under 
written are readye to testifye uppon our othes y 4 the churche 
doore now in controversie betwene M r Whitfeld and o'r nowe 
Vicare M r Elye, hath bene ev r since we can remember used as 
a doore for ev'ryone toe goe in and oute thereof that would, both 
before M r Elye his tyme alsoe many yeares since he was Vicare 
till of late it hath been otherwise restrayned, and that the said 
doore hath allwayes bene opened and shut by the p'ishe clarke as 
other the churche doores have bene, and that the parishe hath 
alwayes kept the reparations of that parte of the chansell and not 
the Vicare or Parson. 

by me John Funnel. 

by me Clement Whytfyld. 1 

by me Roger Leuknor. 

by me James Mede. 

by me Peter Wolball. 

The Thirde of September 1599. 
That yt I can saye touchinge the chauneell dore is this, that 
about a xxx or xxxi yeares agoe at what tyme I was a scoler in 

1 Brother of Herbert Whitfield, 

st. mildked's, tenterden. 


Tenterden, 1 do very well remember that one M r Coxe beirige 
then Curate to o'r M r Bend all had a keye to the chauncell dore, 
and did also use to unlocke and locke the same at his cominge in 
and goinge out; this of my knowledge I am able to say e he did, 
and am readie to justifye the same when so ever I shalbe called 

By me John Hatche. 

The Court ordered : 

That, whereas M 1S Mary Hales the wife of John Hales 1 of 
Tenterden, esquier, and the said M rs Martha Whitfeld have had in 
times past two several keys to the said chancel door for to pass 
that way to hear divine service and to receive the Sacraments in 
the said Church of Tenterden ; that when they pass in and out 
shall lock or cause to be locked the door after them, and lest any 
damage might happen to the Church goods by reason of these 
keys, it is ordered that both of them shall yearly pay some gratuity 
to the parish clerk there, so that every Sunday and Holy day, at 
night after evening prayer, and at other times, he shall bolt the 
door from within, so that none can go into the Church by that 
door before the clerk have unbarred it again. 

It is likewise ordered that M 1 ' Elie, now Vicar, and his successors 
for ever, shall pass that way and have a key to that door as 
heretofore it hath been used. 

(Archid. Visitctt. Covvperta, vol. for 1596 — 1600.) 

[It is unfortunate for the reputation of Herbert and Martha 
Whitfield that the records shew each of them to have been addicted 
to expressing their opinions somewhat too freely. Thus we find 
among the State Papers of James I., on a parchment of letters, 
grants, and pardons, dated 15 Feb. 1607-8, the following: "A 
pardon graunted to Herbert Whitfield of Tenterden in the Counte 
of Kent for certaine misdemeanour and offering of defamacon or 
slander against some of his neighbours ; out of \v ch are excepted 
all contumelious speeches against the word of Glod, his ma'ty p'son, 
or any noblemen or Bishops or other of like rancke. Subscribed 
by Sergeant Phillips and proved b} r Mr. John Levingsone." And 
a little further on, another, dated 16 Martii 1607-8, as follows : 
"A pardon for Herbert Whitfeild, gent., for matter of defamacon 

1 John Hales, the last Bailiff of Tenterden, 1598-99, and first Mayor, 1600. 



against John Elyot and others. Which pardon passed before and 
was stayed at the Great Seale in regard of some over liberall wordes 
therein conteyned. Snbscr : and pruved as above. 

J. Wood." 
(S.P. James I., Docquets, 1608-9.) 

Two years later Martha so far forgot herself as to cause a 
disturbance in church, for which she was duly ' presented.' 

1610. Mistress Martha Whitefield, the wife of Mr. Herbert 
Whitefiekl, gent., for chiding and brawling in the church with 
the wife of Mr. Thomas Short, to the offence of the congre- 
gation — about the beginning of June last. 

{Archdeacons' Presentments, vol. 75,fol. 20.) 

Martha died in 1613, and her husband at the beginning of 1623, 
and are commemorated by a stately monument having kneeling 
figures, erected against the north wall of the north chapel 
immediately adjacent to the chancel door which was the cause of 
so much trouble.] 


The petition against the Vicar which was presented to the 
House of Commons, and which is referred to on p. 226 is as 
follows : — 

" To the Bight Honourable the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses 
of the Commons House of Parliament : The humble petition of the 
inhabitants of the Towne and Parishe of Tenterden in the County 
of Kent : 

Sheweth — That, whereas the said town and parish, beeing an 
auncient Corporacion and a very populous place, which heertofore 
flourished under the teachinge of godlie and paynefull ministers, 
who, for these forty yeeres last past and upwards, have beene for 
the most part resident amongst them, and provided for them 
sermons on Sondayes both forenoone and afternoone to their great 
comfort. But now of late, M r Doctor Peake, one of the prebends 
of Canterbury and parson of Acris in Kent, being presented to the 
Vicaridge of Tenterden, which is of the yeerely value of two hundred 
pounds, or neere thereabouts, by the Deane and Chapter of Christ 
Church, Cant., thereof Patrons, who are also proprietors of the 

$t. Mildred's, tenterden. 


Rectorie impropriate of Tenterden aforesaid, beeing of the yeerlie 
value of one hundred pounds and upwards ; hee, the said 
M r Doctor Peake, hath not beene resident, nor will reside himselfe 
upon the said Vicaridge, nor provide your petitioners a Curat that 
will preach or catechise on Sondaies in the afternoone. But hee 
hath given an expresse charge to a late Curat of his not to preach 
on Sondayes in the afternoone as the said Curat hath reported, nor 
will the said M r Doctor Peake, although he have better than 
five hundred pounds per annum spiritual livings, alio we a Curat 
competent mayntenance for the serving of the said cure ; neither 
will hee suffer your petitioners (though they have made it their 
suite to him) to provide and maynetaine at their owne charges a 
conformable minister to preach on Sondaies in the afternoone. 
Neither hath hee at this present, nor hath hee hadd since the 
beginning of January last, any Curat at all resident amongst them, 
but sometimes one, sometimes another, such as could or cann be 
gott at the cheapest rate, viz., for a noble, or seaven shillings 
and eightpence a day at the utmost, are procured to supply the 
Cure on Sondayes. 

And beesides, the said M 1 ' Doctor Peake hath so much neglected 
his charge, that at the generall East enjoined to bee kept throughout 
the whole kingdom in July last, the duties befitting so holy and 
religious a work were to their great griefe very slightly performed, 
neither the Curat nor himselfe beeing at all present that day to 
doe the service, insomuch as hadd it not been for a schoolmaster 
of the parishe newlie entered into the ministry, the place hadd not 
beene at all supplied, and as it was supplied, the exercises of the 
Fast not beiug continued a competent and convenient time as hath 
beene heertofore used, a good part of the day was, by the ruder 
sorte, spent in the ale houses, to the great dishonour of Almighty 

And moreover he exacteth of the inhabitants of the said parishe 
many undue and unaccustomed fees, as namelie, twelve pence for 
the ringing of the great bell at a buriall, a fee never heard of 
there till now late. And whereas the ancient and accustomed fee 
to the Vicar there for a marriage hath beene but eighteene pence, 
hee doth now exact sometimes two shyllings, and sometimes fower 
shillings, for evrie couple maried. Neither will hee suffer his owne 
Curat, nor any other conformable minister to preech at any buriall 
unlesse hee (though absent and resident about twenty miles off) 
may bee paid tenn shillings a sermon if his Curat preach, and 


twentio shillings a sermon if a stranger preach, for the hire of 
his pulpit. 

And further also, hee exacteth of poore servants more than 
their accustomed offerings at Easter ; and hath threat'ned, unlesse 
they will give him his demands, to sue them in the Ecclesiastical 
court for the tithes of their wages, beeing a tithe never paid, nor 
scarce ever heard of in the said parishe. 

And ,hee also at Easter communions in the yeere 1640, did 
disgracefully put back some poore servants of the said parishe 
from receiving of the holy sacraments, beeing there ready with the 
rest of the congregation to receive the same, meerlie because they 
would not pay him twelve pence a peece for their offerings, 
although they hadd before tendred him their accustomed offerings 
or more. And, beesides, he threat'ned many more that unlesse they 
would pay him twelve pence a peece for their offerings it should 
cost them twelve pence a peece before he hadd done with them, 
or used words to that effect. 

And hee also caused tenn poore servants, or labourers, of the 
said parishe to be unjustly cited into the Ecclesiasticall Court at 
Canterbury beeing about twenty miles distant from Tenterden, 
meerly for vexacion upon pretence that they did not pay him their 
accustomed offerings at Easter in the year 1640, nor did they receive 
the holy sacrament then ; w^hereas they did all of them then receive 
the Sacrament at his owne hands and hadd beefore paid or tendered 
him their accustomed offerings or more; and, accordinglie they did all 
of them so depose in the said Ecclesiasticall Court excepting two 
onlie, who, upon his said citation, fled the parishe and thereupon 
they were all of them dismissed the said court. But, though the 
Judge thereof did publikelie manifest his great dislike of such 
oppression, yet hee neither did, nor could, as w T as then said, allowe 
them any costs or charges, though in truth it cost or stood them in 
about fifteene or sixteene shillings a peece. 

By reason of all which doeings of the said M 1 " Doctor Peake, 
diverse of the said parishe have, and are like to remove their dwel- 
lings from thence, which beeing of late tould him, hee, not at all 
moved therewith, hath given out speeches that though the houses 
there stood emptie, yet hee is sure he shall find the lands there, or 
to that effect. 

All which your petitioners have thought fitting to represent to 
this honourable assemblie, humbly intreating that you would bee 
pleased to take the same into your pious and grave consideracions, 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


and to give your peticioners such relief therein as in your great 
wisdomes shall thinke meete. 

And your petitioners shall ever pray, etc. 

[Here foil otv eighty signatures, fourteen of whom filed the office 
of Mayor of Tenterden, in some cases more than once. Their names 
are marked with an asterisk. The eighth is that of the Town Clerk, .] 

*Tho. Shorte. 
*John Witherden. 
*Freeg. Stace. 
John Reade. 
*Samuell Curtis. 
*William Plummer. 
*Thomas Huckstepp. 
Jo. Baker. 
Ric. Keete. 
Ric. Scriven. 
Nich. Emyot. 
Lewes Clements. 
Daniel Hopper, the 

Richard Masters. 
Job Cushman. 
Mych. Keete. 
Richard Lucas. 
Clement Widon. 
Richard Highestedd. 
John Fuller. 
Jo. Smith. 
Jo. Hamper. 
Simeon Dartnell. 
William Gilliebald. 
Richard Seath. 
Sa. Shorte. 

*Jo. Austen. 
Thos. Selherst. 
Samuell Wiellcock. 
Tho s Bedingfield. 
Samuell Finch. 
Tho. Iden. 
*John Finch. 
Thos. Taylor. 
William Stretton. 
Tho. Brett. 
George Haffenden. 
Robert Wolball. 
Thos. Haffenden. 
Richard Haffenden. 
Henry Gyrdler. 
Tho. Baytup. 
W m Playfer. 
Luke Younge. 
Geo. Humphrey. 
Aminadab Henley. 
Daniel Duncke. 
Thos. Houlting. 
James Duncke. 
John Scotchford. 
Thomas Tilden. 
W m Stretton, jun. 
John Waters. 

Thomas Iggulden. 
Richard Elphicke. 
John Sander. 
Peter Philpot. 
John Hooke. 
JNTath. Rosier. 
Rob 1 Ashenden. 
*Peter Shorte. 
*George Tilden. 
Thomas Butler. 
Tho s Simons. 
John Crouch. 
James Wide. 
Daniel Baytop. 
Abraham Caffinch. 
Anthony Weller. 
Edward Boys. 
Edward Caffinch. 
Stephen Neate. 
John Beear. 
Ric. Swanten. 
Dan 1 Hopper. 
John Gyrdler. 
Rob* Willes. 
Sam 1 Bedar. 
John Wood. 
Thos. Eldredge. 

[On the back of the petition is endorsed, by Sir Edward Dering, 
1641, 10 July. Petition. Tenterden p. D 1 ' Peake."] 

(Proceedings in Kent in connection with the Parliament 
called in 1640. L. B. Larking, Camden Soc, 1862.) 




The survey of Church property and land in the parish of Ten- 
terden, made by order of Parliament in the year 1649, is as 
follows : — 

The Parsonage of Tenterden. 

Decanat Cantuar. 1 All that close of pasture ground beinge gleabe 
S r Edward Hales, / land conteyninge by Estimacon ffive acres more 
or lesse wherein Standeth a large Barne and other outhouses 
com'only called the parsonage Barne and all the tythes of Corn 
ariseinge and growinge within the parish of Tenterden. And alsoe 
severall Rents Issueinge out of lands and Tenements in Tenterden 
amountinge in the whole unto the sume of xxvj s viij d , receaved and 
taken in right of the Parsonage of Tenterden, Together with all 
Wayes, passages, yards, proffitts and advantages whatsoever to the 
said p' misses belonging or appertayninge or with the same or any 
parte thereof leased, occupied or enjoyed. 

Memorandum. All w ch last menconed p'misses were by the 
late Deane and Chapter of the Cathedrall Church of Christ, Can- 
terbury, by their Indenture dated the second of Julye 1640, demised 
unto S r Edward Hales, Knight and Baronett, to hould from 
Michaellmas before the date unto the end of xxi yeares. Payeinge 
therefor yearely the sume of xx 11 vj s viij d att the twoe most usuall 
ffeasts by equall porcons. But are worth upon Improvement over 
and above the Rent reserved, p' ann' C l . The Lessee to repayre 
and mayntaine the Buildings and Inclosures about the p'misses, 
and likewise to repayre the Chauncell of the parrishe Church of 
Tenterden. And if the Rent bee unpayde xiiij dayes after either 
of the saide ffeasts, the Lessee to fforfeite I s . There was xi yeares 
and one quarter of a yeare to come and unexpired of the Tearme 
aforesaid att Midsom'er last. The advowson, Right of patronage, 
Nominacon and p'sentacon to the Church of Tenterden belonged 
to the late Deane and Chapter of the Cathedrall Church of Christ, 
Canterburye. The p'seut Incumbent there is M 1 " Barry. 

Returned (amoungst other thinges) into the Regist 1 " Office the 
8 th of September 1649, 

By John Browne, "j 
Ex d Ra. Hall, Will. Eles, I Survey 013 . 

Regist. Deput. Will. Jones, J 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


Marginal notes : — 

Redd. xx 1 vj s viij d . Entertayn mt coi'bus annis xxxiij s iiij d . 

This is returned in another survey and is apor'coned therein, 
25 Nov. 1650. 

Tenterden Rectory. 

All that Parsonage or Rectory of Tenterden consistinge of one 
great large Barne, newely erected, togeather with one close of pas- 
ture wherein the Barne now standeth, abuttinge to Tenterden 
Streete on the west, cont' by estiraacon v acr. v 11 . Togeather with 
the Tythes of corne and other profitts to the said parsonage belong- 
inge, all which wee estimate to bee worth coi'bus annis xcv 1 . 

Memorandum. S r Edward Hales, Knight, holdeth the said 
parsonage and Rectory by an indenture from the Deane and 
Chapter of Christ Church, Canterbury, dated 11° July 1640, for 
the Tearme of xxi yeares from Michaellmas before the Date, 
payeinge there fore yearely xx 1 vi s viij d att the twoe most usual 
ffeasts by equall porcons. But are now worth upon Improvement 
over and above the said Rent reserved per ann. Ixxviij 1 . The Lessee 
covenanteth to repair the Barne and to provide for the Deane and 
Officers or pay xxxiij 3 iiij d . The xx 1 vi s viij d reserved on this Rec- 
tory ys aporconed, viz* : — 

To bee sold with the lands . 01 . 00 . 08 
To remayne upon the Tythes . 19 . 06 . 00 

In toto . . 20 . 06 . 08 

Dat. Nov. 26, 1650. Will. Webb. 

Marginal note : — 

Redd, xx 11 vi s viij d ffor enterta'ment .... xxxiijs iiij d . 

{Parliamentary Survey of Church Lands, 
vol. ocix., 3, 4, 44.) 


Among the records preserved in the office of the Town Clerk 
at Tenterden is one which seems to merit inclusion here, being a 
faculty issued by the Consistory Court at Canterbury regarding 



the removal of some old seats from the chancel, and placing the 
Communion Table in its proper position. 

" Deciino Octavo die mensis Junii anno d'ni Millimo sexcentimo 
nonagimo quarto. On w ch day appeared Peter Gleane, Notary 
Publique, and exhibited this proxie for John Holman and. Jeremiah 
Curtis the p'sent Churchwardens of Tenterclen in the Dioeess of 
Canterbury, and alleaged that it is the desire and request of the 
said Churchwardens, as also of M r Jonathan Maude the p'sent 
Vicar there, and divers others of the Cheife Inhabitants of the 
said parish, that they may have leave to place the Com'union table 
of the said Church of Tenterden at the East end of the Chauncell 
of the said Church, and to raile in the same for the more decent 
and com'odious administracon of the Sacrament to the Parishioners 
there ; and that they may have leave and license to amove and take 
away some old seates now standing in that part of the said Chauncell 
which is designed to be railed in, they being of little use to the 
parish, none sitting there but some poore antient people whom the 
said Minister and Churchwardens will take care to seate in some 
more convenient part of the said Church, and that the said Gleane 
did exhibit a certificate of what he prayed as to the amooving the 
said seats under the hands of the said Minister, Churchwardens, 
and Overseers of the said parish. Whereupon the Judge inspecting 
the said certificate did interloquendo order and decree that the 
said churchwardens have license and leave to amove and take away 
the said old seats and to place such persons as usually sett there 
in some other convenient place of the said church ; and that they 
have leave to raile in the Com'union table of the said church in 
such manner as may be for the most convenient and decent 
admiuistracon of the Lord's Supper to the parishioners there, the 
said Grleane accepting thereof, etc. 

Jo: Stockar, Surr: Pa: Lukins, Reg. Dep'tus." 

18 June 1694. 

{Corporation Records, Tenterden.) 


Visitation of the Diocese of Canterbury. Articles of enquiry 
were addressed to the Incumbents by the Archdeacon (Dr. J. Head), 
dated Canterbury 17 May 1750. 

Tenterden Church, 
i. The North and West doors to be repaired, 

st. Mildred's tenterden. 


ii. Provide a new bason for the font, and the cieling and Pews in 

the North Chancel to "be repaired, and the walls plaistered and 

iii. Nil. 

iv. Provide a carpet for the Communion Table. 

v. Make an inventory of the church goods and return a copy into 


vi. Nil. 

The Churchyard. 

The rubbish to be got from the church walls, and the wood to 
be removed from the churchyard. 

The two broken bells by an order of the vestry are to be new 
cast as soon as the roads are passable. 

Everything else is done according to the above orders. 

Witness our hands : Theoph: De L' Angle, Vic r . 

Thos: Winder. Tho. Paine. 

The minister and churchwardens are to certify of the per- 
formance of these Injunctions at next Easter Visitation. 

{Lambeth MS., No. 1134.) 


In 1758 Archbishop Seeker held his primary visitation of the 
Diocese and Peculiars of Canterbury. Printed letters of enquiry 
were addressed to all Incumbents, etc., dated from the Deanery of 
St. Paul's, 1 May 1758. Signed, " your loving brother Tho: Cant." 

The record as it concerns Tenterden is as follows : — 

i. Extent of parishes, houses, population, etc. 

The extent of the parish from East to West is about four Miles, 
from North to South about five Miles. It is divided into five 
Boroughs. There are about 260 Houses. There are no families of 

ii. Number, if any, of Papists. 

There are no papists in the parish. 
yoL, xxxi. s 



iii. Any Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptists, Methodists, or 


There are about 300 Presbyterians, no independents, about six 
anabaptists, no Methodists or Moravians. There is a Presbyterian 
meeting house. I have enquired of the Teacher and others, but 
cannot get any certain Information whether it be duly licensed 1 or 
not. The Presbyterian Teacher's name is Hancock, who tells me 
that he himself is properly qualified. The number of Dissenters 
has rather lessened than increased of late years. 

iv. Any Quakers, and do they pay their tithes. 

There are about six quakers in the parish ; they have no meet- 
ing house in the parish. They pay their tithes regularly without 

v. As to attendance at Church. 

The parishioners in general go regularly either to church or 
meeting house every Lord's Day. 

vi. As to your residence in the parish, if not, where and why. 

I did constantly reside in this cure sixteen years, when my 
health would permit me to stay no longer. I now reside on my 
donative, or, as my Patron calls it, Royal Peculiar of Groodnestone, 
where I do the duty, though I still spend some part of the year 
here. I have a curate who lives in the Vicarage house, his name 
is John Holland, 2 A.B., he was ordained priest on my title, he has 
served this cure ever since I have had my Diocesan's leave to be 
absent, I allow him forty Pounds a year with other Perquisites, 
he serves no other cure. 

vii. As to services in your Church, any other Chapel in the parish 

and distance from the Church, and catechising. 
There are two sermons preached every Sunday in this Church, 

1 At the General Quarter Sessions held at Tenterden, 9 May 1760, " The 
house .... which for severall years last past hath been and now is used as a 
Presbyterian Meeting House, is Certifyed to this Court by the Reverend M r 
Cornelius Handcook .... to be an house fit for the Exercise of Religious 
Worship therein .... Recorded accordingly." {Corporation Records.) 

Mr. Handcock was the minister of this congregation (founded by Rev. 
George Hawe, 1662) for thirty years, 1744' — 1774. He is buried in the church- 
yard of St. Mildred, where his tombstone may still be seen. " 1774 May 24. 
The Rev. Cornelius Hancock, widower, 84." {Parish Reg.) 

2 Buried in the churchyard. His tombstone bears this inscription : " Here 
lieth interred the body of y u Rev. John Holland, aged 56 years. He was Curate 
of this parish 20 years. Died 30 of April 1700," 

st. Mildred's tenterden. 


and Prayers read there on "Wednesdays, Prydays, and all Holy 
Days. There is a Chappel 1 in the parish about two miles from the 
church. The Chaplain's name is Thoresby. The children are 
instructed in the Catechism on Wednesdays and Fry days in Lent. 
I do not know that any unbaptized Persons frequent Publick 
Worship. The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper is adinistred on 
the first Sunday in every month, there are usually about 150 
communicants at the monthly sacraments, and on the great 
Festivals near 200. 

viii. Any Free School, Hospital, or Almshouse. 

There is a Grammar School. One Hay man gave a house for 
the use of the Schoolmaster. Mr. Reginald Mantle 2 gave 200 
pounds to the Schoolmaster. This money is laid out in land which 
now lets for ten pounds a year, and one William Marshall, clerk, 
gave ten pounds 3 a year to the School Master with which the estate 
of Sir Edward Hales, Bart., is now charged. The Mayor and 
Corporation of Tenterden are trustees, and see these several sums 
annually paid to the School Master for whose use they were given. 
There is no hospital or alms-house in the Parish. 

ix. Any voluntary or charity school. 

There is no voluntary charity school in the parish. 

x. Any lands, tenements, tithes or pensions for the poor. 

Lady Norton gave 50 pounds a year to be equally divided 
between the parishes of Tenterden and Hollingbourne. This she 
has ordered to be divided into seven divisions ; four parts to be 
applied in putting out apprentices, the children of parents having 
no parochial relief ; the other three parts, twenty shillings to the 
Ministers of each of the said parishes for two annual sermons to be 
preached in each of their respective churches on the first day of 
January, and the first day of November, the residue of the three 
parts to ten poor widows, one year in money, and the second year 

1 Smallhythe Chapel. Richard Thoresby, chaplain, 1736—1766. (Arch 
Cant., XXX., 185.) 

2 Reginald Mantell was elected Mayor of Tenterden on the 29th August 
1710, but refused to serve, " Whereby he hath forfeited the sum of fforty 
pounds." At a Common Hall held on the 13th October following, the amount 
was reported " now paid." Refusing also to serve as J. P. for the Borough, was 
fined £20, but this was remitted. {Corporation Records.) 

3 See extract from his will, p. 239 ante. 

s 2 



in black and white cloth, and so alternately for ever, such persons 
having no parochial relief and hearing the said sermons in their 
respective churches. 

xi. As to disposal of the Offertory. 

The money given at the offertory is disposed of by the Minister 
to those poor who attend the Sacrament, or are confin'd by sickness. 

xii. Are there any other matters. 

I know of no other matter relating to my parish of which I can 
give your Grace any information. 

Theoph: De L' Angle, 


(Lambeth MSS., No. 1134, IV., 234.) 


Extracts from the wills of Tenterden folk relating to their Parish 
Church ; being bequests towards the building of the fabric, its 
repair and maintenance, the provision for church furniture, 
lights, and altars, and other matters of interest. 

Many parishioners of Tenterden during the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries bequeathed money and goods towards the 
building and edifying of their parish church. 

A selection from their wills, indicating such purposes, is here 
given : — 

i. Thomasine Adam, widow. 20 April 1519. 

To the use of the church, my tablecloth " myled " or mixed 
with blue thread, to adorn the high altar in times requisite and on 
festival days. To the buying of one candlestick to serve before 
Our Lady of Pity, 5 s . (A. 14, 1.) 

ii. Richard Aylonde, y'oman. 14 November 1513. 

I wooll and bequith to the Church of Tenterden to th'use 
of the same churche ij Kyne to be Jettyn out by the yere at a 
resonable pryce, and I wooll that xiij d of the rent of the same Kyne 
comyng and growing be gyven unto xiii poore men of the same 
p'isshe ev'y good ffryday for evermore yf they wooll receyve hit or 

st. Mildred's, tenterDeh. 


ells to be dysposed unto other poore folkys . . . Itm I wooll that 
the mony of a cloth that Petur Maister bought of me be bought 
with all a payer of orgonnes to do s'vyce in the church foresayd. 
(P.C.C., 8, Holder.) 

iii. Eichard Baker. 8 April 1504. 

To the reparation of one spring called the Churchewell in 
Tenterden, 2 s . (A. 10, 3.) 

iv. John Baker. 1 October 1537. 

To the maintenance of the Light of St. Nicholas, 3 s 4 d . 
(A. 21, 9.) 

v. William Bate. 31 May 1463. 

To the reparation of the parish church of Tenterden, 6 s 8 d . 
(A. 1, 6.) 

vi. William Beche, of Smalhithe. 12 January 1518-9. 

To the reparation of the church of Tenterden, a cow. (A. 14, 2.) 

vii. Grarard Beryngham, of Smalhithe. 8 January 1527-8. 

To the light of Our Lady in the church of Tenterden, 12 d , and 
to the reparation of the same church, 6 s 8 d . (A. 18, 1.) 

viii. Robert Brekynden, senior. 11 November 1482. 

To be buried in the Chapel of St. Mary in the parish church of 
Tenterden . . . For an image of St. Mary in the chapel of the 
same, a silver " cheyne." (A. 3, 26.) 

ix. William Brickenden. 18 September 1628. 

And whereas there hath been speech of building a gallerie in 
Tenterden Church I do will that if there shall be a gallerie builded 
there within one year after my death, that then my ex'or shall pay 
to the Mayor and Jurats of Tenterden towards the building 
thereof, the sum of ten pounds, but if the same shall not be 
builded within one year after my death, then I will the same gift 
and legacy of ten pounds to be void. (Con. 48, 257 — 60.) 

x. Thomas Bishopynden. 4 February 1511-12. 

To the buying of a pair of organs to serve in the church, 12 d . 
(A. 128.) 

xi. Robert Bosshopynden. 7 April 1523. 

A taper of one pound of wax before St. Peter in the church, 
every year to be renewed against the feast of St. Peter. (A. 15, 10.) 



xii. Lora Blossom, widow. 6 March 1532-3. 

To the making of a new cover for the font in Tenterden Church, 
20 d . (A. 19, 15.) 

xiii. Thomas Blussh. 23 January 147f. 

To the reparation of the church my best cow, and that 3 s 4 d 
which is in the hands of Robert P'syt. (A. 2, 12.) 

xiv. William Borne. 30 September 1509. 

My ex'ors at my cost and charge shall cause the " revestrie" 
of the church of Teaterden to be well and workmanly sealid 
(ceiled). Certain lands to be sold, and from the money thereof — 
To the church, 10 marcs (£6 13s. Ad.). (A. 11, 3.) 

xv. Robert Bregges. 15 April 1484. 

To the light of St. Katherine in the church of St. Mildred, 
3 s 4 d . (A. 4, 1.) 

xvi. Laurence Brodestret. 5 April 1525. 

To the light of St. Erasmus, 2 d , and the light of St. Clement, 2 d . 
(A. 16, 13.) 

xvii. Thomas Carpynter. 21 April 1498. 

To the work of St. Mildred's Church, 6 s 8 d . . . and if daughter 
Joan die before she is married, then 10 marcs for an ornament to 
serve in the church. (A. 7, 2.) 

xviii. Kateryn Carpenter, widow. 3 October, 1510. 

To the use of the church my best diaper towel ... a taper of 
three pounds of wax to burn before the image of St. Mary in the 
same church. (A. 11, 7.) 

xix. John Castelyn. 8 January 150 J. 

To the reparation of the nave of Tenterden Church, 20 s . 
(Con. 9, 65.) 

xx. Katherine Castlyn, widow. 17 January 1510-11. 

To the lights of the Holy Cross, St. Mary, St. Mildred, and 
St. Katherine, two pence each. (A. 11, 7.) 

xxi. Joan Caston, widow. 4 May 1512. 

That Richard Piers shall pay that £3 he owes unto me, unto the 
church of Tenterden, to the buying of a Crismatory of silver and 
gilt. (Con. 11, 41.) 

s$. Mildred's tenterden. 


xxii. Bichard Castewesill. 1 September 1477. 

To the church, for one coverlet to be bought to serve in the 
same church, 6 s 8 d . ... To the reparation of the church, 6 s 8 d . 
(A. 3, 11.) 

xxiii. William Claidich. 22 April 1505. 

For making an image of St. Katherine in the church, 12 d . 
(A. 10, 1.) 

xxiv. Robert Clerk. 24 December 1495. 

To the lights of St. Mary, St. Mildred, St. Nicholas, the 
Calefecary, and the Torches in the church of Tenterden, 8 d each. 
(A. 6, 5.) 

xxv. William Cok. 15 May 1449. 

To the reparation of the church, 6 s 8 d . To the making of the 
new bell tower there, 5 marcs (£3 6s. 8^.). To the lights of St. 
Nicholas, St. Christopher, St. Mary, and before the Cross on the 
north side of the church, 20 d each. To the light of St. Mildred, 
3 s 4 d . To the brotherhood of St. Mary, 20 d . (A. 1, 1.) 

xxvi. Thomas Cok. 20 April 1473. 

For the whole of a new window in the west part of the new 
tower of Tenterden, viz. : ' glasyd ' and with other work in the 
same, from my goods as my ex' or shall think best to be done. 
(A. 2, 6.) 

xxvii. Stephen Couper. 10 February 151§ . 

To the buying of one new pair of organs to serve in the church, 
3 s 4 d . To the gilding of the image of St. Mark in the church, if so 
be that there be no new image of St. Mark there made, 20 d . To 
the making of one new image of St. Greorge to serve in the church, 
20 d . To the use of the church two kine, price twenty shillings, 
upon a condition that the Wardens yearly distribute to poor people 
on Good Friday. (A. 12, 8.) 

xxviii. William Cowper. 4 October 1518. 

That my ex'ors at my cost and charge within a year after my 
death make one convenient parclose or " seelyng " behind the High 
Eood or Crucifix in the church, betwixt the arches dividing the 
nave and the high chancel. Also that they do make, prepare, and 
substantially set up, one convenient window, mullioned and glazed, 
with all other work necessary and expedient, upon and in the roof 



on the south side of the church next to the said Rood and Crucifix, 
as it can be thought most necessary by the Curate and other honest 
men of the parish. Also that they do prepare and make ready in 
as short time as they conveniently may, all and every such altar 
cloths and curteyns as I of late did put to painting to one paynter 
of Hedcron, which 1 wilJ and bequeath to the use of the church, 
and so to be hanged there about and upon the altar where the Mass 
of Jesus is used to be celebrated. To the buying of one pair of 
laten candlesticks continually to stand upon the said altar, 6 s 8 d . 
To the buying of oue convenient white cope to serve in the church 
to one white " sute " there now, being most necessary, £13 6 s 8 d . 
To the Brotherhood priest 20 d yearly, and for two tapers to be 
renewed twice yearly, 2 s . (Con. 12, 174.) 

xxix. Stephen Cowper. 10 October 1551. 

My bodye to be buryed in the churche porche of Tenterden, 
and I will to the Churche of Tenterden xl s to be buried at the 
sought (south) dore in the waye. (P.C.C., 28, Bucke.) 

xxx. John Crotehole, senior. 3 December 1496. 

To the church, a torch of the price of eight shillings. (A. 6, 7.) 

xxxi. John Davy. 1 March 1467-8. 

Itm. lego ad rep'acionem eccl'ia de Tentyrden vj s viij d . Itm. ad 
rep'acionem magne cruce apud le north frith in eadem eccl'ia 
vi s viii d (P.C.C., 25, Grodyn.) 

xxxii. Denis Davy, widow. 12 August 1520. 

To the use of the church of St. Mildred, my best towel. (A. 
14, 10.) 

xxxiii. John Donnyham. 26 March 1505. 

To the lights of St. George and St. Christopher, a taper of 
U lbs. (A. 9, 2.) 

xxxiv. Henry Esteagh. 31 October 1461. 

To the work of the new tower, twelve pieces of my best timber, 
which the wardens of the same work or the parishioners there shall 
choose, standing and growing at Botford in a certain wood there, 
near the garden called Botford garden. (A. 1, 11.) 

xxxv. Margaret Finch, widow. 1 April 1483. 

A piece of my land in Tenterden shall be sold .... and from 


the money a processional cross shall be bought for the church, 
5 marcs. (A. 3, 26.) 

xxxvi. Thomas Finche. 6 March 1504-5. 

To the work of repairing or new making of the liood loft in the 
church of Tenterden, by the advice of the Bailiff and most honest 
men of Tenterden, £3 6s. Sd. (A. 9, 2.) 

xxxvii. John Flecher. 20 August 1510. 

To the buying of a cloth of velvet to hang before the high altar, 
16 s 8 d . (A. 17, 1. Con. 11, 44.) 

xxxviii. William Foughill. 17 November 1496. 
Five marcs to the use of the church. (A. 6, 9.) 

xxxix. Katherine Foule, widow. 12 October 1519. 

To the use of the church a coverlet. To the buying of one pair 
of silver candlesticks to serve in the church, 6 s 8 d . (A. 15, 3.) 

xl. William Gremyn, of Smalhith. 5 December 1501. 

To the buying of one new chalice for the church of Tentreden, 
40 s . (A. 8, 9.) 

xli. Joan Grerves. 11 December 1504. 

Towards a certain new slab for the high altar, 13 s 4 d . (A. 10, 1.) 
xlii. William Grerves. 18 April 3525. 

To the making of a new covering for the " Founte " in Tentreden 
Church, 20 s . (A. 16, 12.) 

xliii. Thomas Gybon. 20 March 1495-6. 

To the work of the nave of the church, 20 d . (A. 8, 1.) 
xliv. John G-odday. 10 September 1471. 

For a new bell for the tower of Tenterden, £10. (A. 2, 3.) 
xlv. Alice G-odard, widow. 17 May 1521. 

Two tapers of wax, one of 2 lbs. to set and burn before the 
Blessed Sacrament, another of 1 lb. before the image of Our Lady 
of Pity, to continue for 12 years, renewed every year. (A. 14, Jl.) 

xIva. Edward Gilford (Gruldeford) of Kolvenden. 16 October 1448. 

"Also y bequethe to y e high auter of Tenterden, iii s iiii d ." Prob. 
21 September 1449. (Lambeth Will. Keg. Abp. Stafford, fol. 175 b .) 

xlvi. Sir John Gruldeford, Kt. 20 March 149|. 

My body to be buried in the churche of Saint Mildred of 



Tentirden before the Image of the same where the resurrection of 
our Lord is made. 1 To the high auter of the seid church for tithes 
forgote, xx s . (P.C.C., 29, Doggett.) 

xlvii. Margaret Harryes, of London, " wedowe." 5 July 1490. 

" I bequeth vj torches to the parisshe churche of Tentirden in 
Kent where ynne I was cristened ; in the said churche to serve to 
the laude and posing of allemighte God and his saints as longe as 
they maye endure thereto." (P.C.C., 38, Milles.) 

xlviii. Agnes atte Hille. 11 May 1472. 

For wax candles to burn before the images of St. Mildred the 
Virgin, and St. Mark the Evangelist, 2 s . To the work of the 
tower of Tenterden, the 10 d which Robert Simpcok owes to me. 
To the use of the church, one coverlet. (A. 2, 3.) 

xlix. William Havynden. 21 April 1477. 

To the work of the church, 6 s 8 d . (A. 3, 10.) 

1. Thomas Hicks. 11 January 1522-3. 

To the buying of two images of Crispin and Crispiane for to 
stand in the church of Tenterden, 6 s 8 d . (A. 15, 7.) 

li. William Holme. 17 February 1501-2. 

To the repair of the church of Tentreden, 3 s 4 d . To the repair 
of the spring called Churchewell, 2 d . To the repair of St. Katherine 
in the church of Tentreden, 6 d . (A. 9, 6.) 

lii. John Hoore. 22 September 1469. 

To the work of the new tower of Tenterden Church, 12 d . To 
the light of St. Mary, 6 d . To the light of St. Katherine, 4 d . 
(A. 2,1.) 

liii. William Iden. 5 May 1476. 

For one " chyme " to be made in the tower of Tenterden 
5 marcs, to be received from my wood lauds at Elnothys, for this 
purpose to be sold. (A. 3, 1.) 

1 In the Guldeford pedigree (see Arch. Cant., XIV., 4) it is stated that 
Sir John Guldeford was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. In his will above 
quoted, in addition to specifying the place of his burial in Tenterden Church, 
he directed : " Also I will that at my yeres niynde be leyde on me a playne 
stone and noe tumbe, with suche epitaphe as by me or myne execut 1-1 shalbe 
devised." There is no mention of Canterbury throughout the will. Sir John 
was son of the before mentioned Edward Guldeford. 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


liv. Thomas Ilande. 23 August 1529. 

To the maintenance of Jesus Masse in Tenterden, vj s viij d , to 
be paid xx d a quarter. To the high awter for tithes and oblacions 
forgotten, ii s . (P.C.C., 11, Jankyn.) 

lv. John Ingram, of Smalhith. 23 November 1173. 

To the work of the church those 19 s which are in the hands of 
Robert Brekynden. (A. 2, 14.) 

Ivi. Thomas Jan. 14 May 1170. 

To the high altar, 8 d . To the Rector there, 6 d . To the lights 
of St. Mary, the Grreat Cross, and St. Nicholas in the church, 
6 s 8 d . (A. 1, 12.) 

lvii. William John, xxiiij yere of King Henry the viij. 

" Also I bequeth unto Saint George and Saint Xpofer iiij lb of 
wax in Tenterden churche ; this wille written w th myn owne hand 
whan I was hoole in harte and mynde." Prob. 11 February 1532-3. 
(P.C.C., 23, Thower.) 

lviii. Edward Jonys, of the Kyngs Chappell. MV C XI. 

" A m r ke for an obite at Tenterden as far as the mony will 
stretch." Prob. apud Lamehith, 30 April 1512. (P.C.C., 7, 

lix. John Lilly. 27 January 1501-5. 

To the use of the church of Tenterden two cows, the wardens 
of the church for the time being to distribute yearly on the day 
called " G-odefryday " twelve pence to twelve poor people, and any 
residue to the church. (A. 10, 1.) 

lx. John Lowdewell. 4 September 1534. 

For to buy a banner cloth of silk for the cross that is borne in 
procession every Sunday in the church, 13 s 4 d . (A. 20, 3.) 

lxi. William Leuconour, of Tenterden. 7 August 1517. 

" My body to be buried in the churche yerde of the p'isshe 
church of Saint Margaratt in Bridgestrete beside the Bridge w Ul in 
the Citie of London. Itm. I bequeth to the Churche of Saint 
Mildrede Virgyn of Tenterden foresaid vj viij d . Itm. I bequeth 
one taper of waxe of the weight of one lb. to be sett before the 
Image of Saint Erasmus in the seid church of Tenterden." (P.C.C., 
F. 33, Holder.) 



lxii. Richard Lucas. 24 September 1508. 

To the light of the Rode, 4 d . To the light of St. Katherine, 
2 d . A taper of \ lb. of wax before the image of St. John the 
Baptist in Tentreden Church. (A. 11, 2.) 

lxiii. John Moeer, Vicar of Tenterden. Palm Sunday, 1489. 

" Corpus sep'eliri in cancello Sancte Mildrede de Tentwarden 
p'dict i ... ad rep'acionem eiusdem cancelli, x s .... ad reparacionem 
navis dicte eccl'ie, xiij s iiii d ." (P.C.C., 20, Milles.) 

lxiv. Thomas Pedyll. 2 December 1507. 

To the fabric of the church, a cow. (A. 9, 10.) 

lxv. John Pelland. 30 May 1511. 

To the reparation of the said church, 40 d . To buy a new pair 
of organs for the church, 16 d . (Con. 10, 154.) 

lxvi. Bichard Pellond. 8 April 1525. 

To poor people of the parish every Groodfriday, 40 d , for the 
space of 16 years. (A. 16, 11.) 

Ixvii. Thomas Petlesdene (First Bailiff of Tenterden). 1 December 

" Corp' sep' in cancello Sancte Katerine in ecclesia de Tenter- 
dene 1 .... ad reparacionem ecclesie de Tenterden xx s . Also I 
wille that myne oder by quethe that is by hynde of the C. marcs 
to the stepille of tenterdene yerly be payde of my londes & tene- 
mentes rentes aud services as longe as it is a werkyng." (A. 1, 6.) 

lxviii. John Pett. 4 January 1489-90. 

To the fabric of the church, 3 s 4 d . To the maintenance of the 
chaplain of the Brotherhood of St. Mary in the church, at the 
disposition of the vicar, my best cow. (A. 5, 8.) 

lxix. Thomas Pette. 14 September 1494. 

To be buried in the chapel of St. Mary in the parish church of 
St. Mildred. To the reparation of the nave of the church, 10 s . 
(A. 6, 3.) 

lxx. Joan Pyers. 14 July 1471. 

To the work of the new tower of Tenterden Church, 5 marcs. 
To the repair of the high cross in the same church, 20 s . (A. 2, 1.) 

1 See Arch. Cant., XI., 376—378. 

st. Mildred's, tenterden. 


lxxi. Lawrence Phelipe. 5 March 1510-11. 

To the buying of a pair of organs for the church, 6 s 8 d . (Con. 
10, 124.) 

lxxii. Stephen Philip. 25 June 1523. 

The lights of St. Katherine, Jesus, St. Mildred, and St. Mary 
Magdalene, 4 d each. (A. 16, 2.) 

lxxiii. Thomas Sharpe. 19 January 1524-5. 

My ex'ors maintain the two tapers of Alice Grodard, my mother- 
in-law. (See will xlv.) (A. 16, 7.) 

lxxiv. Stephen Smyth, fuller. 21 January 148|. 

To the reparation of the north wall of the church, 26 s 8 d . (A. 
3, 26.) 

Ixxv. John Spert. 7 August 1500. 

To the reparation of the spring or well called the Church Well, 
6 s 8 d . (A. 8, 2.) 

lxxvi. Thomas Strekenbold. 20 March 1495-6. 

To the reparation of the nave, 6 s 8 d . To the light of the torches, 
12 d . Five marcs to the marriage of Isabelle Harold, but if she 
dies, the money to buy two silver candlesticks for the church. My 
son John to make or cause to be made and finished within three 
years next after my death, on the north side of the church of 
Tenterden, in such place as by the parishioners there can be 
thought most convenient and behovable, a sufficient vice and stayr 
inclosed of lyme and stone, and all other things to the same 
required from the ground up to the ledd in the same north side, 
with closur and covering, according as to the same unto apper- 
teynyth, as a man may easily go up in the same vice to visett and 
search the said leed in seasons needful and expedient. And if the 
said John .... in making and finishing of the said vice be 
negligent .... then my Feoffees shall sell as much of my lands 
and tenements as will perform the residue of this my will not 
fulfilled. (A. 6, 5.) 

lxxvii. George Strekenbold. 18 March 1524-5. 

Ten pounds to the reparation of the church where most needful, 
by the advice of Master Vicar, Master Bayly and his brethren the 
Jurats. (A. 16, 12.) 



lxxviii. Eobert Swoffer. 16 March 1517-8. 

To the reparation of the ornaments pertaining to the altars of 
St. Mary and St. Katherine, 16 d . To the repair of the church 
those 6 s 8 d which Eobert Preston oweth unto me. (A. 13, 10.) 

lxxix. John Tilar. 17 September 1471. 

To the work of the new tower, 3 s 4 d . For a new set of vest- 
ments for the church, £20. (A. 2, 1.) 

lxxx. Thomas Wode. 19 June 1526. 

To the buying of an ornament to serve in the church as shall be 
seen most needful and necessary by the most discreet men of the 
parish, 66 s 8 d . Twenty pounds to be bestowed in the church in or 
about the new " sealing " in the roof of the body of the church, or 
in making a new window on the north side of the high altar near 
to the image of St. Mildred. (A. 17, 7.) 

A view of the north side of the church facing the preceding 
page shews distinctly the ' Vice ' or turret before mentioned. 
Thomas Strekenbold w r as elected Bailiff of Tenterden for the years 
1476, 1481 and 1485. 

Note.— Extracts from wills proved in the Archidiaconal and Consistorial 
Courts at Canterbury have been kindly supplied by Arthur Hussey, Esq. Those 
from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury have been extracted by myself. — A.H.T. 

( 271 ) 



In the short paper on Phil. Symonson's early Map of Kent, 
which I contributed to the last Volume of Archceologia Gan- 
tiana, I had to say that I had failed to obtain any informa- 
tion concerning- him. Since then I have, through the 
kindness of Mr. A. A. Arnold, F.S.A., learnt several particu- 
lars about him and his work. 

It appears from entries in the Rochester Bridge War- 
den's accounts, which Mr. Arnold has been good enough to 
extract for me (the originals of which, by the courtesy of 
the Bridge Wardens, I have been permitted to examine), 
that Symonson was appointed ee Expenditor,"* Superinten- 
dent and Surveyor of the Bridge and Bridge Estates, and 
was also employed to " plot " several of the latter. He was 
appointed at Whitsuntide 1592, and held the office until his 
death on the 30th of September 1598. 

The Bridge Wardens still possess three plans of certain 
of their estates, all, apparently, made by him. They are 
Nashenden and Little Delce, the Manor of Langdon (near 
Faversham), and Lands near Dartford. The "plot" of 
the Warden's estate at Tilbury in Essex, though referred to 
in the accounts, is not now to be found. 

That Symonson was a man of local importance is shewn 
by the fact that he was Mayor of Rochester for the year 
1597-8. He succeeded a Mr. Richard Harlowe as "Expen- 
ditor for the Bridge," who was Mayor for the years 1570, 
1571, 1573, 1578, 1579 and 1586. 

* More particularly an officer appointed to expend or disburse money col- 
lected by tax for repairs of sewers ; in this case for repairs to Rochester Bridge. 



The following- are the references to Phil. Symonson and 
his office that appear in the Bridge Warden's accounts, as 
extracted by Mr. Arnold : — 

Account for the year, from Whitsuntide 1591 to Whitsuntide 
1592. (Vol. II.) 

[The following is the first reference to Symonson, and is entered 
on an almost hlank page near the end of the account, and in a 
different hand from what precedes or follows it. Mr. Arnold sug- 
gests that it may be very likely in the handwriting of Symonson 

Hue usq. M 1 ' (sic) Richardus Harlowe, qui obiit Mortem die 
Mercurii viz. xxi mo die Februarii Anno domini juxta computacoem 
Ecclie Anglicanse 1592 Annoq. regni Dne Kegniae (sic) Elizabethan 
nunc tricesimo quinto, et sepultus fuit die Saturni viz. xxiiij to die 
men sis supradicti in Ecclia Cath. Roffien.* 

Et Philippus Simonson (sic), generosus, predicti Richardi offi- 
cium expenditoris pro ponte Roffense die et anno ult. suprascriptis 
in manus suas coepit ex dono et concessione gardianor et communi r 
tatis Pontis predict. 

1592- 3. Paid to Phillip Symonson, gentleman, for his fee, due 
unto him at this present accompt heretofore granted to him 
for his paynes in Sounding the gullets, and furnishing the 
Bridge with chalke, the sum of . . . iij li vi s viij d 

1593- 4. (Vol. iii.) Paid to Phillip Symonson, gent., for his fee 
for his paynes taking about the affairs of the Bridge, the 
sum of . . . . . . . x 11 

1594- 5. [Thomas Fludd and William Lambard, Wardens for the 
year.] Paid to Phillip Symondson (sic), gent., paye master of 
the Bridge work, for his fee . . . . x h 

Paid and allowed to the said Phillip Symons (sic) for his paynes in 
plotting ye Manorsf of Nash end en and Little Delce in Kent, 
and for the Manor of East Tilberye in Essex, and for a survey 

* There exists no record of his burial in the Cathedral so far as can be 

f These Manors still belong to the Wardens, 

Further notes on phil. symonson. 273 

and certificat to be made of the Stadles* in the Coppis 
wooddes and hedge rows of Nashendyn and Delce aforesaid, 
to be exhibited at the next generall assembly of the Wardens 
and Assistants ..... vi u viij s iiij d 

[After the closing of the account and, evidently, an addition 
made at the time, there is this entry : — ] 

And at the present Audit it was granted that the said Phillip 
Symondson (sic) shall have for compensation (?) yearlie liii s iiij d 
(durante complacito) for marking and surveying the tymber trees 
and Standels* standing and to be left withyn the coppess woodes 
and grounds of Nasshendyn and Little Delce, and for exhibiting it 
(sic) at the daye of Audit a declaration of the true estate of them. 

1595-G. To M r Phillip Simonson for his fee due unto him at this 
present Audit the some of . . . x u 

To him more for his paynes in taking about the over-seeing 
and looking to the Bridge woodes for the preservation of the 
Tymber . . . . . . liij s iiijd 

Phillip Symonson, gent., prayeth to be allowed the some of xix 11 
xviij 8 ix l1 ob., which was in surplusage on the foote of the 
accompte begynnyng 1593 and endyng 1594, for the which 
some he hath not since had any allowance by reason the same 
was not demanded in the last accompte . xix H xviij s ix d 

More for foure loades of Chalk at 5 s the loade, also omitted at the 
last accompte ' . . ' . . . xx s 

More for horse-hier for Richard Wood, travelling for the Shepey 
rent ....... iij s 

More for two plots of the Manor of Langdon and the bridge lande 
in Dartford . . ... . . liij s ij d 

1596-7. Paid to Phillip Simonson, gent., for his fee due unto him 
this present Audit . . . . . x 1 ' 

To him more for his paynes in over-seeing and looking to the 
Bridge Woodes for the preservation of the tymber liij s iiij d 

* Stadle : " The root or stump of a tree, that has been felled, left by the 
wood-cutters for the next crop of underwood to grow from;" "standel," young 
timber trees that are usually left in the felling of copses." (Wright's E. IX D.) 


1 597- 8. The like two entries for this year . . x l1 

liij s 

1598- 9. Paid unto M 1S Symonson for the fee due to her said 
husband from the eight day of June 1598 unto the xxx th 
daie of September then next following, on which daie he 
died ...... iiij 11 iiij s iiij d 

I should mention that my statement that " I had not 
come across a coloured impression of Symonson's Map as 
mentioned in the original f Description ' " should have had 
a note attached to it, to the effect that "colour" as used 
in the " Description " meant only contrast of light and dark, 
i.e., shading. 

It may be noted that a certain Thomas Symondson was 
Head Master of the Maidstone Grammar School and a 
member of the Maidstone Common Council in 1585, and 
it is more than likely that he was a relative of the map 

( 275 ) 



Twydall. — For some years past chalk for cement-making 
purposes has been excavated in the orchards of Twydall (pro- 
nounced " Twiddle ") on the property of Mr. Walter Stunt, of 
Lorrenden, Faversham, and the material conveyed away to be 
manufactured at the Sharp's Green Cement Works, which are 
situate along the shore of the river Medway. 

In order to facilitate the removal of the chalk a light tramway 
was laid down, which runs from the quarry through a short tunnel 
under the " Lower Road to Eainham " to the river. Towards the 
river the " saltings " necessitated a formidable causeway being 
constructed across the marshy ground so that the engine and 
trucks might proceed clear of the tides. All this is clearly set 
forth in the accompanying plan. The whole of the material, useless 
for cement-making, w r as conveyed to the marsh, not only for the 
erection of the causeway, but also for the gradual filling up and 
levelling of the " saltings " adjoining. While all this was pro- 
ceeding the daily tides, especially in rough weather, played havoc 
with the sides of the causeway, washing out the flints and loose 
earth, distributing it upon the mud-flats on either side for some 
hundred and fifty yards, converting them into a stony beach. Upon 
this newly-made shore my trusted scout, Greorge Baker, and I found 
during the year 1908 several hundreds of flint implements of various 
forms and types. Now all these flints were brought down with 
other material from the quarry as already stated, the position of 
which is indicated by the irregular line upon the plan beyond the 
word " Tramway." During the removal of the " callow " along the 
eastern face of the quarry a large filled-up cavity in the chalk rock 
beneath was broken through and the greater part utterly destroyed ; 
that portion which remained was cleared out uuder my directions, 
but nothing was found except several burnt flints (pot-boilers) 
towards the floor. My impression was, and still is, that the 

t 2 


majority of the implements we found came from this chamber; but 
no man could prove it. The quarry men had been singularly unob- 
servant, and. had not even noticed the weapons and tools which they 
must have seen daily clattering down into the trucks forty or fifty 
feet below. 

The greater part of the implements we discovered are as fresh 
as the day they were made ; the remainder, which are slightly water- 
worn, doubtless became so by being subjected to several years 
of grinding upon the flint-strewn mud-flats at the base of the 

I am tempted to write much more upon this discovery, but in 
the utter absence of substantial evidence my remarks would be 
purely theoretical, and as I prefer to deal only with facts the matter 
must be left for the present. 

The importance of the site in close proximity to the Lower Road 
to Bainham cannot be over-estimated. Of that ancient way and its 
relation to other discoveries in the neighbourhood I have written at 
great length in Collectanea Cantiana, pp. 155, 159—163, to which the 
reader must be referred. Since that was written every year or two 
has furnished further proof of the statements made therein. 
During recent years hundreds of flint implements have been found 
by my friend the late Mr. Richard Jones, of Welling, npon the 
lands around Twydall, all of which he generously bequeathed to 
the Rochester Museum. 

The accompanying plates contain a fairly representative series 
of the types from Twydall, which with few exceptions are of 
palaeolithic age ; the small scrapers and thumb-flint shewn upon 
Plate YII. doubtless belong to the neolithic period and probably 
came down in the surface soil. The measurements are given in 

Plate I. 

Length. Width. 

1. Axe, ochreous - 9 4 

2. „ black-brown - - - 8§ 4^ 

3. light brown. Skin of 

the flint left on the butt - 8f 3| 

Plate II. 

4. Axe, drab - 8 3£ 

5. „ grey - 7| 4 

6. „ brown, freckled flint - 8 4-j 

Researches and discoveries in kent. 27? 

Plate III. 

Length. Width. 

7. Axe, ochreous ... Gi 4 

8. „ brown ... - Gi 3^ 

Both these axes have straight edges. 

9. Weapon well worked on both 

sides, and is 2 inches in 

thickness in the centre - Gi 4| 

Plate IV. 

10. Celt, grey freckled flint. Skin 
of the flint left partially on 

the butt - 



11. Celt, grey . 



12 drab .... 


13. o- rev - 



T) T . „,-, "17" 


14. Celt, grey ... - 



15. „ ovate, brown 



16. „ grey - 



17. „ brownish with milky veins 


Plate VI. 

18. Celt, pear-shaped, grey with 

milky veins 


19. Celt, pear-shaped, brown 



20. „ pear-shaped, ochreous, 

rough butt 



21. Celt, pear-shaped, ochreous, 

flat on one side. Several of 

this type found - 



22. Celt, ovate, drab - 



23. „ ovate, brown - 



24. „ oval, grey 



25. ,, pear-shaped - 

' 31 


2G. ,, pear-shaped, brown 



27. ,, curved peat* form, brown 


28. „ blaek-brown - 




Plate VII. 



29; Scraper, black 


30. Fabricator, black - 


31. Scraper, black 



32. Thumb-flint or circular scraper 



33. Scraper, black ... 


34. Kite-shaped weapon, ochreous 

freckled flint - 



35. Scraper, black 



36. ,, brown - 



37. ,, brown - 



38. ,, brown 



39. „ brown. Many of these 

found - 



With the exception of No. 34 these are all neolithic. 

A large number of rough, or unfinished implements were met 
with, and several flints of very tough character left rough at the 
butt, but all worked on both sides at the point, which would have 
served the purpose of knapping tools in the fashioning of weapons. 

Many large natural flints occurred : oblong blocks of great 
weight. One saved as a specimen measured 9| X 5| inches and 
3 inches thick. These were all stained with oxide of iron, and as 
the majority of the implements present the same tough charac- 
teristics and are of the same colour, one was naturally led to the 
conclusion that they were fashioned out of similar blocks of flint. 

Having described and illustrated a few of the more noteworthy 
types in this collection, it gives me pleasure to record that their 
discovery was entirely due in the first instance to Mr. Greorge 
Baker, whose quick intelligence enabled him to grasp the various 
lessons I had previously given him in the art of detecting imple- 
ments fashioned from flints by early Man. We worked together 
subsequently in the field for many months at convenient oppor- 
tunities, and I hope the vast experience he then gained will be 
profitable to him in after life. To my friend, Mr. Walter Stunt, 
I am especially indebted for freely allowing me to overrun his 
lands, and to retain for the Rochester Museum all that was, or 
might be discovered at Twydail and elsewhere upon his property. 

On Plate VIII. is figured a superb implement of the finest 
workmanship recently found near Knight's Place, Cuxton ; length 
104 inches, 3 inches wide. 

PLATE Till. 


Rochester. — In 1912, during the extension of Messrs. Charles 
Leonard & Sons' premises in the High Street on the site of the 
house and garden lately occupied by Mr. Greorge Neves, the garden 
in rear was excavated to a depth of about 18 feet, revealing 
numerous objects of Eoman and later date, all of which by the 
courtesy of the Messrs. Leonard I was able to acquire and retain 
for the Eo Chester Museum. The Eoman level was reached at 
10 feet, which is double the depth of the usual measurement. 
From this stratum several vessels of pottery, eighteen coins and 
other objects were obtained. 

The coins are as follows : — 

xintoninus Pius - - - middle brass 1 

Claudius Grothicus - - small brass 1 

Carausius - ,, 1 

C onstan tine the Great - ,, 2 

Eeverse: A celestial globe placed on a cippus 
inscribed VOTIS-XX, stars above, BEAT A TE AN- 
QVILLITAS. PTE (Treves mint mark). 

Another from the same mint bears on the reverse two 
soldiers with spears, a military ensign between them. 
GLOEIA EXEECITVS small brass 1 

Julius Crispus - ,, 2 

Eeverse : VOTX within a wreath C^ESAEVM 
NOSTEOEVM. PLON (Mint mark of Lon- 
dmium) ; the second was minted at Thessalonica 
(TSA . . .). 

Constantine II. - - - small brass 2 

Eeverse: Globe, cippus, stars, etc. Mint mark 

Constantine Grallus - - middle brass 1 

Eeverse: EEL(zV) TEM.¥(orum) EEPAEA- 
TIO. A military figure pierces with a spear a 
prostrate horse and its rider. A (1st mint) PAEL 
(money struck at Aries) . 

Constantius II. - - - small brass 1 

soldiers with spears, between them two military 
ensigns, a star over P CONST (Constantinople 
mint) . 


Arcadius - small brass 1 

Ecverse: VICTORIA A V GrGrGr. Victory 
standing on a human -beaded serpent and holding 
in right hand a cross and globe (?). T CON (mint 
mark) . 

Undecipherable - o 


At the same level as the coins occurred a bronze cloak-pin with 
sliding ring at the head, a bronze nail-pick, and a bone netting- 
needle, measuring 4|, 2 and 4| inches in length respectively. 

The pottery found consisted of — 

Diameter Diameter Diameter 
Height, of bulge, of base, of neck. 

A good goblet of reddish 





ware with handle - 





Vase of Upchurch ware 




and two other small Upchurch vases. 

The articles of later periods, ranging from the sixteenth to the 
nineteenth century, included posset pots, pipkins, portions of glass 
rummers, and glass wine and spirit flagons. 

Hoo-ness Marsh, 1912. — During sea-walling operations on the 
river-front opposite Hoo by the Chatham Dockyard authorities, 
Roman interments were met with about four feet below the level of 
the marshes, consisting of cinerary urns, vases, and a few paterae 
of pseudo-Samian ware, the latter being in an excellent state of 
preservation. This marsh lies about a mile from Hoo St. Werburgh 
Church in a south-westerly direction. The " saltings are bounded 
on the north by creeks dividing them from the mainland, on the 
west by Short Reach, on the south by Gillingham Reach, and 
on the east by Pump Reach — all "reaches" of the Medway. 
During the operations— through the kindness of my friend, 
Mr. H. E. Oakley, Superintending Civil Engineer of the Dockyard 
— every facility by water and otherwise was afforded me of watch- 
ing the excavations. As the work proceeded clear indications were 
noticed of earlier marsh-levels much below that now existing, 
pointing to either a change in the level of the land in these parts 
or a great increase in the tidal influence of the river Medway. 


Beidgewoods, near Eochester, 1913.— In widening a road in 
these woods called " Colepit " or " Copit " lane on its eastern side, 
when the bank was cut back a Roman interment came to light, the 
skeleton being accompanied by two vases, both of which were 
smashed by the workmen ; the fragments of one of them shewed 
that it was decorated with a scroll of yellow colouring. The skull 
was submitted to Professor Karl Pearson, of University College, 
London, who most kindly furnished the writer with the following 
measurements of it. 

Profile angles. 





fnl = 33.8 (?) 1 

fml = 30.7 (?) J ^vameu. 

W 1 = 110 
W 2 = 92.5 
22 = damaged 
L' == damaged 

B/L Cephalic = 77.9 
H/L = 69.8" 

" The skull, I think, is that of an old man." 
The presence of this grave by the side of the lane suggests 
the antiquity of the way, but on the other hand the Rochester- 
Maidstone road is only a few yards distant, hence the grave may 
relate to that road. 

Bakstsole, G-illingham, 1913. — This property lies between the 
Lower Road to Rainham and the main (London to Dover) road to 
that place ; through it from north to south runs an ancient way 
called " Barnsole Lane." This estate has recently been laid out for 
building purposes and the old lane widened. During the laying of 
water-mains along the road a Roman interment occurred at six feet 
from the surface, the large cinerary urn containing calcined bones 
which the writer unearthed ; any other objects that might have 
accompanied it must have been destroyed by the workmen during 
the excavation of a " man-hole " at the spot, which was large 
enough to enable the following section to be taken : — 

feet. inches. 

1. Vegetable mould - 2 6 

2. Black burnt earth - — 2 

3. Mould - - - - 1 1 

4. Burnt earth containing debris of animal 

bones - - - - — 6 

5. Mould containing the sepulchral deposit 2 10 

6. Natural chalk ----- — — 

The charred earth and mammalian remains are suggestive of 
funeral rites, and there was everything to indicate that the body 
had been cremated close to the spot where the remains were after- 
wards buried. The opening out of further ground would have so 
interfered with the drainage operations that one did not suggest 
it, otherwise more light would have been thrown upon the 
matter. I am indebted to Mr. W. M. Newton, juur., for prompt 


notice of this discovery, and to Mr. Redfern, Surveyor to the 
Grillingham Corporation, for valuable help rendered. 

Richborotjgh. — Mr. W . Denne, of Heme Bay, kindly sends 
particulars of the discovery of a fine gold coin of Honorius, said 
to have been found in a grave accompanying a skeleton covered 
over with tiles. It appears that Mr. Solley, the caretaker at 
the castrum, was present at the time of the discovery and pointed 
out the site to Mr. Denne as on the eastern side within its walls, 
a statement which I am bound to say is open to doubt. The 
presence of a coin in the grave does not prove that it was placed 
there at the time of the interment. The soil at Richborough has 
always yielded innumerable coins, hence it would be an easy 
matter for one or more to be accidentally thrown in when the 
grave space was filled in, and moreover the custom of burying the 
" obolus " with the deceased does not seem to have been in vogue 
in Kent at any rate. The coin is now deposited at the Beaney 
Institute, Canterbury, and a good rubbing of it was kindly taken 
by Mr. Mead, the City Librarian ; this I forwarded to Mr. Gr. F. 
Hill, M.A., Keeper of Coins and Medals at the British Museum 
who favoured me with the following description : — 

"The coin of Honorius reads COMOB in the exergue and 
MD in the field of the reverse. COMOB is for COM(itis) 
OB(ryziacus solidus) — i.e., solidus of refined gold issued under 
the supervision of the Comes, the official in charge of the 
coinage in the Western Empire. MD is the mint mark 

Deal District. — My friend Mr. Charles Newington kindly 
communicates the following note of discoveries in his neigh- 

At Mongeham during excavations for gravel a Celtic urn was 
met with, and at another pit three bronze Jib nice and an urn. From 
the Roman cemetery in front of Upper Walmer Church during 
main drainage works a skeleton, Roman pottery and other frag- 
ments were met with. 

At Deal a Roman vessel and portions of other urns were 
found in a stone pit above Knight's Bottom. 

At Gruston a remarkably fine and perfect neolithic adze-blade 
came to light, polished at the cutting edge and along the sides ; 
length 8f inches, If inch wide and f of an inch thick. 


Newnha.m: Valley.— Ia the valley west of Syndale Park, 
Ospringe, for some years gravel has been excavated at a great depth. 
In the summer of 1913, through the kindness of Mr. Charles 
H. Drake, of Faversham, I was informed that discoveries were 
being made at the pits of Roman interments, resulting in my making 
many visits there. Unfortunately the gravel was water-worn to 
such an extent and the stones so rounded by attrition that the 
slightest touch of the pickaxe brought down barrow-loads of 
material at a time, bringing w r ith it the fragile contents of the six 
graves met with, thus rendering it impossible to make accurate 
notes of the disposition of the objects they contained. All one 
could do was to gather up the fragments from the wreckage of 
each grave, and after sorting them out make the following notes : — 

Grave 1. A small vase with two handles of elegant form of a 
red-brown ware, the lip and handle of a small glass jug, a glass 
unguent phial, the fragments of a bronze vessel and a black dish 
containing calcined bones. 

Grave 2. Two paterae and three cups of pseudo-Samian ware, 
and a black patera. 

Grave 3. Two buff goblets, a black patera with flat rim, a 
pseudo-Samian patera, a black cinerary urn containing calcined 
bones, and scraps of two other pots. 

Grave 4. Black urn containing calcined bones and two black 

Grrave 5. Black urn with calcined bones, and a red vase. 

Grrave 6. Black urn with calcined bones, a red goblet, a red 
patera, a black patera, two black vases of Upchurch ware, and two 
other vases of black ware. 

Graves 3, 4, 5 and 6 were in close proximity to each other. 
No. 1 was six feet from them, and at a distance of twenty-three 
feet No. 2 was met with. 

The site of this burial-place is about fifty yards from the road 
running at the bottom of the valley from the London road at Syn- 
dale through Newnham, Doddington to Ringlestone, and close to 
the great oppidum in Syndale Park. For further particulars of 
this ancient road the reader is referred to my Collectanea Cantiana, 
pp. 165 — 9. For valuable help in connection with these discoveries 
I am indebted to Captain George Wheler (21st Lancers), of 
Ospringe Place, the owner of the property j to Mr. Win. Whiting 
of Ospringe ; and the Rev. Robt. Wyllie, who took away daily, for 
safety, to the Old Vicarage, near at hand, the objects enumerated. 


Rochester. — Gill's barge building yard, next Acorn wharf, 
having been closed for some time, the writer embraced the oppor- 
tunity afforded by prosecuting further research into the history of 
the Roman wall of the city at its northern angle by the river 
Meclway. Mr. Herbert Gill kindly consented to excavations being 
carried out, and Mr. W. Banks, A.M.I.C.E., the City Surveyor, 
favoured me by arranging that a man should be spared for the 
work. In the writer's account of the identification of the Roman 
Wall of Rochester (Arcliaeologia Cant tana, Vol. XXL), at page 8 
reference was made to the existence of a bonding course of tiles in 
the wall at the north end, which he had seen below ground. As a 
result of our present operations, we are now able to give an illus- 
tration, from a photograph, of the continuation of this feature in 
the masonry, which clearly shews the course of tiles in situ. The 
main object in referring to this section is to place on record the 
fact, not ascertainable before, that this northern wall was found to 
continue much further towards the river than our previous 
researches revealed, but how far could not be determined, as it 
appeared to have been broken down to a great depth ; hence our 
work was brought to a termination by the oozing up of the tide, 
and had to be abandoned. 

ITpchurch Marshes.— After the death of the late Mr. Robert 
Elliott of CamberweU, his daughter placed in my hands his note 
book, which contains a meagre account of his extensive collection 
of pottery and other objects that he spent many years of his life 
in gathering together from London, Kent, and elsewhere. In that 
book he records the discovery, in 1883-4-5, of three Roman kilns 
in the Upchurch marshes, from which he obtained about a dozen 
urns, vases and paterae, of which he gives the dimensions. With 
regard to the kilns, unfortunately he gives no particulars, which 
would have been useful, especially in these days when doubt has 
been expressed, in some quarters, as to the manufacture of pottery 
by the Romans in that locality, in spite of all that has been written 
upon the subject. My friend Mr. Seymour Wakeley of Rainham 
has recently, at considerable cost, revived the pottery-making 
industry upon the ancient site, selecting a spot, to begin with, a 
mile north of the parish church, and has met with marked success 
in the production of glazed ware suitable for table and decorative 
purposes. The clay used is found two or three feet below the 
surface of the marsh, and Mr, Wakeley further states that his 


workmen have come upon the remains of Roman kilns and 
numerous fragments of pottery during the progress of their 

Hoo St. Werbtjrgh.— My friend Mr. J. J. Robson, M.I.C.E., 
kindly sends an account of Roman discoveries in this parish not 
hitherto recorded, which we give in his own words accompanied by 
a plan reproduced from the Ordnance Survey. Of the Greek coin 
he refers to, Mr. G. E. Hill favours us with the following 
description : — 

" Your coin is a tetradrachm (silver) of Philip II. of Macedon 
(359 — 336 B.C.) ; obverse, Head of Zeus, laureate, r. ; reverse, 
<MAIPPOY. Jockey on horseback, r., holding palm branch : below 
a small thunderbolt. Weight, 221.4 grs. troy." This is the 
second Greek coin found in Kent which has come under my 
notice. The first was a gold stater, also of Philip, on the reverse 
of which was a Victory driving a quadriga, found in the neighbour- 
hood of Sittingbourne. 

Ash, near Weotham. — Mr. George Day kindly informs me 
of the discovery in 1914 upon his farm of foundations of a 
Roman building covering a considerable space of ground. I have 
been unable personally to visit the spot, but Mr. E. C. Touens, 
our honorary photographer, has favoured me with a plan of what 
has been uncovered by members of the Dartford Antiquarian 
Society, which shews foundations of walls extending upwards of 
a hundred feet in length by fifty-four feet in width, divided up 
into several rooms at one end. Mr. Youens states that much 
broken pottery was met with during the excavation. We may 
look for a further report later on from the Dartford Society. 




Before the introduction of railways, population and trade 
usually followed the rivers prior to the construction of roads. 

There is little doubt that ancient Hoo stood on the banks of 
the river Medway on Hoo Creek, or between there and Cookham 
Woods. In confirmation of this opinion it should be noted that 
the ancient entrance of Hoo Church is on the south side facing the 
river, the present entrance porch on the north side having been 
built at a more recent period after the present village had been 
built on the main roads, the ancient porch being then converted 
into a vestry. 

It is evident that the parish of Hoo St. Werburgh was the most 
important in the Rochester district in Saxon times, inasmuch as it 
was the largest contributory parish to the maintenance of 
Rochester Bridge (Chatham being the smallest). 

From the earliest times the position of Hoo on the river 
Medway has been one of strategic value : it is therefore not 
surprising that the Romans after having fortified the city of 
Rochester, and built a bridge across the Medway, should establish 
a camp or outpost at this point. 

The top soil of the fields marked Nos. 451 and 184 on the 
Ordnance Survey contains much broken pottery of Roman origin, 
viz., broken roof tiles, pottery, etc. In some instances the roof 
tiles have been dug out in perfect condition, whilst much of the 
pottery had been beautifully glazed, but none had figures or 
ornamental enrichment. 

In one case a Roman roof tile had the perfect impress of a dog's 
foot, which must have been made when the clay was soft prior to 
drying and burning, and which doubtless provoked some strong 
language from the Roman brickmaker (in Latin of course). 

The Roman cemetery was situated in field No. 451 on the 
Ordnance Survey, about 100 yards south of the roadway on the 
north side, and the same distance from the hedge on the west side, 


The cinerary urns were found in the bottom of a straight trench 
running north and south about 3 ft. 6 in. deep from the surface, 
which had been filled with top-soil, In most cases the urns were 
very underburnt and fell to pieces on exposure to the atmosphere, 
whilst others were in a better condition, but were promptly broken 
by the workmen to see what they contained. In one urn it was 
rumoured they had found a snake bracelet which looked like gold, 
so they ' tested it by breaking it into pieces, which they threw 
away. This statement may be received with caution ; in all 
probability they sold it. 

All the urns contained calcined bones and ashes which the 
men scattered abroad ; the urns were of various sizes, some being 
quite small as though for children, and in one or two cases 
very large. 

The author endeavoured to stop their destruction, but only 
partially succeeded. One very large urn was preserved intact, 
and presented to the late Mr. Gr. M. Arnold for his collection at 
Milton Hall, this being prior to the establishment of the Rochester 

The discovery of these remains took place in 1894, when the 
brick earth was being excavated for brickmaking in the Hoo Lodge 

All these Roman urns had been turned on a potter's " wheel," 
but a more interesting discovery was that of a small burnt clay 
box, about 12 in. by 10 in., covered with a flat tile, containing 
calcined bones, which was found at a lower level than the urns in 
the same trench, denoting an earlier origin. This was preserved 
by the writer for many years, but ultimately lost. 

In the winter of 1895, whilst digging drains to carry off rain- 
water from the villa-grounds on the west side of the tramway, 
foundations of permanent buildings were discovered at a few feet 
below the surface, but owing to the presence of a large quantity of 
water the operations were stopped. Their position would be about 
60 yards west of the tramway shewn on the Ordnance Survey, and 
30 yards from the footpath on the bank of the river. 

In the opinion of the writer, this is about the site of the ancient 
Roman villa or settlement. 

In the year 1903 a silver coin was found in the brickfield, 
which had doubtless been excavated with the soil overlying the 
brick earth. It is in excellent preservation, and has been pro- 
nounced by experts to be a " drachma " of Philip of Macedon, 


b.c, 359 (father of Alexander the Great). This com has had very 
little wear, and must have been practically new when brought to 
this country and lost. It has been presented by the writer to the 
Rochester Museum. We may certainly accept this incident as 
corroborative proof of the Roman occupation, but why not go back 
a little further and conclude that the Phoenicians traded here 
before the Roman occupation. 

Indeed, may not the Romans have heard of Britain from the 
Phoenicians, whose trade they coveted, but lacking their knowledge 
of navigation, were compelled to wait until their conquest of Gaul 
placed them within sight of this country. 





We have received the following interesting communication from 
Dr. C. Cotton:— 

Accident has lately brought to my notice a short length of 
walling within the precincts of St. Augustine's Abbey at Canter- 
bury, which may well be contemporary with the original foun- 
dation of that monastery. 

The wall in question has at its western extremity the north- 
eastern angle of the cemetery gate of the Abbey bonded into it. 
This gate formerly faced the Burgh gate of the city, with the 
Burgate way (now Church Street) lying between the two gates. 

In post-Dissolution times this wall served as a partition 
between the garden of the house* formed out of the cemetery 
gate and that part of the conventual buildings which in Tudor 
times was fitted up as a lloyal Palace, and which after many 
vicissitudes became in the last century the Missionary College of 
St. Augustine. 

On its southern side this w r all for a length of 96 feet is built 
entirely of narrow red bricks, laid in even courses, the joints being 
filled with a very hard white mortar, the work being in all respects 
almost exactly similar to that found in the ruined church of 
St. Pancras, a little further to the east. The northern face of the 
wall, however, has been refaced — probably in Tudor times — with 
flint work mixed with ashlar stone taken from the monastic 
buildings, and it is to the fact that the southern side was only to 
be seen from the private garden of the Gatehouse before mentioned 
that the early masonry displayed here has hitherto escaped notice. 

The height of the wall from the ground level to the ridge of 

* The Gatehouse has been purchased recently by the College, and by the 
courtesy of the Rev. R. U. Potts, Sub-warden, I was permitted to inspect it 
and the garden, where I at once noticed the great antiquity of this piece 
of walling. 

\_E. C. Youens, Dartford. 



the coping is 8 ft. 6 in., and a hole sunk to discover its footing 
shewed that this was now 8 ft. 3 in. "below the present surface of 
the ground. The level, however, of all this part of the monastic 
precinct has been raised many feet above the level of Longport 
Street, which bounds the garden to the south, owing to the fact 
that for centuries the ground here was used as a cemetery for 
those parishes in the city which did not possess burial grounds 
attached to their churches. 

Leland says that even during the Roman occupation this 
locality was used as a burial ground, since, in his Collectanea 
(Hearn's Edition, 1774, vol. iv., p. 9), he writes: "Near by the 
chapel of St. Pancras within the holy cemetery was discovered an 
urn, in which a heart was hidden. All this place, from both gates 
of the monastery of St. Augustine as far as the ditch which 
adjoins the walls of the city, was the area of a very old cemetery, 
which at this time is well covered with a great number of buildings. 
A short time ago was discovered here an urn, in which, from an 
inscription upon it, was hidden a body." 

It would appear that Leland here is quoting from Groscelin, 
who was present in Canterbury at the translation of the relics of 
St. Austin on 6th September 1091, of which he wrote an account. 
He also wrote a life of St. Austin, of Canterbury, taken, he tells 
us, from ancient records, hence he was doubtless familiar with the 
locality of the monastery ; at any rate, a Roman burial ground 
outside the city gate would be quite in accordance with custom. 
Bede states that one of the foremost objects which Augustine had 
in view when erecting the church of SS. Peter and Paul was that 
it should serve as a burial place for the kings of Kent and the 
bishops of Canterbury. 

Ethelbert's charter gives as the southern boundary of the 
monastery (as originally laid out by Augustine), "the Burgate 
way,"* and it seems likely that the road at one time led in a 
direct line from Burgate to St. Martin's Hill, and that at some 
subsequent date, in order to enlarge the monastic precincts, the 

* This charter purports to be dated 605. It is regarded by Mr. de Grey 
Birch as of doubtful authenticity. It was, however, produced at London 
before Archbishop Richard and others in the year 1181, and therefore may be 
quoted here with reference to the boundaries of the abbey at that date. The 
clause which bears on present purpose is the following- : Cl This land is sur- 
rounded by these bounds : on the east by the church of St. Martin ; on the south 
by the Burgate way ; on the west and north by Drouting Street. " Thus at this 
date we have the Towngate of the city mentioned, and its street or way as 
bounding the south side of the abbey precinct, 

xi 2 


road was diverted further south, so as to form a right angle on 
entering Longport. This diversion may have been carried out in 
the twelfth century, since we learn from Gervase that in 1185 
Archbishop Baldwin visited the monastery and consecrated two 
cemeteries there, though no mention is made of their exact position. 
There were cemeteries both for the religious and laity here from 
the time of St. Austin, and Baldwin may merely have been 
enlarging the existing burial grounds. 

Somner, writing in 1640, says : " By this gate (Burgate) lies 
the road between the city and Sandwich and the bordering parts, 
and that only by Longport at this day (1640), whereas in former 
time there was also a common foot- way lying through St. Augustine's 
churchyard, by the gate at either end, the one yet standing against 
St. Paul's Street, called Church Street, at the one end (The 
Cemetery Gate), and the other directly opposite to it, where a new 
gate was lately made (still there 1914) opening into St. Martin's 
Street. Besides tradition, which retains the memory of this 
common way, the wills of some of our townsmen buried in 
St. Augustine's said churchyard make mention of it by appointing 
and laying out their burial in the ' Cemetery of St. Augustine in 
the Highway ' and the like." And he goes on to mention a law 
suit between the monks and the citizens, concerning boundaries 
occasioned by the monks barring the way against the Mayor and 
citizens in the time of Henry VI. 

The case apparently went against the monks, since that part of 
the precinct on the south side adjoining to the public high road of 
Longport has always been within the jurisdiction of the city, while 
the rest of the Abbey precinct is within the jurisdiction of the 
justices of the county. 

The common way, however, through the churchyard was still a 
common way in Somner's time, and according to most topo- 
graphical writers, was the earliest public road from Canterbury 
to Sandwich, and if so, the old wall bounding its northern side 
just through the cemetery gate may well be part of the wall 
enclosing the monastic property in St. Austin's own time. Its 
materials, its mode of construction, its height, the way the cemetery 
gate is built into the wall, and not the wall into the gate, and lastly 
its alignment with the north side of Burgate Street and Church 
Street, and the directness with which it trends to the road up 
St. Martin's Hill, all go to prove its extreme antiquity. It is to 
be hoped that further excavations will be made in the hospital 

Researches an!> discoveries in rent. 293 

grounds towards the east, with a view of ascertaining whether the 
foundations of this wall extend in the direction of St. Martin's 
Street, since their existence would considerably strengthen the 
theory here put forward. 

I may mention that the wall was seen by Sir William St. John 
Hope, who writes to me under date of December 14th, 1913, as 
follows : " Both the material and manner of building justify the 
claim for a very early date for the wall at St. Austin's, and I do not 
see why it should not be practically contemporary with the chapel of 
St. Pancras, which it seems to have enclosed. The eastern con- 
tinuation of it might be sought in the hospital grounds." 

Charles Cotton. 




It will probably interest the members of the Kent Archaeological 
Society to hear something about the remarkable discoveries that 
have lately been made at Canterbury in the Church of St. Austin's 

Some months ago it was thought advisable to remove the layer 
of earth which marked the level of the monks' quire at the Suppres- 
sion and to excavate beneath it for traces of earlier buildings. The 
result was quite unexpected, for there were gradually disclosed the 
foundations or lower parts of huge piers, and part of the encircling 
wall of the surrounding ambulatory of a large circular structure. 
It underlay the area of the crossing and of the first three bays of 
the nave, and extended north and south into the aisles and transept. 
Further investigations shewed that the principal area was over 
24 feet in diameter, that it was surrounded by eight piers nearly 
9 feet through for a continuous circular arcade, and that the 
ambulatory wall was eight sided externally. The total width was 
about 70 feet. 

Since this building was everywhere overlaid by the work of 
Abbot Scotland, who built the crypt, presbytery, tower, transepts 
and quire between 1073 — 1087, it is obviously of earlier date ; and 
there are both historical and architectural reasons for assuming it 
to be " the new work " begun by Abbot Wulfric between 1056 and 
his death in 1059. We are told that he raised the walls and 
constructed piers and arches, and that " Kent rejoiced in the new 
work, although the inexperience of the builders made it unsuitable 
for monastic habitations." It was for this reason perhaps that 
Abbot Scotland pulled down the unfinished structure, which seems 
to have been built upon the site of the former presbytery. 

In any case, the raising of such a work in the eleventh century 
while St. Edward was King of England is a very exceptional 


circumstance, and when its remains have been uncovered a little 
further measures can perhaps be taken for the permanent exposure 
of one of the most remarkable ecclesiastical buildings in England. 

But the recovery of the plan of Abbot Wulfric's round tower, 
as we may perhaps call it, does not exhaust the recent discoveries. 
It has for a long time been an article of belief with some of us that 
whenever the opportunity should present itself there would be 
found under the floor-level of the Norman nave the remains of the 
very church which was begun for St. Austin himself in the year 
598 by Ethelbert king of Kent, and hallowed in 613. Now there 
has been laid open for some months in the north aisle of the nave 
a tangled mass of stonework and foundations from which it was 
impossible to evolve order or frame reasonable theories without a 
more extended excavation round them. These remains had not 
been found by accident, but searched for at this particular spot, 
because the historians of the Abbey were emphatic in stating that 
this eastern part of the aisle marked the site of the porticus in 
which St. Austin and his five immediate successors had been buried. 
We have also a minute account, by the twelfth century chronicler 
Groscelin, of the translation of their remains to Scotland's new 
presbytery in 1091, and a special chapter on the order in which the 
bodies of the Saints were arranged, written, he tells us, because 
" it is a kindness to posterity to let them hear, what is no longer to 
be seen, in what position the Saints formerly rested here." 

Within the last few weeks it has been possible to extend the 
earlier operations westwards and to clear up our puzzle, and with 
most surprising results ; for there are now actually to be seen the 
veritable remains of the despoiled tombs of Archbishops Laurence, 
Mellitus and Justus, with portions of the original flooring and part 
of what may be the altar of St. Gregory that stood between the 
tombs of Laurence and Austin. There is also the empty grave in 
which the body of St. Mildred was laid by Wulfric when he 
destroyed the presbytery. The tombs of the three archbishops 
lie in a row, as described by Groscelin, against the base of a thin 
outer wall built of Eoman bricks and plastered within and 

Whether there are any corresponding remains of the tombs 
of St. Austin and of Deusdedit and Honorius, which lay to the 
south, has yet to be seen. At present their sites are overlaid by 
the huge sleeper wall 10 feet wide of the Norman arcades ; but it 
may be possible, without actually destroying this, to burrow 


underneath, and meanwhile explorations are now in progress 
further south. 

In any case there seems to be no reasonable doubt that we have 
established the place of the actual portictis or aisle in which Austin 
and his brethren were originally buried, and that the thin outer 
wall belongs to King Ethelbert's church, which ought therefore 
to have been of basilican plan. 

To the east of the porticus are the beginnings of a much later 
and wider apse that evidently belonged to some extension of the 
building at this point ; perhaps in the tenth century, for there 
is a record of a second dedication of the church by Archbishop 
Dunstan in 978, a statement that implies a rebuilding or 

Here we must stop for the present until further finds have 
been made and fuller details can be laid before you. But mean- 
while we may surely congratulate ourselves that a discovery that 
takes us straight back to the very beginning of the English Church 
has been reserved to our own time, and there is no saying at present 
to what it may lead. 

I would also venture to remind you that important investigations 
such as these cannot be undertaken for nothing, and that funds are 
needed to carry them on. This is a difficult time for raising money 
for such objects, but if you will remember that every guinea 
subscribed practically pays the wages of one man for one week, 
some of you may be induced to help to that extent. 

I ought to add that although I am responsible for these brief 
notes, the credit of the noteworthy discoveries recorded therein is 
entirely due to the authorities of St. Augustine's College, and in 
particular to the Sub warden, the B,ev. R. U. Potts, but for whose 
energy and care, with the help of a few willing students, the work 
would never have been brought to so successful and desirable an 

March 7, 1915. 



Mr. Stephen Manser, Local Secretary for the Sandwich district, 
sends the following Notes : — 

K/iCHBOROUGH. — Since the Castrnm was taken over by the 
Office of Works the following work has been done : The walls have 
been cleared of ivy and grouted at the top. 

The foundations of the Postern Grate have been revealed. 

The concrete platform nnder the Cross has been cleared of 
earth, bringing to light the remains of a surrounding wall, the 
missing parts of which have been marked by loosely packed pebble 
stones, and steps have been placed to enable visitors to reach the 
platform, but they are not allowed to walk on the Cross. 

While the above excavation was in progress several marble 
slabs, winch formed apparently a lining to some building, were 
found, together with a large piece of a stone cornice, some frag- 
ments of bronze statuettes, other pieces of bronze, and a fine gold 

On the south side of the Castrum the undergrowth has been 
cleared from the bank next to the railway, revealing some remains 
of foundations. 

At the north-east angle (near the road leading to the Cottage), 
the earth has been cleared away from fallen portion of the wall. 

In order to protect parts of the walls from damage a wire fence 
has been erected outside. 

The various hnds have been placed in glass cases in huts ; these, 
however, are of wood and not fireproof . 

While the Light Jbiailway Company were digging a trial hole 
near where the footpath joins the road to Sandwich, Koman 
foundations were discovered. 

Mr. Mauser thinks that the whole of the liichborough " Island" 
should be placed under the control of the Oifice of Works, as the 
Amphitheatre and site of the lioman town are now unprotected, 
being outside the area taken over by the Government, and should 
a railway cut through this area irreparaoie daji^ge might be done. 


Hull Pla.ce, Sholden. — Mr. Grilbert Elliot, the owner of this 
property, and a member of our Society, reports that when laying 
out the gardens a number of bones, both human and animal, 
were found, also a peculiar knife of bone, a bronze buckle, pieces 
of pottery and fragments of Roman tiles. [Mr. Manser sent 
photographs of these objects to the British Museum, with the 
result that the authorities report that the buckle is of seventeenth- 
century workmanship, the " bone-knife " a dairy implement, and 
that one piece of pottery is apparently part of a box-tile from the 
flue of a Roman building.] 

The above objects, together with a comb of ivory or bone 
found " under the house," and apparently of very early date, have 
been presented by Mr. Elliot to the Town Hall Museum, Deal. 

Hull Place stands just on the border between marsh and 
upland. The house contains a good deal of Tudor work, and this 
has been carefully preserved by the present owner during recent 

While laying out a road in the marshes not far from the above 
house a number of very large bones were dug up, which Mr. Manser 
thinks may possibly be those of a whale. 

Upper Deal Church. — The interesting seventeenth-century 
tower of brickwork has been carefully repaired. 

Dr. S. J. Smith, a member of our Society, has communicated to 
Mr. Manser the following list of earthworks noted by the former 
gentleman in the vicinity of Deal : — 

Winkland Oaks Farm : Irregular lines of entrenchments. 

At Whitfield, near Ringwould Church, at Knight's Bottom, near 

Kingsdown, and at Hawk's Hill, Walmer: Earthworks. 
Singleton Farm, near Dover : A well - denned quadrilateral 

entrenchment, containing remains of mediaeval buildings. 

( 299 ) 


"The Eecords of Rochester Diocese/' Rev. C. H. Fielding, M.A. 

" Report of the Exploration at Lesnes Abbey, 1910." 

Presented by the Woolwich Antiquarian Society. February 1911. 
" The Registers of Staplehurst, 1558 — 159b\" Transcribed by the 
Rev. J. S. fr. Chamberlain, M.A. 

" Catalogue of the Manuscript Books in the Library of Christ 
Church, Canterbury." Compiled by the Rev. C. Eveleigh 

Presented by the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. June 1911. 
" Pipe Roll," Vols. 26 to 31. 

Purchased. June 1911. 

"Eltbam in Past Times." Compiled by E. A. 

Presented by Miss E. Anderson. July 1911. 

" Records of Lydd." Translated and transcribed by Arthur Hussey 
and M. M. Hardy. Edited by Arthur Finn. 

Purchased. July 1911. 

"The Roman Pottery in York Museum." Thomas May, F.S.A. 

Presented by the Author. July 1911. 

" Dode in Kent." G. M. Arnold, F.S.A. 

Presented by Bernard Arnold, Esq. November 1911. 

" Chilham Castle, Kent." Arthur Bolton. 

Presented by the Author. March 1912. 

" Kentish Items." Ralph Griffin, F.S.A. 

" Note on the Brass of William Holyngbroke, 1375, in New 

Romney Church, Kent." Ralph Griffin, F.S.A. 
" The Sidney Tombs at Penshurst and Ludlow." Ralph Griffin, 



February 1911. 

Presented by the Author. 

March 1911. 


Presented by the Author. 
The Victoria History of Kent," Vol. I. 
Purchased . 

March 1912. 

March 1912. 


"The History and Antiquities of Otford." C. Hesketh. 

Presented by the Author. August 1912. 

** Lesnes Abbey and Newington-next-ISittingbourne." Gr. W.Hewett. 

Presented by the Author. August 1912. 

" Kentish Manorial Incidents." H. W. Knocker. 
" Special Land Tenure." H. W. Knocker. 

Presented by the Author. August 1912. 

"Parish Church of St. Nicholas, Sevenoaks." John Rooker, M.A. 

Presented by the Author. August 1912. 

" Words and Places." Isaac Taylor. 

Presented by Richard Cooke, Esq. August 1912. 

" Reproduction of Matthew Poker's Original MS. Map of the 
Romney Marshes, 1617." 2 Copies. 
Presented by Dr. Cock, F.S.A. August 1912. 

The original map is now in the Maidstone Museum. 
21 Vols, of the Journal of the Archaeological Association, Vols. 
XII. to XXXII. inclusive. 
With the exception of Vols. X. and XL the Society's Library 
now possesses a complete set of the Association Journal. 

September 1912. 

" Memorials of Canterbury Cathedral." By the Rev. C. E. 
Woodruff and the Rev. Canon Danks. 
Purchased. December 1912. 

" Kentish Items." " Preston-next-Faversham." By Ralph Griffin, 

Presented by the Author. October 1912. 

The following Books and Guides were presented to the Library 
in February 1913, by C. J. Phillips, Esq. : — 

" Sketch of Knole." John Bridgman. 1817. 
" Guide to Sevenoaks." Cid. 1864. 
" Guide to Knole." John H. Brady. 1839. 
" Biographical Sketches " from Portraits at Knole. 1795. 
" Antiquities of Canterbury." W. Sommer. 1st edition. 1640. 
" Antiquities of Canterbury." W. Sommer. Edited by N. Battely, 


" Perambulation of Kent." W. Lambarde. 3rd edition. N.D. 
" Perambulation of Kent." W. Lambarde. 1656. 
" A Walk in and about the City of Canterbury." W. Gostling. 

" Dover Corporation." B. W. Knocker. 1898. 
" Some Memories of Old Dover." M. H. 

" Lady of Rochester Castle." Romance in Rhyme. J. Hearnden. 

" History of the Castle, Town and Port of Dover." S. P. H. 

Statham. 1899. 
" History of Dover Castle." Rev. W. Darell. 1786. 

Plan of the Anglo-Saxon interments found at Folkestone in 1907. 

Presented by A. E. Nichols, Esq. March 1913. 

" James Abree of Canterbury." Henry R. Plomer. 

Presented by the Author. March 1913. 

" The Dooms," or the " Saxon Laws of Kent." Edited by A. J. 

Presented by the Rev. C. H. Wilkie, M.A. March 1913. 

" Notes on Sussex Churches." E. Harrison, M.A. 

Presented by R. Cooke, Esq. May 1913. 

" The Registers of Staplehurst, 1596—1653." Transcribed by the 
Rev. J. S. ff. Chamberlain, M.A. 
Presented by the Author. July 1913. 

" Rochester Cathedral ; some Indents of Lost Brasses." Ralph 
Griffin, F.S.A. 

Presented by the Author. September 1913. 

" The Gentleman's Magazine Library." (English Topography.) 
Parts XVI. and XVII. 
Presented by Miss Wood. October 1913. 

"The Archaeology of the Anglo-Saxon Settlements." E. Thurlow 
Leeds, M.A., E.S.A. 
Presented by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press. 

October 1913. 

" Drawings of Brasses in some Kentish Churches." Ralph 
Griffin, E.S.A. 

Presented by the Author. November 1913. 


" Dervorgilla, Lady of Galloway." Wentworth Huyshe. 

Presented by the Author. December 1913. 

" Historical Notices of St. Germans, Cornwall." Eev. H. Furneaux. 

Presented by E. Cooke, Esq. February 1914. 

" Kentish Items." Ealph Griffin, F.S.A. 

Presented by the Author. February 1914. 

" Some Indents of Lost Brasses in Kent." Ealph Griffin, F.S.A. 

Presented by the Author. February 1914. 

" Journal of the Chester Archaeological Society." Vols. 1 — 5. 

Presented by A. O. Walker, Esq., F.L.S. February 1914. 

'• The Hundred of Hoo." F. J. Hammond. 

Presented by E. Cooke, Esq. May 1914. 

"The Third Eegister of Staplehurst, 1653—1695." Transcribed 
by the Eev. J. S. ff. Chamberlain, M.A. 

Presented by the Author. June 1914. 

" Biography of Men of Kent and Kentish Men." Eev. Winnifrith. 

Presented by E. Cooke, Esq. June 1914. 

" York. From its Origin to End of the 11th Century." G. Benson. 

Presented by E. Cooke, Esq. October 1914. 

"The Archbishops' Manors in Sussex." S. W. Kershaw, F.S.A. 

Presented by the Author. October 1914. 

The Manuscript of William Dunche. Transcripts edited with 
Notes by A. G. W. Murray, M.A., and E. F. Bosanquet. 

Presented by E. F. Bosanquet, Esq. November 1914. 

Proceedings of Archaeological Societies in Union with the Kent 
Archaeological Society, and the Publications of the Harleian 

( 303 ) 



Aas, Margaret, bequests, 43, 49. 
Abbot, Archbishop, 223, 224. 
A Bere, William, bequest. 33. 
Absolom, Robert, 114 ; —,112. 
Accounts and Balance Sheets, ciii. 

Account Rolls of the Treasurers 
to the Dean and Chapter of 
Canterbury, extracts from, 111. 

Achecote or Aysshcot. Sir William, 

vicar, 212, 213. 
Adam, John, bequest, 30 ; Thomasine, 

bequest, 260. 
A Dane, William, 43. 
Adisham. Henry. 36 ; rector of, 29. 
Ady, Mrs., 158. 
Aese, King of Kent, lxiii. 
Alanus, 3. 

Alciatis Emblems, 59. 

Aldeham Manor, 2. 

Aldington Church, lxxiv ; rector, 103. 

Alegate, see de Alegate. 

Alexander, Bridget, 182 : Henry. 182 ; 
Pope, 208. 

Aleyn, Hugh, 84 ; John, rector, 88 ; 
Robert, 84. See also Allyn. 

Alfegh, John, 24. 

Alfred the Great, lxiii. 

Alkham Church, 103. 

Alkham-cum-Capel, rector of, 68. 

Allyn, James, 108. See also Aleyn. 

Almard (?), Peter, vicar, 188. 

Andred, forest of, Ixix. 

Anselm. Thomas, 43. 

Apelbee, John, vicar, 191, 192, 193 ; 
Margaret, 191, 193. 

Appelton or Appolton, Henry, 1 94. 

Appledore, chapel of S. James-on-the- 
Heath, 25, 26 ; vicar of, 104. 

Appuldrefeld, de, see De Appuldrefeld. 

Arford. Richard, 110. 

Argles, Rev. J. A., 233, 234. 

Argyll, Duke of. lx. 

Armorer, Brunus, 78. 

Armour supplied to the County 
Militia, 118, 118 n. 

Arms : Canterbury, 133 ; Cinque 
Ports, 133 ; Drapers' Company, 133 ; 
Grocers' Company, Ixvi ; Haber- 
dashers' Company, 133 ; John 

Kemp, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
81 ; London. 133 ; Merchant Ad- 
venturers', 133 ; Royal, 80, 133 ; 
Skinners' Company, 133. 

Arnett. Richard, bequest, 31. 

Arnold. Mr. A. A., E.S.A., 271, 272; 
Mr. G. M.. 288. 

Arundel, Archbishop, 212 ; Lord 
Thomas, 43. 

Ash, 172. 
J Ash-next-Sandwich, 109. 

, Ash-next-Sandwich, St. Nicholas 
I Church, R. H. Goodsall on, 

! Ixxxvii ; Molland Chapel in, 
lxxxix ; Monumental Brasses in, 

i Ash near Wrotham, Roman dis- 
coveries at, 286. 
I Ashdown, Ann, 195. 196, 197. 198 ; 
John, 195. 196, 197. 198 ; Richard, 
196 : W., 196. 

Ashford Church, 26. 

Ashway, see De Ashway. 

Astene, Valentine, 115. 

A Stone. Thomas, 106. See also Atte 

I At Lee, Nicholas, bequest, 31. 
Atte Hale, Henry, 52 ; Stephen, 52. 
Atte Heth, John, bequest, 31. 
Atte Hille, Agnes, bequest, 266. 
Atte Hooke, Henry, lxvi. 
Atte Stone, Alice, bequest, 33. See 

also A Stone. 
Att See, John. 52 ; Robert, 52. 
Austen. John, Mayor. 225 ; Matthew, 

247 ; Thomas, 240. 
Avery, Nicholas. 102. 
Axtane. hundred of, 167, 168, 176. 
Aydhurst, timber manor house, 206. 
Aylesford, lathe of. 163, 165. 
Aylewyn. Agnes, 29 ; Andrew, 29 ; 

Christian, 29 ; James, 29 ; John, 

bequest, 29; Julian, 29 ; Thomas, 29. 
Aylonde, Richard, bequest, 260. 


Babington, John Albert, 235, 236. 
Badcocks, land called, 72. 
Baddell, William, 106. 


Badges, SO, 129. 
Badmonden, 172. 

Baker, Anne. 182; Christopher. 218, 
241 ; George. 275, 278 ; John. 218. 
261; Sir Peter. 218, 219: Peter, 
vicar. 241 ; Richard, bequest, 2G1 ; 
Symon, 218 ; Thomas. 182, 183 ; 
William. 110. 

Balam. Margaret, 186. 

Baldwin, Archbishop, 292. 

Bale. Mr., 117. 

Balgey, Margaret, 50 ; William, 50. 
Ball. Simon, bequest, 43. 
Balynden, Symon, 85. 
Banks, Mr. W., Surveyor of Rochester. 

Banny, Thomas, bequest, 28. 
Barar, John. 116. 

Bardingley or Beardingaleag, farm. 

Barett, John, 49 ; Robert, 49 ; Stephen, 
bequest, 49 ; Thomas, 49. See also 

Barfreston or Barson, church, 

lxxxvi ; rood, 109. 

Bargier. Didier, rector, bequest. 45. 

Bargrave, Isaac, dean. 224 ; Mrs., 64. 

Barlow, Elizabeth, 183 ; Mr., 183. 

Barnes, Elinora, bequest, 37 ; Joan, 
41 ; Richard, bequest. 41; Robert, 37. 

Barnsole. Gillingham, Roman inter- 
ment, 282. 

Baron, Isabelle, 50 ; Thomas, 50. 

Barrett or Barett, Elizabeth. 49 ; 
Joan, 49, 51 ; John. 49 ; Robert, 
49 ; Stephen, 49, 51 ; Thomas, 49. 

Barry. Nathaniel. 226, 227, 254. 

Bart'let, Symon, 200. 

Barton, Elizabeth, the " Nun of 
Kent," 8 ; Robert, 43 ; Robert, 
bequest, 42. 

Bate, William, bequest, 261. 

Batherst, Thomas, 219. 

Baylham, William, 9. 

Baynarde, Thomas, parson, 180. 

Beale, Elizabeth, lxii ; Sir John, lxii. 
See also Bele. 

Bealik, Tanguinel, 119. 

Bealknap, Robert, 78. 

Beaumont, Mr. E. T., Ancient Memo- 
rial Brasses, 136. 

Beche, William, bequest, 261. 

Becket, Thomas, Archbishop, 2, 3. 
See also Beket. 

Becknam, Catherine, 229. 

Bede, the Venerable, 291. 

Bedgeburg or Begegebyra, 206. 

Beeching, Thomas, 95. 

Beechy Lees Estate, 15. 

Beer, Henry, 195 ; John, 193, 195 ; 
Nicholas, 193, 194, 195. 


Beeseike, Charles. 181 ; Thomas. 181. 
Beice, Vincent, 97. 

Beket, Lawrence, bequest, 30. See 

a I. so Becket. 
Belcher's, Mr. W. D.. Kentish Brasses, 

134, 135. 

Bele, Hamo, bequest, 46 ; Isabella, 
46 ; Isabella, bequest. 51 ; John, 
46. See also Beale. 

Bell, H. J., 203 ; Rev. Canon, 236. 

Bellenden, Mary, lx. 

Belloc's, Mr., The Old Road, 157, 158. 

Belmeis, see de Belmeis. 

Bendall, John, 221 ; Mr., 249. 

Benett or Benet, Alice. 44 ; John, 
bequest, 34 ; Robert, 44 ; William, 
bequest, 41, 44. 

Benham, canon, William, 234. 

Bergholt, East. Suffolk, church, xl. 

Berne, Richard, bequest, 26. 

Bernes, Joan, 53 ; Richard, 53 ; 
Richard, bequest. 41. 46. 

Berrie, Thomas, 185 ; William, 185. 

Berry, John, 105 ; Matthew, 45. 

Bersted, church ornaments, 119. 

Beryngham, Garard, bequest, 261. 

Bettenham or Betenham, Alice, be- 
quest, 32 ; Dorothy, 105 ; John, 52. 

Beult, river, 205. 

Bever, Ralph, 27. 

Bexley, 165. 

Bible, Thomas, 105. 

Bicklejr, F. B., Index of Charters and 
Rolls, 204. 

Bidborough, 167. 

Biddenham, church, 26 ; rood loft, 

Biden, Mr. L. M., Paper on " The 
purpose and work of the Records 
Branch," xlix. 

Bigge, William, bequest, 41. 

Billemora, land in, lxiii. 

Bilsington, chalice at, 108. 

Birch, Mr. de Grey, 291 n. 

Birchington, rood-loft. 26. 

Bircholt, 103. 

Bird, George Vincent, 80. 

Bishop or Bisshope, Bushop, and 
Bysshop, Agnes, 185 ; John, 185. 
187 (2) ; Margaret, 186, 187 (2) ; 
Nicholas, vicar, 185 (4), 187; 
Nicholas, 185. 186, 187 (2); Wil- 
liam, 200 ; William, bequest, 47 ; 
Widow, 187. 

Bishopynden, Robert, bequest, 261 ; 
Thomas, bequest. 261. 

Blage, Joan. 180; Richard, 180. 

Blakborne, Thomas. 26. 

Blean, vicar of. 94, 104. 

Blechynden, Aleyn, 237 ; John, 237. 

Bleke, Johane. 181. 



Bliknyng or Bliclynge, Leonard, 

rector, 89. 
Blomfield, Mr. R. T., 122. 123, 124, 

126, 128. 
Bloor, John, bequest, 32, 
Blossom, Lora, bequest, 262. 
Blostoke, Sir Richard, 244. 
Blunt, Alan, bequest, 50 ; Katherine. 

181 ; William, 181. 
Blussh, Thomas, bequest, 262. 
Board, Rev. Richard, lxiv. 
Bochard, William, bequest, 43. 53. 
Boddenham,badge of the f amilyof ,129. 
Bodiam Castle, Sussex, 79. 
Boke, Reginald, vicar, 97. 
Bokirigham, John, 37, 38, 42. 
Bolde, John, rector, bequest, 29. 
Boleyn or Bullen, Ann, lxxix, 7, 24 ; 

Sir Thomas. Viscount Rocheford, 

24, brass to, lxxix. 
Boncer, Mr., 114. 
Boniface, Archbishop, 208. 
Bonington, church, 26. 
Bonsergeant, William, rector, 86. 

Books and pamphlets added to 
Society's library, list of, 299. 

Borne (Bourn), William, bequest, 35. 
262 ; — , 114. 

Borowart, lathe of, 162, 163. 

Bosene, Nicholas, bequest, 34. 

Boston, Henry, 18. 

Bosum, John, 23. 

Bosvile, Robert, 9. 

Boteler, Sir John, 44. 

Boughton-Aluph, 104. 

Boughton-Blean, vicar of, 95, 100. 

Bou»hton-Malberbe, rector of, 104. 

Bourchier, Archbishop, 214, 215. 

Boutell's Manual of Monumental 
Brasses, 135. 

Bowie, William, 193. 

Bowman, Christopher, 44 ; William, 44. 

Boxley, vicar of, 120. 

Brabourne, 104. 

Bradforthe, Waiter, 105. 

Bradwey, de, see De Bradwey. 

Brand, Thomas, lxvii. 

Brasses, see Monumental Brasses. 

Brasted, 2, 167, 170, 173, 177 ; grant to 
poor of. 192 ; Park, 1. 

Brasted Upland, 168, 170. 

Bredgeman, Jobn, 106. 

Bredkyrke, John, 36 ; Mildred, be- 
quest, 36. 

Breggs, John, bequest, 30 ; Robert, 

bequest, 262. See also Brigge. 
Brekynden, see Brickenden. 
Brenchisle, John, 45. 
Brenchley, John, 49. 
Breuer, Catherine, 181 ; Elizabeth, 


181; Ellin, 181; Margaret, 180, 
181 ; Martha, 181 (3) ; Mary, 181 ; 
Richard, 181 (9) ; William, 181. 
Brickenden or Brekynden, Robert, 
bequest, 261 ; William, bequest, 261. 

Bridge, bailiwick of, 165 ; church, 
lxxxvi ; stone figure subjects in 
church, lxxxvi ; wardens, 271 ; 
woods, a Roman interment, 281. 

Brigett, Mrs., 187. 

Briggs, Agnes, 41 ; John, 41. See 
also Breggs. 

Briklisworth, John, 88. 

Brocas. John, lxiv. 

Broceesham, dene called, lxiii. 

Brodestret, Laurence, bequest, 262. 

Broke. Steven, bequest, 28 ; Sir 
William, vicar, 216, 217, 218, 240. 
See also Brooke. 

Bromefield, Thomas, 243. 

Bromley, 171 ; hundred of, 168 ; 
manor, 173, lxv, lxix ; ten plough- 
lands at, lxiii. 

Brooke, James, bequest, 47. See also 

Broomfield Place, Deptford, 67. 

Broughton near Banbury, 14th cen- 
tury stone rood screen, xliii. 

Brown, Elizabeth, 184 ; John, 18, 
254 ; Margaret, 248 ; Thomas, 184, 
189, 248 : William, bequest, 47, 
48 ; William, 197. 

Browning, Matthew, 48. 

Browns Manor, lxv. 

Broxham Manor, lxiv, 173. 

Bryan, Richard, rector, 88, 89. 

Brymmer. Nicholas, 116 ; Mr.. 114. 

Bryn, Robert, 43. 

Buccleuch, Duke of, 232. 

Buckhurst, Lord, 11, 12. 

Buckingham, Dukes of, lxiv. 

Budgen, Alice, 183 ; Elizabeth, 183 
(2); Hellen. 182; Joan, 182, 183 
(2) ; John, 181, 182, 183(2) ; Mary, 
183 ; Oliver, 183 (4) ; Thomas, 183 ; 
William, 181. 

Buesborough, hundred of, 165. 

Bulfynche, — , 198. 

Bull, Thomas, 113, 113 n ; Mr., 115. 

Bullen, see Boleyn. 

Bulling, Alice, 49 ; Cristine, 49 ; 
John, 49. 

Bure, Cerys, 179 ; Elizabeth, 179. 

Burghley, Lord, 10. 

Buiieston, vicar of, 184 (2). 

Burmarsh, 108. 

Burnby, John, 78. 

Burnell, William, rector, lxvii. 

Burnley, Yorks, 12th century win- 
dows, xlvi. 

Burton, Roger, 108. 




Busshe, John. 111. 
Butler. Mr., 117. 
Butt, Robert, 23. 
Byskoo, Thomas, 116. 
Bysshop, see Bishop. 


Cade, John, rebellion, 36, 37, 41, 49, 50. 

Caldwell, Edward. 222. 

Calendar of ancient Wills preserved 
in ,the District Probate Office of 
Canterbury, grant by Society to- 
wards cost of compiling 1 and print- 
ing, lxxxii. 

Callis Grange, 111. 

Collowe, Thomas, 115. 

Camberwell, 285. 

Cambridge University, 68. 

Camden (Cunden) between Cran- 
brook and Staplehurst, 206. 

Campbell, Lady Caroline, lx ; Lady 
Frederic, lx. 

Campe, John, 18. 

Campeggio, Cardinal, entertained at 
Otford, 4. 

Camville, de, see de Camville. 

Canterbury, 106, 108 ; Beaney Insti- 
tute, 283 ; Benedictine Convent of 
Christ Church, lvi ; Burgate way, 
now Church Street, 290, 291, 292 ; 
Burgh Gate, 290, 291, 292 ; Burial 
places for the bishops of, 291 ; 
Castle, 106 ; Christ Church, lxiv, 
Ixviii, 36; Dean of, address by, 

lxxxiii ; Drouting Street, 291 n ; 
Gatehouse, The, 290, 290 n ; Holy 
Cross Church, font cover, xlii"; 
Longport Street, 291, 292 ; Meeting 
of the Society at, lxxxiii ; Monas- 
tery of St. Augustine's, 291 ; Prior 
and Convent of, 213, 217 ; St. 
Alphege, 26; St. Andrews, 105; St. 
Augustine, Abbey of, 43, 230 ; St. 
Augustine's Churchyard, 292 ; St. 
Augustine's College, 290, 296 ; St. 
Dunstan's Church, font cover, xlii ; 

St. George's, 100 ; St. Martin's 
Church, by Rev. C. Eveleigh 

Woodruff, lxxxiii, 291 ; St. Mar- 
tin's Hill, 291, 292; St. Martin's 
Street, 292, 293 ; St. Pancras 
Church, 290, 291, 293 ; St. Paul, 
reparation of church. 26 ; St. Paul's 
Street, 292 ; SS. Peter and Paul 
Church, 291 ; Towngate, 291 n. See 
also under Kentish Wills. 
Canterbury, Ancient Walling 
at S. Austin's Abbey, by Dr. C. 
Cotton, 290, 

Canterbury, Recent Discoveries 
at St. Austin's Abbey, by Sir 
William St. John Hope, Litt.D., 
D.C.L., 294; Excavations, remark- 
able discoveries, lxxxiii, 294 ; sup- 
posed to be the building begun by- 
Abbot Wulfric, 1056, 294; Abbot 
Wulfric's round tower, 295 ; exten- 
sion of operations bring to light 
tombs of Archbishops Laurence, 
Mellitus, and Justus, 295 ; other 
explorations now in progress, 296. 

Canterbury, Extracts from the 
accounts of the Treasurer of 
the Cathedral, ill ; money paid 

for destroying images, windows, 
etc., Ill ; money paid for Bibles, 
111 ; money received for silver and 
other ornaments, 111 ; list of 
various items for which money was 
paid or received, 112, 113, 114, 115, 
116, 117. 

Canterbury Cathedral, 164, 165 ; 
account rolls of the treasurer to 
the Dean and Chapter, extracts 
from, 92 ; archives of the Dean and 
Chapter of, lvi ; Canonry, 94 ; 
Chapter Library, 92 ; extract from 
Register " G." in library of, 29 ; 
from Kegister " S,'' 40. 

Capel-le-Eerne, a chapter on the 
History of, by William Minet, 
M.A., F.S.A., see also Daniel 
Defoe and Kent, 61. 

Capel-le-Ferne, 61. 64. 66, 67, 68, 69, 
70, 75, 181 ; church, 71, 72 ; church, 
manor of, 70, 71, 72 ; land at, 67, 
72 ; manor, 66, 70, 71 n ; registers, 
64 n, 66, 68 w. 72 ; extracts from. 181. 

Capel Sole, 71, 72 ; Capel Sole Farm, 
71 ; a tenement in, 72. 

Carder, Kateryn, 238. 

Carlisle, Earl of, 233. 

Carpenter, Kateryn, bequest, 262. 

Carpynter, Joan, 262 ; Thomas, be- 
quest, 262. 

Carthusian Monastery's Museum at 
Nurenberg, liv. 

Cassinghurst, Joan, 182 ; Robert, 

Castello, see de Castello. 

Castelyn, John, bequest, 262 ; Kathe- 

rine, bequest, 262. 
Castewesill, Kichard, bequest, 263. 
Castlake, Margaret, bequest, 43. 53. 
Caston, Joan, bequest, 262. 
Castro, de, see de Castro. 
Caeyr, Robert, 46 ; William, 46. 



Cawston Church, Norfolk, ancient 

fixed benches, xlii. 
Caxton, Isabella. 46 ; John, 46. 
Cecil, Sir R., 11, 12. 
Celtic Pottery, lxix. 
Chairs, 18th century, in Society's 

rooms, report on. lxxxii. 
Challock, 98. 

Chambleyne, Alice, 18 ; Joan, 48 ; 

John, bequest, 47, 48. 
Chapman, James, 107 ; William, sen., 

18 : William, jun., 18 ; — , 241. 
Charcot, 171, 172. 
Charles I., 91. 

Charles, Rev. James, 179 ; Margaret, 

Chart, Clemence, 182 ; John, vicar, 
182 (3), 183 (2) ; John, 182 ; Tho- 
mas, 183. 

Chart, Great, 103 ; rood loft of 

church, 27. 
Chart Sutton, 205. 

Chartham, 107 ; steeple of church, 27. 
Chatham, 287 ; dockyard authorities, 

Chayne, William, 88. 

Cheard, Sir John, vicar of Godmer- 

sham, 98. 
Chepsted, see de Chepsted. 
Cheshunt, Herts, Ixi. 
Chevening, borough, 15, 171 ; manor 

of, 2, 167, 173, 174 ; tything, 170. 
Cheyne, Margaret and William, brass 

to, lxxix. 
Chichele, Archbishop, 213. 
Chichester, de, see de Chichester. 

Chiddingstone, bequests to poor of, 
195, 197, 198 ; Church, lv, lxxiii, 
lxxv, lxxvii ; ironstone grave slabs 
in church, Ixxviii ; Kingsborough 
in. 171 ; old timber houses, Ixxviii : 
parish of, 171, 173. 

Children, — , register extract, 183. 

Chilham, vicar of, 110. 

Chillenden, Prior Thomas, 111. See 
also de Chillenden. 

Chilton, William, bequest, 37. 

Chipstead Place, lxi ; church, lxi ; 
house, lxi, lxii ; manor, lxi; owners 
of, lxi. 

Chislet, deeds belonging to church, 

Christ Church, Canterbury, references 
to, 2, 15, 23, 36, 38, 40, 43. 

Christian, John, 18 ; Roland, 18. 

Cinque Ports, areas within the liberty 
of, 166. 

Claidich, William, bequest, 263. 
Clapton in Gordans, Somerset, wooden 
benches in the church, xlii, 

Clare, de, see de Clare. 

Clarke. Clemence, 182; John, 182; 
William, bequest, 30. 

Clerke, John, 237 ; Richard, rector of 
Great Mongeham, 41 ; Robert, be- 
quest, 263 ; William, 46. 

Clifford, " Fair Rosamond,"' 76, 77. 

Clinch, George, F.G.S., F.S.A. 
(Scot.), Notes on the remains 
of Westenhanger House, Kent, 


Clinton and Say, Lord, lxiv. 

Clinton, de, see de Clinton. 

Clitherow, Richard, brass, xciv. 

Cloke, Stephen, bequest, 32. 

Cloth Halls, s-e^ Headcorn Cloth Halls. 

Cloth workers in London, 110. 

Cloughe, William, vicar of Luddes- 
downe, 1S3. 

Clunche, Joan, bequest, 31. 

Clyfford, Thomas, 197. See also Clif- 

Clyfftone, de, see de Clyfftone. 

Clyfton, John, 78. 

Coale, Bridget, 182. 

Cobham, Lord, 11 ; Sir John, xl. 

Cobham College, xl. 

Cobhambury College, lxv. 

Cocks, see Coxe. 

Codsheath, hundred of, 167, 170, 171, 

Cok, Matthew, bequest, 45, 46 ; 

Thomas, bequest, 27, 35, 263 ; 

William, bequest, 35, 213, 263. 
Cokkowe, Joan, 52 ; Thomas, 52. 
Cole, Laurence, 106. 
Colepeper, Col. Thomas. Adversaria 

of, 79 n. 

Colepit or Copit. woods near 
Rochester, 281. 

Collen, Dorothy, 179 ; Thomas, 179. 

Collens or Collyns, Robert, Commis- 
sary General, afterwards a Canon 
of Canterbury. 94. 

Collington, Catherine, 229 ; Natha- 
niel, vicar, 228 (2). 229 (4). 

Colman, — , 112 (2). 

Combe. John, 26. 

Combridge, Elizabeth, 182. 

Compton, Richard, 53 ; Thomas, 44. 

Compton, de, see de Compton. 

Comyn, Richard, vicar, 49. 

Consistory Court, Compertaet Detecta, 
extracts from, 119. 

Consistory Court Books of Canter- 
bury, extracts from, illustrating 
Reformation in Kent, 95. 

Cooke, Adrian, 47 ; Mary, 183 ; Rich- 
ard, bequest, 47. 

Cookham, woods, 287. 

x 2 



Coorabe, John Riche, vicar, 234 (2) ; 
Thomas, vicar. 233, 234. 

Cooper, Hugh, vicar. 241. 

Copinger, Ambrose. 185 (2), 187 ; 
Ann, 185, 186 (2) : Elizabeth. 185, 
186 (2). 187 ; Frances. 185 (2), 186 ; 
George. 186 ; Henry, 186 ; John, 
185, 186, 187 ; Ralphe. 185 (6). 186 
(4), 187 (3); Thomas. 185 (2): 
Ursula, 185. 187 ; William, 185 
(3), 186, 187 (2). 

Copyn, Edward, bequest, 33; William, 
bequest. 33. 

Corbavia, Peter, Bishop of, 84. 

Cornwalle, Sir John, 78 ;'Mr.. 112, 113. 

Cornwallis, Dr.. Archbishop of 
Canterbury, 232. 

Cosar, Alice, 184 ; Augustine, 184. 

Costen. Elizabeth, 186; Jane, 185; 
Richard, 185. 

Cotton, Dr. C, on Ancient Wal- 
ling at St. Austin's, Canter- 
bury, 290; on St. Peter's 
Church, Sandwich, xcv ; Sir 

Humphrey, chantry priest, 241 : 
William, 79 ; Dr., 290, 293. 

Couge, William, 42. 

Court, Eustace, 50. 

Courtenay, Archbishop, 212. 

Covenor. Thomas, vicar, 33. 

Coventry, Sir William, vicar, 213. 

Cowden, Church, lxxv, lxxvii ; parish 
of. 171, 173. 

Cowling, 172. 

Cowper, H. S., F.S.A., Two Head- 
corn Cloth Halls, 121 ; A Weal- 
den Charter of A.D. 814 (Har- 
leian Charter 83 A.I.), 203. 

Cowper, J. M., F.S.A., Canterbury 
Marriage Licences, reference to, 
224 n ; Memorial Inscriptions in 
Canterbury Cathedral, reference 
to, 223 ; Roll of the Freeman of 
Canterbury, reference to, 36, 43. 

Cowper, Stephen, 241 (2) ; Stephen, 
bequest, 263, 264 ; William, be- 
quest. 263. 

Cox, Dr. Charles, Rambles in Kent. 

Cox, Letters by Thomas Cranmer, 8. 
Coxe, William, curate, 221, 249. 
Coxon, Robert, 73. 
Cove, Mabel, 183. 

Cradocke, Elizabeth, 183 ; John, 183 ; 

Katherine, 183; Nevil, 183; 

Rachell. 183 ; Mr., 183 (4). 
Cram, Alice, 50 ; Richard, 50. 
Cranbrook, nave of church, 27. 

Cranmer. Thomas, Archbishop. 1. 8, 
14, 218 ; Ash Wednesday Office, 
103: surrender of estates by, to 
4Ienry VIII., 173, 175. 

Cranmer, Ann, lxi ; Robert, lxi. 

Crawford, John, 228. 

Crene, Katherine, 201. 

Criol, see Kiriel. 

Crippenden. dene called, lxiiiw. 

Crispe, Agnes, 51 ; Joan, 49, 51 ; 
John, bequest, 26. 51 (3) ; Nicholas, 

Cromer, Richard, bequest. 27. 
Cromwell. Lord, 217 ; Oliver, 227 

lxi ; Bridget, lxi. 
Crotehole. John, bequest, 264. 
Croydon, 8. 

Crumpe. David. 72 ; Elizabeth. 72. 
Cryour, Alice, bequest. 52 ; William. 

Cucott. Richard, 192. 

Cudham, 173 ; manor of, Ixv. 

Cumbden(Cunden) in Sandhurst, 206. 

Cursume. James, 42 ; bequest, 38. 

Curteis, John, 50. 

Curtis, Jeremiah. 256. 

Cusshon, John, 42. 

Cuxton, Knight's Place, 278. 


Dacre, Frances, lxi ; Sir Thomas, lxi. 
Dalkeith, Earl of, 232. 
Dalyngruge, Sir Edward, 79. 
Darner, Ann Seymour, lx. 
Daniel, Vincent, bequest. 30, 31. 
Darrell, William, vicar, 219, 220. 
Dartford, Antiquarian Soc, 286 ; 

bequest to poor of, 193 — 5 ; land 

near, 271, 273. 
Dartnell. William, vicar, 199. 
Darwin, Erasmus, lx. 
Dauling, Rev. John. 68. 
Davidson, Archbishop, 236. 
Davy, Denis, bequest, 264 ; John, 

bequest, 264. 
Dawling, Marie, 186 ; Richard, 186. 
Day, George, 286. 

Deal, 96, 97, 99, 101, 283, 297 ; list of 
earthworks, 298 ; rector of, 96, 97 ; 
Town Hall Museum, 298. 

Deal, Upper, Church, 298. 

De A legate, Ralph, rector, 84. 

Dean, Henry, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, bequest, 39. 

De Appuldrefield, Henry, lxiv ; Mar- 
gery, lxiv. 

De Ash way, Margaret, lxiv ; Stephen, 

Death, William, 194, 195, 
De Belmeis, 2, 



De Bourne, vicar, John. 210. 

De Bradwey, Sir John, vicar, 210. 

De Camvill, family of, lxiv ; Hugh, 

lxvii : John, lxiv. 
De Castello, William, vicar, 210. 
De Castro, William, vicar, 210. 
De Chepsted, John, lxi. 
De Chichester, Milo, rector, 81. 
De Chillenden, Thomas, Prior, 10. 
De Clare, Gilbert, lxiv. 
De Clinton, Juliana, Countess of 

Huntingdon, 45 : William, Earl of 

Huntingdon, 45. 
De Clyf tone, Ralph, 209. 
De Compton, Henry, 85. 86. 
Deedes. Mrs., of Saltwood Castle, visit 

of Society to, xcvi. 
De Essex, John, 53. 
De Fithele, John, bequest, 38 ; Milo, 38. 
De Flacourt, the French writer, 63. 

Defoe, Daniel, and Kent, a Chapter 
in Capel-le-Ferne History, by 
William Minet, M.A., F.S.A., 

61 ; Daniel Defoe, 61, 62, 63, 65, 
67 ; Strange Apparition, of Mrs. 
Veal, 61, 63, 61, 67 : Robinson 
Crusoe, 61, 62, 63 : Woodes Rogers, 
61 ; Captain Avery, 61 ; Captain 
Singleton, 61. 

De G-oldstone, Thomas, Prior. 39. 

"Degrave, The" (Ship) 65,66; loss 
of. 69. 

De Haldenne, William, 78. 

De Haute, Richard, lxvii, lxviii. 

De Horne. William, of Homes Place, 

Appledore, 78. 
De L'Angle, John Maximilian, 

vicar, 231 ; Theophilus, vicar, 230, 

231, 257, 260. 
De la Tour, William, bequest, 33. 
Delce, Little, Estate, 271, 273 ; manor, 


De Leybourne, Juliana, bequest, 45. 

De Lillyngstone, Sir Adam, vicar, 211. 

De Lurdingden, Roger, abbot, 207. 

De Morton, Thomas, rector, 86. 

Dene, Archbishop, 3. 

De Nelde, John, lxiv ; Margaret, 
lxiv ; Margery, lxiv. 

Denne, Mr. W., 283. 

Denys, Joane, 37, 44 : John, 37, 14. 

De Ponynges, Agnes. 211 ; Sir 
Michael, 210 ; Thomas, 211. 

Depositions of witnesses taken before 
Master Robert Collens, LL.B., 95 ; 
Administration of the Sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper, 96 ; the 
destruction of Images, Tabernacles, 
etc., 95 ; the reading of the Bible, 
homilies and sermons, 100 ; the 

reading of the Epistle and Gospel 
in English, 99. 

Deptford. 66, 67 ; St. Nicholas, 75. 

De Raddinggate, John, lxvii. 

Dering, Alice, 184 ; Sir Edward, 253 ; 
Finch, 184. 

Dervvent, William, 212. 

De Seagrave, John, 210. 

De Smaleide, Henry, 208. 

De Stanford, Hugh, rector, 84, 85. 

De Stangrave, family of, lxiv. 

Detling, vicar of, 120. lxi. 
] De Trayly, Walter, rector, 84. 
I De Tryee, Peter, 84. 
'• De Tytbesye, Ralph, rector, lxvii. 

DeUfford, John, Archbishop elect, 211. 
j Deusdedit, tomb of, 295. 

De Valence, Stephen, 78 ; Lord Wil- 
liam, 205. 

Deve, John, vicar, 214. 

Devenyshe, William, Prebendary of 
Canterbury, 111. 

De Wanyilerste, Adam, 38. 

De Wyngham, Henry, 207, 208. 

Disraeli, Curiosities of Literature. 67. 

Ditchfield, Mabel, 183 ; Mary, 183 ; 
Rev. P. H., lxxxiv, xcv ; Thomas, 
rector, 183, 184. 

Ditton (Dytton), extracts from 
Registers of, 180. 

Dixon, Canon, 92, 94 n. 

Documents and Annals of the Church 
of England, by Card well, 92, 92 n. 

Dodd, Simon, bequest, 30. 

Doddington, 284 ; church windows, 
xlvi ; rood loft, xliv. 

Doge, Hamon, 208. 

Donnyham, John, bequest, 264. 

Dounham, John, 237. 

Dover. 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 72, 75, 
107, 109, 163, 165 ; Excursion to, 
lxxxvi ; Bishop of, 113 ; St. Mary 
de Castro Church, lxviii ; Church- 
wardens' Account Books of, by T. 
S. Frampton, 227 ; registers of, 64, 
66, 68 n, 70 ; harbour treasurer, 73. 

Downe, John, 31 ; Richard, 48. 

Dowries, James, rector, bequest, 44 ; 
Robert, curate, 183. 

Drabble, Mrs. Polhill, lxi. 

Drake, Charles H., 284. 

Draper, Henry, 182; Nicholas, 182. 

Drayner, Justice, xliii. 

Drayton, Francis, 228. 

Druitt, Herbert, Manual of Costume, 
by, 135, 136. 

Drury's, Robert, Journal during fifeetn 
years captivit// in Madagascar, 62, 
63, 65, 67, 69, 70. 

Dryhill, lxiii. 

Dudley, Sir John. 217. 



Dunbery (Donyngberi), 205; John, 
205 ; Robert, 205. 

Duncan, Leland L., M.V.O., 
F.S.A., Extracts from some 
lost Parish Registers, 178. 

Duneham. John, 237. 

Dunstan, Archbishop, dedication of 

church by, 296. 
Duveen, Mr. John, lxii. 
Dygon, John, 45 ; Mr., 47. 
Dyne, Richard, bequest, 34. 
Dynley, John, lxiv. 
Dyryk, Michael, 112. 


Eastbridge, church of, 27. 
Eastcheap, " The Boar's Head," 59. 
Eastling, 103. 

Eastry, lathe of, 162, 163, 165, 168. 
Eastwell, 104. 

Eaton, Thomas, M.A., rector, 91. 

Eboney, church of, 27. 

Edenbridge, by Rev. H. L. 
Somers Cocks, lxiii ; Bridge, 
lxvi ; British pottery found at, lxiii ; 
Clement, 1st parson, lxiv ; Gabriels, 
lxvi ; Manors in, lxiv, lxv ; Meeting 
of Society at, lxvii ; Parish Register, 
lxvi ; Stone Bridge, lxvi, 202 ; 

The Church, by Canon G. M. 
Livett, lxv, lxvii : The Crown, 
lxv ; The Tannery, lxvi ; The 
Taylor House, lxvi ; The timbered 
house, lxv ; The Vicarage, lxvi. 

Edenbridge, 170, 171, 173 ; Marsh 
Green, portion of, 173. 

Edmund, Bishop of Exeter, 212. 

Edulwesbrogge, chapel of, lxviii. 

Edward, King and Confessor, altar in 
honour of, 38. 

Edward VI., 15 ; Commissioners of, 

Edwards, —,106. 

Egerton, 105. 

Eleanor, Queen, xviii. 

Eles, William, 254. 

Elesford, lathe of, 162, 163. 

Elham, 106 ; John, Prior of, 40. 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, 9, 95, 

117, 194. 
Ellingworthe. Giles, 106. 
Elliot, Gilbert, 298 ; Robert, 285. 
Ellis, Constance, 48 ; Thomas, 48 ; 

Thomas H. J., Index of Charters 

and Bolls, 204. 
Elmstead, 104 ; Chantry of Our Lady, 


Ely, George, vicar, 221, 222, 223, 245, 
248, 249 ; Margaret, 222 : Nathaniel, 
222 ; Samuel, 222. 

Elyot, John, 250. 

Elys, William, 78. 

Emerton, Elizabeth, lxii ; William, 

Engelham, Thomas, 107. 
Engham, Mrs., 103. 
Erasmus, 4. 

Erith Church, rood loft, xliv. 
Essex. Elizabeth. Countess Dowager 

of, 230. 
Essex, de, see de Essex. 
Esteagh, Henry, bequest, 35, 213, 


Estxlon, Robert, bequest, 34. 
Ethelbert, King of Kent, 295, lxiii ; 

Charter, 291 ; Church of, 296. 
Eton, Richard, curate, 105 ; Robert, 

clerk, bequest, 42. 
Evans, Mary, 184. 
Everest, Richard, 190. 
Everyng, John, vicar, 211. 
Evesdowne, William, 18. 
Ewelme, Oxfordshire, font cover, 


Exherst, John, bequest, 51. 
Eynesford, Manor, 2. 
Eynon. John, 50. 

Eythorne, 69, 71, 72, 75 ; Rector of, 
66 ; Registers of. 69 ; The living 
of, 68. 


Falmouth. 66, 71 n. 
Falstaff, 59. 

Fane, Mary, 181 ; Richard, 181. 
Fanshawe, Thomas, 12. 
Farnaby. Sir Charles, 14 ; Sarah, 14. 
Farneley, Nicholas, rector, 90. 
Farningham, 172, lxii. 
Farthing Green (Foggingabyra), 205. 
Fathers, William, 197, 198. 
Faunescoumbe, John, 78 ; Ralph, 

Faunt, John, bequest, 31. 
Faversham, 98, 112, 113, 114, 271, 

275, 284 ; vicar of, 102. 
Felde, Robert, 43. 
Fermer, Bride, 238. 
Ferrers, Earl, lx ; Edward, 24. 
Feryar, Margaret, 106. 
Finch, John, Prior. 39 ; Margaret, 

bequest, 264 ; Thomas, bequest, 


Fisher (Fysher), Thomas, F.S.A.. 
monumental brasses, 133, 134 ; 
Mr., 113, 115. 



Fithele, de, see de Fithele. 

Flacourt. de, see de Flacourt. 

Flegard, Simon, clerke, bequest. 47. 

Flemyng, David, rector, 90. 

Fletcher, John, bequest, 265 ; Wil- 
liam, 197. 

Fludde, Sir Thomas, 9, 10, 18, 22 ; 
Thomas, 272. 

Foche, Henry, 53 ; John, 53. 

Fogge, Alice, 41 ; Isabella, 40 ; The 
Lady Joan, 39, 40 ; Joan, 40 ; Sir 
John, 41 ; Sir Thomas, bequest, 
39, 40 ; William, gentleman, 40. 

Folkestone, 105 ; church of, 27 ; 
St. George's altar, 105 ; destruction 
of ornaments, 110. 

Folkingbury, 205. 

Fordwich, 109 ; rood. 109. 

Forten, William, 238. 

Fortescue, Sir John, 11. 

Foughill, Barthu, 237 ; William, 
bequest, 265. 

Foule, Katherine, bequest, 265. 

Four Elms, Ixiv. 

Fowle, John, 243. 

Foxe, Bishop, 94. 

Foxe's Acts and Monuments, xliii ; 

Booh of Martyrs, 3. 
Foxeley, Mr., 109. 

Frampton, T. S., Churchwardens'' 
Account Boohs of St. Mary's, 
Dover, 227 n. 

Frampton, Rev. T. Shipdem, 
M.A., F.S.A., Rectors of St. 
Mary's, Westenhanger, by, 82. 

Francke, mistris, 185. 

Frank, John, 238. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 234. 

Fraunces, Nicholas, 110. 

Frauncis, Rose, 185 ; Stephen, 185. 

Freman, John, 219. 

Frencham, Richard, 116. 

Freningham, John, bequest, 36. 

Frenshe, Mr., 112. 

Frevill, Sir George, 114 : Mr., 114. 

Frinden, borough, 171. 

Frindsboro, 171, 172. 

Frith, forest of, 168. 

Frittenden, church of, 27. 

Frognal, Laurence, bequest, 28. 

Fuller, Sir John, 240, 241. 

Fulthorpe, Susanna. 186. 

Funnel, John, 248. ' 

Furley, History of the Weald, 162. 

169, 205, 208, 234. 
Furnour, Richard, 38 ; William, 

bequest, 38. 
Fustyane, William, 45. 
Fylder, Richard, 18. 
Fysher, Mr., 112. 

Gasquet, Abbot, English Monastic 

Life, lvii. 
Gavantus, Thesaurus Sacrorum 

Bituum," 97. 
Gayller, William, 195. 
Gee. Rev. John, vicar, 224, 225. 
Gemyn, William, bequest, 265. 
Gervase, 292. 

Gervase, William, 237 ; the Monk, 

292. See also Jerveyse. 
Gervis, Joan, bequest, 265 ; William, 

218, bequest, 265. 
Gery, John. 106. 
Ghent, abbey of, lxv. 
Gibson, Sam., vicar, 188. 
Gilbert, John, 211. 
Gilford, Sir John, 215. 
Gillingham, Reach on the Medway, 

280 ; corporation, 283 ; church 

font, xli. 
Ginninges, John, 187. 
Gladewyne, Sir John, vicar, 209. 
Glasyer, Hugh, 112. 
Gleane, Peter, 256. 
Gleppanfields, denes on, Ixiii. 
Glynne, Stephen, lix. 
Godard, Alice, bequest, 265 ; James, 

237, 238. 
Godday, John, bequest, 265. 
Godden, Elizabeth, 179 ; Robert, 179. 
Goddin, Edmund, rector, 180 (3); 

Edward, 180 ; John, 180. 
Goddinson, 109. 

Goddon, Alice, 182 ; John, vicar, 

Goddyn, Mr., 110. 

Godfrey, Sir Oliver, 199 ; Thomas, 
bequest, 36. 

Godmersham, 98, 100, 102 ; church 
of. 28 ; curate of, 96, 100 ; vicar of, 
102 ; William, 43. 

Godwin, Dr. Thomas, Dean of Canter- 
bury, 180, 222. 

Golding, Margaret, bequest, 36 ; Tho- 
mas, 199, 200. 

Goldsmith, Elizabeth, 183 ; Thomas, 
bequest, 47. 

Goldstone, Reginald, 41. 

Goldstone, de, see de Goldstone. 

Gold well, John, 41 ; Thomas, prior, 

Goodborowe, 201. 
Goodhugh. — , 180. 
Goodnestone-next-Wingham, 97, 107. 
Goodrich, William, 228. 

Goodsall, R. H., on the Church 

of St. Nicholas, Ash, lxxxvii. 
Gore, Rev. G. F., Ixiv. 


Gorell, John, 238. 
Goring, George, 9. 

Gornell, Kathcrine, 179 ; William, 

Goscelin, the chronicler, 291, 295. 
Goseborne, Agnes, 51 ; Henry, 51. 
Gosenoll, Avis, 180; Katherine, 179; 

William, 179, 180. 
Gostling - , — , 118 n. 
Gotisle, Richard, bequest, 34. 
Gould, Rev. S. Baring, 97 n. 
Gowtherst, Richard, 46. 
Graham, Mary, 188. 
Grandame, Henry, bequest, 33. 
Gravesend, Laurence, 50. 
Gray, Archbishop, xlvii. 
Greek coin, 286. 

Green, Thomas, Bishop of Norwich, 

Green, J. R., Stray Studies, 1 n. 
Greene, Richard Streatfeilde, lxxviii. 
Greenwich, St. Alphege's Church, 

Grene, William, rector, 90. 
Gresham, John, lxiv. 

Griffin, Ralph, F.S.A., Monumen- 
tal Brasses in Kent, by, 131; 

Drawings of Brasses in some Kentish 
Churches, 136. 

Grimaldi, Wynford B., Rectors of 
High Halden, by, 221. 

Grimstone, Elizabeth, 186, 187 ; Fran- 
ces, 187 ; Henry, 186, 187. 

Grocers' Company's, arms, lxvi. 

Groombridge, 171. 

Grottoppis, land, 108. 

Guest, Bishop of Rochester, xlv. 

Guldeford, Edward, bequest, 32, 32 n, 
265, 266 ; George, 239 ; Sir John, 
32, bequest, 265, 266. 

Guston. George, 5, 24. 

Guston, Roman remains at, 283. 

Gwyn, Henry, vicar, 186, 187 ; Re- 
becca, 186 ; Susanna, 186, 187. 

Gybbon or Gybon, Thomas, bequest, 
265 ; William, 243. 

Gybbyns, Nicholas, minister, 182. 

Gylman, John, 18 ; Thomas, 180 

Gyot, Peter, bequest, 30. 


Haffenden, George, 222 ; Stephen, 

Hailsham, Master, 49. 
Haines, Herbert, Monumental Brasses, 
134w, 135. 


Haithhurst (Hegethonhyrs) Manor, 

Hake, Mr., 113. 

Hakluyt Society, London, 66 n. 

Halden, High, church. 28. 

Haldenne, see de Haldenne. 

Hale, Agnes, 41 ; John, bequest, 41 ; 
William, bequest, 42. 

Hales, Christopher, 239 ; Sir Edward, 
Bart., 228, 254, 255, 259 ; John, 
249 ; John, bequest, 28 ; Mary, 
249 ; Thomas, 28 ; Mrs., 246, 

Hall. Peter, curate, 95. 
Hallborough, borough of, 171, 172. 
Hailing, land at, 172. 
Halstead, borough of, 170. 
Halywell, Thomas, 43. 
Hamerton, P. G., editor of the Port- 
folio, 122. 
Hamon, Christopher, bequest, 51 ; 

Clement, bequest, 51 ; John, 51. 
Hamond, Adam, 72 ; William, 110. 
Hampton, William, 237. 
Handcock, Rev. Cornelius, 258. 

Hannen, Hon. H., Notes on 
Phil. Symonson, 271. 

Hardres, Margery, bequest, 39. 
Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, 59. 
Harfleet alias Septvans, Brass of, 

Harlowe, Richard, Mayor of Roches- 
ter, 271, 272. 

Harman, Roger, rector, 99. 

Harnill, John, bequest, 50. 

Harolde, Isabelle, 269. 

Harris, Thomas, 248 ; Dr., 83. 

Harryes, John, 89 ; Margaret, bequest, 

Harte, Edward, 199. 

Hartlip, church, 28. 

Harty, church, 28. 

Harvy, Dorothy, 179 ; Henry, 179. 

Harynden, Jeffrey, 243. 

Hassilherst, Raffe, 106. 

Hasteds History of Kent, 13, 24, 66, 

66 n, 70, 70 n, 167—174, 236. 
Haswell, Patience, lxii. 
Hatche, John, 249 ; Thomas, 245. 
Hatcher, Erne, 179. 
Hatfield Broad - Oak, Essex, rood, 


Hathbrand, Robert, prior of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, 211. 

Hauke, see Hawke. 

Haut, Haute or Hawte, Alice, 4 1 ; Ann, 
41 ; Sir Edmund, bequest, 40 ; Ed- 
ward, 41 ; Elizabeth, 41 ; James, 
41 ; Joan, 41 ; Margaret. 41 ; Rich- 
ard, 41 ; Sir William, 41, 110, 214 ; 

General index. 

William, bequest, 41, 49. See also 

De Haute. 
Hauxen, Nicholas, bequest, 34. 
Havynden, William, bequest, 266. 
Hawarden, Andrew, bequest to S. 

Mary's, Westenhanger, 83. 
Hawdwyn, William, 108. 
Hawe, George, vicar, 227, 228, 258. 
Hawke or Hauke, Rev. Christopher, 

103 ; Sir John, 112 ; Sir — , 113. 
Hawk's Hill, Walmer, earthworks, 


Hawkedon, Suffolk, stoup, xli. 
Hawkin, William, 37 ; William, be- 
quest, 38. 
Hawkins, John, bequest, 42. 
Hawte, see Haute. 
Hayman, Peter, 108 ; — , 259. 
Head, Dr. J., 256. 

Headcorn Cloth Halls, Two, by 
H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., 121. 

Headcorn House, No. I., 121 ; Mr. R. 
T. Blomfield in the Portfolio on 
these buildings, 122, 123 ; dates of 
roof, 124 ; description of buildings, 
121, 122 ; timber-framed houses 
in Kent, 121 ; the earliest seen in 
the Weald by the editor, 124. 

Headcorn House, No. II, 124 ; build- 
ings now forming shop and tene- 
ments, 124, 125 ; connection with 
Boddenham family, 129 ; carving 
on spandrels, 126 ; exterior of 
building, 128 ; Kentish clothiers 
and their trade, 130 ; meaning of 
term Cloth Hall, 129, 130 ; reference 
to roof at Dunster in Somerset, 128 ; 
Tudor arches and doorway, 125, 
126, 127. 

Heckington, Lincolnshire, hooks for 
the Lenten Veil in the church, 

Hedges, William, reference to his 
diary, 65. 

Helar, John. 53 ; Lawrence, bequest, 

Helmestree, hundred of, 167. 
Hemmynghurst, John, 78. 
Hendle, Thomas, 27. 
Henley, Johane, 237. 
Henley-on-Thames Bridge, busts on, 

Henry IV., reference to the play of, 

Henry VIII. , Injunctions of, 93 ; 

authorized Primer of, 94. 
Henton, John, vicar, 213, 214. 
Herbert, J. A., 206. 
Heme Bay, 283. 

Herrys, Anne, lxi ; Sir Arthur, lxi ; 

Frances, lxi ; John, lxi ; Thomas, 
bequest, 27. 

Hersing, John, bequest, 47. 

Hert, Clemence, 50 ; Joan, 50 ; Wil- 
liam, 50. 

Hesketh, Capt. C, on the Manor 
House and Great Park at Ot- 
ford, l. 

Hever, Church, lxxix; brasses, lxxix ; 
castle, lxxv ; parish of, 167, 171 — 
173 ; visit of Society to, lxxv, 

Hewitt, J., Ancient Armour, 136. 
Heythehurst, 206. 
Hicks, Thomas, bequest. 266. 
Hicotts, Stephen, 27. 

" Highways of Primitive Man in 

Kent," by Genl. Sir Charles 

Warren, F.R.S., xcix. 
Hill, Mr. Gr. F., M.A., Keeper of Coins 

and Medals at British Museum, 

283, 286 ; Thomas, 108. 
Hinkley, American emigrant, 225. 
Hinxhill. 78, 100, 102. 
Hodges, John, 238, 213. 
Hoigges, Simon, vicar, 214. 
Holden, Anne, 179 ; Richard, 179. 
Hole, William, 201. 
Holland. Rev. John, 231, 238. 
Holme, William, bequest, 266. 
Holman, John, 256 ; Richard, 180, 


Holmesdale, The Valley of, its 
Evolution and Development, 
by Capt. H. W. Knocker, 

155 ; boundary, 155 ; divisions 
and boundaries of, 161 ; Domesday 
Book in connection with place- 
names, 166, 167, 168 ; Domesday 
Westerham, Brasted, Sundridge, 
Otford, 172, 173 ; Domesday 
Wrotham, Wrotham, Little, 175 ; 
geographical development, 160 ; 
Lambard's derivation of the name, 
155; land tax parishes, 170, 171; 
lathes and bailiwicks, 163 ; making 
of parishes, 160 ; motto, 155 ; names 
of the seven lathes mentioned in 
Domesday, 162 ; passing of the lay 
subsidy for the land tax, 170 ; 
Pilgrims' Road, 158, 159 ; question 
of sub-infeudation, 175 ; routes and 
roadways connecting with, 158 ; 
scutage, origin of, as represented by 
the lay subsidy, 169 ; system of 
colonization followed by Romans, 
159 ; tithings and boroughs, 164 ; 



tracing development by place- 
names, 164, 165. 

Honeychurch, N. Devon, wooden 
benches in church, xlii. 

Honorius, A bp., tomb of, 295. 

Hoo St. Werburgh, Roman re- 
mains at, by J. J. Robson, 287 ; 

church, 280, 287 ; creek, 287 ; Hoo 
Lodge brickfield, Hoo-ness Marsh, 
Roman remains at, 280, 286. 

Hookec atte, see Atte Hooke. 

Hoore, John, bequest. 266. 

Hope, Sir William St. John, 283 ; 
on recent discoveries at St. 
Austin's Abbey, Canterbury, 

294; Peter, 239 ; Richard, 240. 
Hope, church of, 28. 
Horden, Edward, 237. 
Hormer, William, 228. 
Home. Dunstan, bequest, 27 ; Henry, 

bequest, 29 ; Thomas, bequest, 29. 

See also de Home. 
Hornest, William, 238. 
Horton, John, 106. 
Hougham, rood-loft, 119. 
Houghlin, John, bequest, 28. 
House, Alice, ] 86. 

Hovinden (Hovynden). Edmund, 

B.L., bequest, 53. 
Howard, Mrs., lx. 
Howell, Alice, 179. 
Howley, Archbishop, 234. 
Hubbard, Rev. H. R, vicar, lxx. 
Hubbert, Francis, 186 : John, 185, 

186, 187 (3) ; Ralph, 185, 186 ; 

Sibbell, 187 ; Thomas, 186, 187 ; 

William, 185 (2), 186 (2), 187 (2) ; 

Mr., vicar, 187. 
Hudson, Thomas, 197. 
Huggyn, John, 106. 
Hughes, Alice, 67, 68, 75 ; Elizabeth, 

64, 66, 67, 71, 75 ; Henry, 66, 67, 

71, 71 n, 75 ; James, 67 ; Mrs., 70. 

Hughes, W. Essington (obitu- 
ary), ci. 

Hughe's Field, 67. 
Hull, Holy Trinity, rood loft, xliv. 
Hull Place, Sholden, 298. 
Hulse, Mr., 228. 

Humberston, Sir William, 212, 213. 
Hunt, Dr., Old Otford, by, 3, 7. 
Hunte, Laurence, 191. 
Huntingdon, — , 101. 
Hurlocke, Barbara, 194 ; John, 193, 194. 

Hussey, Arthur, Further Notes 
from Kentish Wills, by, 25; 

reference to, 22, 236, 270. 
Hutchins, Helen, 187. 

Hychecoke, John, vicar, 216 
Hyde, William, Survey of Otford, by, 

Hylles, — , 180. 

Hy the, 106 ; visit of Society to church, 

xl, lv, lxxiv, xcvi. 
Hythe, Small, chapel of, 34. 


Ickham (Ykham), Minor Canon, 107, 

112. 115, 115 n. 
Ide, Hill, 168. 

Iden, William, bequest, 35, 266. 
Idley, Sir Robert, vicar, 217. 
Tghtham, 175 ; church rood beam, 

Igolynden, Alice, bequest, 26 : Rich- 
ard, bequest, 26. 

llande, Thomas, bequest, 267. 

India, 65, 71. 

Ingeham, Johan, 242. 

Ingram, John, bequest, 267 ; Thomas, 
bequest. 41. 

Innocent IV., Pope, 207. 

Ireton, Bridget, lxi ; Elizabeth, Ixi. 

Isaac, Mr., 107. 

Isley, John, lx. 

Ivychurch, church of, 28. 

Iwade, church of, 28. 


Jackson. Henry, vicar, 183 ; Henry, 

185 ; John, 228 ; Sir Roger, 109 ; 

William, 96, 101. 
Jan, Thomas, bequest, 267. 
Jekys, Thomas, 106. 
James I., King, 13. 
James, Arnold, 190 ; Genl., 158. 
Jefferys, Canon, 235. 
Jenkins, Rev. Claude, 236. 
Jenyns, Anne, 180 ; Gilbert, vicar, 

178, 179 (3) ; Myles, 179, 180 ; 

Richard, 179. 
Jerveyse, Agnes, bequest, 30. See 

also Gervase. 
John, William, bequest, 267. 
Johnson. Benedicta, 184 (2) ; Capt. 

Charles, 184 ; Elizabeth. 184 ; 

Hellen, 182 : Jane, 184 ; John, 

rector, 184 (8) ; Nicholas, 184 : 

Richard, 182 ; William, 116, 184 ; 

Dr., 234. 

Jones, George, curate of Lenham, 97 ; 

Richard, 276 ; William, 254. 
Jonys, Edward, bequest, 267. 
Jordayne, Martin, 192 ; Thomas. 192. 
Justice, James, 107. 
Justus, Archbishop, 295. 
Juxon, Archbishop, 228. 



Katherine of Arragon, Queen, 7. 
Kavanagh, Col., on the Church of St. 

Margaret-at-Cliffe, lxxxvii. 
Kelet, Edmund, 25 ; Joan, bequest, 


Kemp, John, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. Arms of, 81, 112 n. 

Kemsing, 167, 171, 174. 177, 200 ; 
Castle, 175. 

Kemsing-and-Seal, 171, 171, 175. 

Kenardington, church of, 29. 

Kent, Frances, 185 ; William, 185. 

Kent, map of. by Phil. Symonson, 

Kent, Researches and Dis- 
coveries in, 1912—1915, by- 
George Payne, Esq., F.S.A., 

275 ; list of the articles found, 276, 
277, 278, 279 ; coins, 279. 283, 286; 
flint implements, 276, 277, 278 ; 
pottery, 280, 281, 283. 

Kentish Charities, some, 1594, 
by Major F. Lambarde, 189; 
almshouse at Sevenoak, founded 
by William Sevenoak, benefactors 
to the same, and list of poor placed 
therein. 189, 190, 191 ; Brasted, 
grant of a rent charge on land by 
the will of Thomas Jordan for the 
poor of, 192 ; bequest to, by Mar- 
gery Appleby, 191 ; Chiddingstone, 
bequests to the poor of, including 
marriage portions, by John Ash- 
down, 195, 197, 198 ; Dartford, 
particulars of an enquiry into the 
lands given to the poor of. 193, 
194, 195 ; the " Spitellhouse " in, 
193,194 ; mention of the "Lazzars," 
"Innocents," and Lepers, 193, 194 ; 
names of certain benefactors, 194, 
195 ; Edenbridsre, rents for repair- 
ing the stone bridge, 202 ; Kemsing 
parsonage, required by the Abbott 
and Convent of Berinondsey to pay 
3s. id. in money or victuals for the 
poor yearly. 200 ; Leigh next Tun- 
bridge, land called The Vagge, in 
this parish, given for the poor, 200 ; 
Lullingstone, a pension to the poor 
in the almshouses there to be paid 
by the Grocers' Company, 197 ; 
names of fourteen officials making 
these presentments, 202; Orpington, 
three almshouses built there and 
endowed by Sir Perceval Harte, 
197 ; Pensherst, gift of land by Sir 
Robert Sydney to build a cottage 

thereon for the poor, 199 ; Kyne, 
etc., for the poor by the will of . . . 
Bulfynche, 198 ; a rent charge by 
Edward Harte for the poor and 
bequests by Oliver Godfrey and 
Elizabeth ' Pas water, 198, 199 ; 
Shoreham. almshouses there built 
by the will of John Roos, who also 
endowed them, 200, 201 ; Sun- 
dridge, bequests by John Appleby, 
parson, and Margery Appleby, his 
widow, 192, 193 ; Westerham, 
bequest to the poor of, by Margery 
Appleby, 191. 

Kentish Parish Registers, ex- 
tracts from some now lost, 

contained in MS. clxxv, Soc. of 
Antiquaries of London, by Leland 
L. Duncan, M.V.O., F.S.A., 178, 
viz. : Capell. Ditton. Leigh. Luddes- 
downe, Sele, Stoke. 
Kentish Wills, abstracts from, 
by Arthur Hussey, 25; Abbey 

of St. Augustine, Canterbury, 43, 
52 : the Campanile. 46 ; the chapels 
of St. Anne, 45 ; St. Katherine, 45 ; 
St. Mary, 45 ; St. Mary in the 
Cemetery, 48, 49 ; St. Michael in 
the wall, 45 ; St. Pancras, 45 ; the 
Charnell House, 48 ; burials in the 
church. 43 ; Holy Cross in the nave, 
44 ; infirmary, 48 ; last Abbot, 53 ; 
names of monks, 43 ; tomb of St. 
Augustine, 48 ; Varia, 49 ; water 
conduit, 48 ; Christ Church, Can- 
terbury, 36 ; altar of St. Edward, 
King and Confessor, 38 ; cemetery, 
40 ; Chantry Chapel of the Black 
Prince, 38 ; Chapel of St. Mary, 
39 ; Chapel of St. Mary in the 
Crypt, 38 ; central tower, 39 ; 
church gate, 39 ; cross in the 
vestry, 38 ; the martyrdom, 39 ; 
names of monks, 43 ; nave, 39 ; 
shrines of — St. Alphege, 36 ; St. 
Dunstan, St. Thomas the Martyr, 37. 

Kentwoi-th, John, bequest by, 31. 

Kerriel, Jane, brass of, xciv. 

Keteham, Richard, bequest by, 82. 

Kettle, Richard, 197. 

Ketylsden, Sir William, 49. 

Keys, Thomas, 110. 

Keyser, Mr. C. E., address by, 
lxxxiv; on Barfreston Church, 


Kilburn. Kentish historian, 161, 162, 

163. 165. 166, 172. 
Kinghamford, 165. 
Kingsborough, 172. 



Kingswood, 206. 

Kipping, Robert, 181 ; Thomas, 181 ; 

William. 181, 
Kipps, Elizabeth, 185. 
Kiriel or Criol, Lady Cicely, 82, 89 ; 

Lady Elizabeth, 82 ; Sir John, 78, 

82, 86, 87 ; John de, 77 ; John, 84. 

89 ; Lady Lettice, 78, 82, 87 ; Lady 

of, 78 ; Sir Nicholas de, 84. 86, S7 ; 

Sir Thomas, 88, 89 ; William, 88. 
Knight, William, 106 ; inheritor of 

Otford, 15. 
Knight's Bottom near Kingsdown, 

earthworks at, 283, 298. 

Knocker, Capt. H. W., "The 
Valley of Holmesdale," its 
evolution and development, 

155, 175. 

Knocker, Mr. H. W., lxiv n, lxviii, 13. 
Knole, conveyed with Otford to King 

Henry VIII., 8, 9. 
Knole, manor house of, 38, 174. 
Kynett, William., bequest by, 26. 27. 
Kynton, William, 46. 
Kywyn, Robert, 18. 


Lafham, Isaac, 181. 

Lambarde, Major F., Some 
Kentish Charities, 1594, by, 


Lambarde, papers at Sevenoaks, 187. 

Lambert (Lambarde), Historian of 
Kent, 155, 161. 

Lambert, William, rector, 90, 91 ; 
William, 4, 18, 22, 189, 272. 

Lambeth. 68 ; manor house, 39. 

Lambeth Palace, Register of Arch- 
bishop Stafford at, 32. 

Lancaster, William, rector, 105. 

Landale, John, on Dartfovd Charities, 
195 n. 

Lanfranc, Archbishop, xlviii, 2, 15. 
Langdon, manor of, 271, 273. 
L'Angle, see De L' Angle. 
Langley (Langanleag), 206 ; John, 90. 
Langley by Bromley, 174. 
La Sela, 167, 174, 175. 
Latin Service Books, abolition of, 94, 

Latter, Alice, 182. 

Laud, Archbishop, 224. 

Laurence, Archbishop, 295 ; John, 

193 ; Thomas, rector, 89. 
Layton, Dr. Kichard, 217, 218. 
Lea, Henry, vicar, 182 ; Joane, 182. 
Leedes, Elizabeth, 248. 

Leeds Castle, chapel of, xlvi. 
Lehfeldt, T. A., The Stodmarsti 
Plaster Panels, 54. 

Leigh, land given to the poor, 200 : | 

parish of, 167, 170, 174. 
Leigh, transcript of register, 181. 
Leland's, Collectanea., 291. 
Leland, account of Westenhanger ! 

House, by, 77. 
Lenham, 97 ; curate of, 99, 100 ; I 

church of, 29. 
Lennard, John, 180, 189, 190 ; Sam- | 

son, 9, 180. 
Leonard, Messrs. Charles and Son, 279. | 
Lepard, Samuel Campbell, M.A., j 

vicar of St. Mildred, Tenterden, I 

235, 236. 
Le Savage, Sir Ralph, 84. 
Letherar. William, 47. 
Leuconour, William, bequest by, 267. | 
Leverick, Sir John, monument to, j 


Leveson-Gower, family of, lxv. 

Levingstone, John, 249. 

Levyne, William, 44. 

Lewes, Cadwallader. parson, 183 (3) ; , 

Thomas, 183 ; Ursula, 183 ; William, 


Lewisham, 173 ; manor of, lxv. 
Lewkner (Lewker), Bridget, 182 ; J 

Elizabeth, 182 ; ' Johane, 181 ; [ 

Robert, 181, 182 (2). 
Lewknor, Roger, 248. 
Leybourne, Joan, 39 ; Roger, be- I 

quest. 39 ; Thomas, 39. See also de I 


Library, list of books and pam- j 
phlets added to the Society's 
Library since 1911, 299. 

Lichfield, Bishop of, 235. 
Lilly, John, bequest, 267. 
Lillyngstone, see de Lillyngstone. 
Limowart, lathe of, 162. 163. 
Limpsfield, lxv. 

Linacre (Lynaker), Thomas, 215. 
Linkhill, 171, 172. 
Litany in English, 93. 
Littlebourne, 105, 111. 

Livett, Rev. G. M., on Chidding- 
stone Church, lxxvii ; on 
Cowden Church, lxxv ; on j 
Edenbridge Church, lxvii ; on 
Hever Church, lxxix ; on Sun- 
dridge Church, lix ; on the 
Architecture of Westerham 
Church, liv ; resignation of editor- 
ship of Arch. Cant., lxxx. 



Loddenden and the Usbornes of Lod- 
denden, by H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., 

London, 111, 113, 113 n, 114, 173, 190, 
191, 284. 

London, St. Edmund, Lombard Street, 

216 ; The Temple, Ixii. 
London, Bishop of, 66. 
London. Hugh, 50 ; Isabelle, bequest, 


Longe, Sir Richard, 24. 
Lorrenden, 275. 

Lowdewell, John, bequest, 267. 
Lucas, Richard, bequest, 268. 
Luddesdowne. extracts from the 

Parish Registers of, 183. 
Ludenham, church of, 29. 
Lukins, Pa., 256. 
Lukyn, Agnes, 89. 

Lullingstone, pension to the poor, 
197 ; manor, 2. 

Lurdingden, see de Lurdingden. 

Luxmoore, John, vicar, 232, 233. 

Lydd, benches in the church, xlii ; 
bequests to the church of, 29 — 30 ; 
chapels — of St. John Baptist, 29 ; 
of St. Mary, 29 ; of St. Nicholas, 
30 ; nave, 30 ; rood loft, 30 ; the 
tower, 30 ; Records of, 31. 

Lydyat, John. 218. 

Lyminge, visit of Society to church 

of, xcv. 
Lynch, Ralph, bequest, 27. 
Lynde. Joan, 39 ; John, 39. 
Lynsted, 104 ; rood loft, xliv. 


Macklin, H. W., Brasses of England, 

by, 136. 
Mackmeikan, W. F., xcv. 
Madagascar, island of, 61, 62, 63, 65, 

66, 75. 

Maidstone. 8; church, 31 ; Grammar 

School. 274 ; Tithe Barn, xlix. 
Maister. Peter, 261. 
Makemete, William, bequest, 30. 
Makenade, William. 78. 
Mailing, 168. 

Malvern, G-reat, Priory Church of, 

co. Wore, Aumbry in, xlii. 
Malyn, William, 78. 
Man, Stephen, 228. 
Mannyjig, Katherine, 238. 

Manser, Mr. Stephen, Note on 
discoveries in Deal District, 


Manston. Joan, 49 ; William, 49. 
Mantell, Reginald. 259. 

i Manwood Court, Sandwich, xcv. 

Marchant. — , 15. 

Marche, Thomas, bequest, 82. 

Marden, church ornaments, 119 ; 

court rolls of, 205 ; hundred of, 
1 163, 165 ; John, 114, 115. 
Marsh Green Manor, lxv. 
Marshall, Peter, vicar, 216, 217, 242, 

243 ; William, vicar, 216, 238, 259. 
Marten, John, 43, 183 ; Mildred. 


Marteson, Michael, bequest, 34. 
Martin, Henry, bequest, 31 ; John, 

bequest, 28 ; John, 47 ; Walter, 

bequest, 47. 
Martyn, Richard, altar-tomb for, lxx, 


Mary, Queen (Marian reaction), 92, 

94, 106, 219. 
Mascall, Robert, 100. 
Mason, mistress, 119. 
Mass in English, 93. 
Master. Elizabeth, 60 ; Rev. Richard, 


Matson, Henry, 64 ; Nathaniel, 64 ; 

Robert, bequest, 33. 
Matthew, Rev. Joseph, 232 ; Thomas, 


Mattingle, Elizabeth, 186. 
Maude, Jonathan, vicar, 229, 256. 
Maxey, Peter, 42. 
Maye, Anthony, 109. 
Maynard, John, 218. 
Mayre, William, 199. 
Mead, Mrs., 283. 
Mede, James, 248. 

Mediaeval Churches, The Fittings 
of, by Mr. Aymer Vallance; 

altars, xlviii ; aumbry, xlii ; con- 
secration crosses, xli ; Easter 
sepulchre, xlvii ; elevation bell, 
xlvi ; elevation squints, xliii ; 
fixed seats, xlii ; fonts, xli ; holy 
water stoup, xli ; images, xlviii ; 
Lenten veil, xlvii ; leper's squints, 
xlv ; misericord seats, xlvii ; nave 
altars, xliii ; paintings, xliv ; pis- 
cina, xlvii ; porches, xli ; position 
of churches, xl ; processional ways, 
xl ; reredos, xlviii ; rood, the 
great, xliii, xliv ; rood lofts, xliv ; 
rood stairs, xliv ; seats in the 
choir, xlvi ; sedilia, xlvii. 

Medway, river, 275, 280, 285, 287. 

Meeting, Annual, in 1913, xlix ; in 
1914, lxxxiii ; General, 1914, xcvi. 

Meisy. John, rector, 86. 

Mellitus, Archbishop, 295. 

Meopham, 172 ; bank in Hilden- 
borough, 172. 



Merchants' marks, 133'. 

Merewether. Rev. Henry Robert. 

M.A., vicar of St. Mildred, 235. 
Mersham, 104, 108, 112. 
Michill. John, 23. 
Middeltune, lathe of, 162, 163. 
Militia, armour supplied by the Dean 

and Chapter of Canterbury for the, 

118, 118». 
Miller, Anne, 186 ; Dorothy, 186 (5), 

187 (3) ; John, 186, 187 (2) ; 

Thomas, vicar, 188 ; Thomas, 186 

(5), 187. 

Mills, John, engravings to illustrate 

brasses by, 136. 
Milton, 165, 172. 
Milton Hall, 288. 

Milton next Sittingbourne, nave of 
the church. 31. 

Mmet, William, M.A., F.S.A., 
Daniel Defoe and Kent, 61. 

Minet, Alice, 68, 68 n, 71, 72, 75 ; 
Charles William. 73, 75 : Isaac, 64, 
68, 71, 73, 75; Hughes,'67, 69, 71, 
72, 73, 73 n, 75 ; James, 71, 75 ; 
James Lewis. 75 ; John, 68, 69, 71, 
72, 75 ; Marie, 68 ; Susan, 73, 75 : 
William, 71, 72, 73, 75. 

Minster in Sheppey, tower of the 
church, etc., 31. 

Moeer, John, vicar, 215. 

Mogge, William, vicar, 211. 

Molash, church of, 31. 

Molland Chapel, Ash, xciv. 

Moncrief, Mr. Hope, 158. 

Mongeham, Celtic discoveries at, 283 ; 
excavations at, 283 ; parson of, 

Mongeham, William, 52. 

Mongke, John, 179 ; Selvester, 179. 

Monke, — , 180. 

Monnyngs, Edward, 101, 103. 

Monumental Brasses in Kent, 
by Ralph Griffin, F.S.A., 131 ; 

Kentish Brasses, by Mr. Mill 
Stephenson, F.S.A., reference to, 
131, 132, 133 ; Thomas Fisher, 
F.S.A., collections from Kentish 
brasses, 133, 131 ; Messrs. Waller's 
series of brasses, 131 ; W. D. Bel- 
cher's book on brasses, 131, 135 ; 
Manual by H. Haines, 131, 135; 
Boutell's book on brasses, 135 ; 
Rev. H. W. Macklin's book on 
English brasses, 135, 136; Mr. H. 
Druit, book on costumes on brasses, 
135 ; E. R. Suffling, on English 
Church Brasses, 135, 136 ; E. T. 
Beaument's Ancient Memorial 

Brasses, 136 ; list of illustrations 
of brasses not mentioned by Haines, 

Monumental Brass Society, transac- 
tions of, 32, 134. 

Monynden. Stephen, rector, 87, 88. 

Moore, Dr.. Dean of Canterbury, 232 ; 
Archbishop of Canterbury, 232. 

More, John, vicar, 215, 216 ; bequest, 
268 ; John, 23 ; Sir Thomas, 215. 

Morgan, Rev. E. K. B., vicar, lix. 

Morice (Moryce), Edmund, 109 ; 
Ralph, 8 ; Thomas. 37. 

Morland, Augustine. 186 ; Margaret, 

Morley, William, 53. 
Morne, Roger, 106. 
Morris, family of, 73. 
Morten, John, bequest, 38. 
Morton, Thomas. 88. See also de 

Moulton, co. Line, aumbry in the 

church of, xlii. 
Mowshurst, Matthew, lxvi. 
Multon, George, 18, 22. 
Mulling, John, 49. 

Mychell. Edmond, 109 ; Edward, 180 ; 

John, 106 ; Katherine, 180. 
Mylles (Myllys). George, 108 ; John. 

112 ; William, IS. 
Mynot, Anne, 47 ; Edmund, 47. 


Nackington, 108. 

Nashenden, estate, 271, 273 : manor 

of, 272. 
Nelde, see de Nelde. 
Nelson, Lord, 234. 

Nethersole, John, bequest. 41 ; John, 
45 : Mrs.. 246, 248 ; Stephen, curate. 

Netter, John, 237. 

Nevenson, Anne, 179 ; Roger, 179 ; 

Thomas, 179. 
Neves, George, 279. 
Nevill, Charles, 184; John, 181; 

Thomas, 181. 
Newchurch, church of, 31. 
Newell, Henry, bequest, 50. 
Newgate Prison, 78. 
Newington next Hythe, 97, 98 : vicar 

of, 97. 

Newington, Charles, on dis- 
coveries in the Deal District, 


Newman, Marione, 28 ; Thomas, vicar, 

212 ; William, b'equest, 28. 
Newnham Valley, excavations, 281. 



Newton, Mr. W. M., junr., 282. 
Norfolk, John, Duke of, 213 ; Duke 
of, 244. 

Norland, Thomas, bequest, 34. 
Norman, Alice, bequest. 52 ; Hugo, 

clerk, 207 ; John, 52 ; Thomas, 52. 
Norreys, Robert, vicar, 212. 
Northbourne, Lord, on Richborough 

Castle, xcv, 168. 
Northfleet, 172. 

Northumberland, Duke of, 15. 
Norton, Joane, 184 ; Lady, 259 ; Mr.. 

Norton, church of, 31. 
Norwich, St. Peter Mancroft Church, 

Not, Edmund, 110. 


Oakley, H. E., Superintending Civil 
Engineer, Chatham Dockyard, 280. 

Obituary, Mr. W. Essington Hughes, 

Odyam, Mr., 114. 

Offa, King of Mercia, 15. 

Oliver, of Faulke and Kettells, 180 ; 

Dorothy, 179 ; Capt. Pasfield, R.A., 

62, 63 ; Robert, 179 ; Silvester, 

179 • Thomas, 179. 
Orpington, almshouses at, 197 ; 

manor, 2. 
Osborne, William, bequest, 28. 
Ospringe Place, 284. 

Otford Manor House and Great 
Park of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, by Capt. C. Hes- 
keth, i ; Becket's well at. 3 ; Bull 
Inn, 7 ; Cardinal Campeggio at, 
4 ; conveyed with Knole to King 
Henry VIII., 8, 9 ; King Henry 
VIII., visit on his way to the Field 
of the Cloth of Cold, 4 ; manor 
house, description of, 5, 6, 7, 8 ; 
remains of, at the old parsonage 
and Bull Inn. 7 ; ruins of the castle 
and palace, 15, 16 ; Sydney family's 
efforts to obtain possession and 
final purchase, 9, 10, 11, 12; survey 
of, by William Hyde, with extracts, 
16; valuation for repairs, 18; the 
manor, and building of the manor 
house, 2 ; keepership of the park 
and manor, 22 ; list of holders of 
appointments, 23 ; Mr. Youens' 
photographs of, 16 ; transfers of, 
to Sir Thomas Smith, 12. 13 ; to 
Robert Parker, 14 ; sold by the 
Marchant and Knight families to 

the Rt. Hon. William Pitt, Earl 
Amherst, 15 ; place names and 
boundaries, 14. 
Overland, 109. 

Ovyrton, Thomas, bequest, 49. 
Oxenden. Richard, prior, 210. 
Oxford, Queen's College, 191. 
Oxney, John, 37. 
Oxted, Ixiv. 


Page. Richard, 201. 
Palmer, John, 24. 

Pargate, Agnes. 51 ; Richard, bequest, 

Pargiter, Marie, 223 : Theodor. 223 ; 
Walter, vicar, 223, 224 ; William, 

Parker. Archbishop of Canterbury, 
220, 221, 222 ; Edmund, 46 ; Henry, 
bequest, 46, 47 ; Henry, 22, 23 ; 
John, 46, 109. 240 ; Peter, 23 ; 
Robert, 14, 15. 

Parks, Katherine, 186. 

Parkyns, Ackenwall, 199. 

Parpoynte, William, 182. 

Partington, Thomas, junr.. Esq., gift 
of plaster panel from Ipswich to 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, 59. 

Paswater, Elizabeth, 199. 

Patrixbourne, 107 ; church of, 

Patt, John, 106. 
Pattocke, Anne, 180. 

Payne, George, F.S. A., Researches 
and Discoveries in Kent in 
1912-1915, 275. 

Pay te win, Stephen, bequest, 31, 32. 
Peake. Humphrey, vicar, 225, 226 ; 

Dr., 250, 251, 252, 253. 
Pearson, Professor Karl, of University 

Coll., London, 281. 
Peche (Peache), Elizabeth, 40 ; Sir 

John, 40, 197. 
Peckham. Archbishop, xlvi ; Register 

of Archbishop, 3 ; James, 200, 201 ; 

Reginald, 24. 
Peckham. West, 172. 
Pedyll, Thomas, 268. 
Peers, C. R., letter from, relating to 

antiquities at Richborough, ixxxi ; 

Sir James, 107. 
Pele, Sir Robert, 110. 
Pelham, William, 185. 
Pelland, John, bequest, 268. 
Pellond, Richard, bequest, 268. 
Pelred, — , 180. 
Pembury, parish of, 167, 



Peniston, Thomas, rector, 90. 
Penny, Joan. 41 ; John, 41. 
Pensay. John, 1 15. 

Penshurst, 2. 167, 171, 173 ; gifts 
to the poor, 198, 199 ; Town, 
171 ; Upland, 171 ; Penshurst 
Halemote alias Otford Weald, 174 ; 
Penshurst Place, 174 ; Sherbourne 
alias Hallborough in, 171. 

Percyvale. John, 52 ; William, 52. 

Perkins, Frederick, lxii ; George, 

Perpoynt. Thomas, 217. 

Pesemed, Sir John, vicar, 51. 

Petham, vicar of, 103, 107. 

Petham, Joan, 41 ; Richard, 41 ; Wil- 
liam, 37. 

Petlesdene. Thomas, bequest. 268. 

Petley, Thomas, 201. 

Peto, Sir Samuel M., Bart., M.P., 

Petre, Sir William, 244. 
Petrie, H., drawing of Otford Manor 
House, 6. 

Pett, John, bequest, 268 ; John, 189. 

190 ; Thomas, bequest, 268. 
Phelps. Richard, 230. 
Philip, Edward, 240 ; Lawrence, 

bequest, 269 ; Stephen, bequest, 


Philipp, John, 78. 

Phillipps. Rowland, 239. 

Phillips, Sergeant, 249. 

Pickard (Pikard), Daniel, 248 ; John, 

vicar, 209. 
Piers (Pyers, Pyeres), Joan, bequest, 

35, 238 ; Richard, 243 ; bequest, 

262 ; Thomasine, 237 ; William, 35, 

237, 243. 
Pilgrims' Road, 158. 
Pinckney, Bartholomew, rector, 184. 
Pinnole, Thomas, bequest, 33. 
Pitt, Rt. Hon. Hugh, 15 ; Rt. Hon. 

William. Earl Amherst, owner of 

Otford, 15. 
Plane, John, 109. 
Plat, Roger, 218. 

Plomer, H. R., "■Books mentioned in 

Wills;' 215 m. 
Pluckley. church, 32 ; rector of, 


Plumlye, Alice, 196 ; Robert, 197. 
Pococke, George, innkeeper, 190. 
Pole, Archbishop, 220 ; Cardinal, 94, 
114 m. 

Polhill (Pollhill), Barbara, 182 ; 
Charles, lxii ; David, M.P., sheriff, 
Ixi, lxii ; Elizabeth, lxi ; George, 
lxii ; Patience, lxii : Richard, 182 
(3) ; Thomas, lxi, 182 ; Tryphena, 
lxii ; — , 180, 182, lxi. 

Ponet, John, 111. 

Ponynges, see de Ponynges. 

Poole, Ann, 187. 

Pope, William, rector, 214, 215. 

Porta Nova Road, 65, 70 n. 

Porter, of Hall , and Charte, 180; 

Dorothy. 179 ; James. 179 ; John, 


Porteus, Beilby, Bishop of London, 

tomb of, lxi. 
Poslingford, Suffolk, Holy water 

stoup at, xli. 
Potter, Alice, 179 ; William. 179 ; 

— , 180. 
Potts, Rev. R. U., 290 n, 296. 
Poynings, badge of the family, 80 ; 

Sir Edward. 90 ; — , 77. 
Prall, Robert, bequest, 35. 
Praty, Iiichard, Bishop of Chichester, 


Preston, Robert, 270 ; William, 

Preston, manor of, 2. 
Priestly, Frances, lxi ; William, lxi. 
Prinkham alias Sterborough, Lords 
of, lxv. 

Proceedings, Abstract of, for 1913 — 

1914, xxxix. 
Propchaunt, Alice, 48 ; Thomas, 48. 
Protection of Ancient Buildings. 


Prynne, William, keeper of the 

Records, 208. 
Pump Reach on the Medway, 280. 
Pygot, Henry, 197. 


Quex, Agnes. 51 ; John. 51. 
Qwyter, Mr., 101. 


Raddinggate, see de Raddinggate. 
Raggett, Mr., on Manwood Court, 

Sandwich, xcv. 
Rainham, church. 32 ; decoration of 

the great rood, xlv ; lower road, 

275, 276, 282. 
Rainold, Thomas, 116. See also Ray- 


Randell, Thomas, 185. 

Randolph, Elizabeth, 185 ; Thomas. 
185, 187 ; Thomison, 187. 

Rawlyns, — , 32. 

Ray, Thomas, bequest, 30. 

Raynold, Alice, 238. See also Rai- 



Records Branch, The purpose and 
work of the. by Mr. L. M. Biden, 
xlix, xcvii. 

Redfern, Mr., surveyor. 283. 

Reformation in Kent; extracts 
from original documents illus- 
trating the progress of the, by 
C. Eveleigh Woodruff, 92 ; abo- 
lition of the old Latin service books, 
94, 104 ; reading the Bible, homilies 
and sermons, 100 ; reading- the 
Epistle and Gospel in English, 99 ; 
destruction of glass, paintings, 
images, altars, missals, etc., 93, 94, 
95 ; Mass in English, 93 ; Extracts 

from the accounts of the Treas- 
urer of Canterbury Cathedral, 

111 ; religious services, 93 ; white- 
washing frescoes, etc., 93 ; admini- 
stration of the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, 96, 97 : deposition 
of witnesses, 95 ; religious cere- 
monies at the time of the Reforma- 
tion, 93. 

Remmington, Clemens, 181 ; Robert, 

Report, Annual, 1913, li. 
Rest, John, Alderman of London, 

Reynold, Leonard, rector of Deal, 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 234. 

Richard II., King, 77. 

Richard, Archbishop, 291 n. 

Richborough, amphitheatre, 297 ; dis- 
covery of remains and coins at, 
283 ; the castrum, 297 ; the cross, 
297 ; island. 297 ; letter from Mr. 
C. R. Peers relating to antiquities 
at, Ixxxi ; the postern gate, 297 ; 
the castle, lxxx, xciv ; Lord North- 
bourne on, xcv. 

Rickman, Mr., 83. 

Ridley, Elizabeth, 75; James, 75; 

Mrs., 72 ; Roger, bequest, 37. 
Ringlestone, — , 284. 
Ringleton, 284 ; Alice, 49 ; Margaret, 

49 ; William, 49. 
Ringwould, church, 298. 
Ripon Minster, hooks for Lenten veil. 


Risden, between Hawkhurst and 

Sandhurst, 206. 
Riseden near Goudhurst, 206. 
Riverhead, 167, 170. 
Roberts, John, 247. 

Robson, J. J., on Roman Remains 
at Hoo St. Werburgh, 287. 


Roch, Agnes, 238. 

Rochester, Bridge, 287 ; Bridge War- 
den's accounts, 271 : Acorn wharf, 
285 ; cathedral, lxiii, 164, 272 ; 
excavations in, 285 ; High Street, 
279 ; mayor of, 271 ; museum, 276, 
278, 279, 288.298 ; Roman remains, 
279 ; Roman wall, 285 ; See of, 

Rochester, Parish Registers and 
Records in the Diocese of, printed 
by the Kent Archaeological Society, 

Rochester, Hamo, Bishop of, lxviii. 

Rockingham. Marquis of, 233. 

Rodmersham, oak sedilia in the 
church of, xlvii. 

Rogers, Francis, 194 ; John, 194. 195 ; 
Raff, 113. 

Rolff, Joan, will of, 27. 

Rollright, Great, Oxfordshire, over- 
hanging canopy of wood, xlv. 

Rolvenden, church of, 32. 

Roman remains. 279, 280, 288, 298 ; 
bricks. 295 ; building, 286 ; ceme- 
tery, 283, 287, 291 ; coins, 279, 280, 

283, 288 ; foundations, 297 ; inter- 
ments, 281, 282, 284 ; pottery, 283, 

284, 287, 288 ; site of settlement, 
288, 289 ; town, 297 ; wall at 
Rochester. 285. 

Roman British pottery at Edenbridge, 

Romney, church of, 32 ; old, 105, 108 ; 
St. Lawrence in, 29 ; St. Martin's 
in, 108. 

Rood lofts, notes on, xliii. 

Roos, John, 200, 201. 

Roper, William, bequest, 53 ; Wil- 
liam, 43. 

Rose, Jenkyns, alias John Roos, 200. 
Ross, Richard, Bishop of, 39. 
Rougsthawke, John, 23. 
Rowls, Margery, 200. 
Ruckinge, church of. 32. 
Rumney, — , 180. 

Ruse, Clemens, 179, 180; Elizabeth, 

179; Gervis, 179; Katherine, 180; 

Seryus, 180. 
Russell, Andrew, 50. 
Russhelyn, John, 47. 
Rustumer, Ralph, 200. 
Rutland, Alice, 46 : Francis, bequest, 

46 ; Joan, 46 ; Mary, 46 ; William, 


Ruxley, Hundred of, 165, 167, 176. 
Rye, Thomas. 109. 
Rynolds, Archbishop, 209, 210. 
Ryvers, Alice, 182, 183 : Edward, 182, 

183 ; Elizabeth. 182 ; Martha, 182 ; 

Sybell, 182 ; William, 182. 




St. Augustine's Abbey, Ancient 
Walling at, by Dr. C. Cotton, 
290; Recent Excavations at, 
by Sir William St. J. Hope, 

294 ; Visit of the Society to, 

St. Augustine, cemetery of, 292. 
St. Augustine, lathe of, 163, 165. 
St. Austin's Abbey, lxxx. 
St. Austin, translation of the relics 

of. 291 : tomb of, 295, 296. 
St. Edward, King of England, 294. 
St. Lawrence, presentment on decay 

of the church of, 108. 
St. Lawrence in Thanet, the church 

of, 33. 

St. Leger (Sentleger, Seyntleger), 

Anthony, 24. 
St. Margaret at Cliff near Dover, 

lxxxvii ; benches in the church, xlii. 
St. Mary-le-Meye, manor of, 70. 
St. Mildred, grave of, 295 ; church of, 

see Tenterden. 
St. Nicholas in Thanet, church of. 33. 
St. Paul's Cray, 84. 
St. Peter's in Thanet, chapel of St. 

Nicholas in, 3 ; chapel of the Trinity 

in, 33. 

Salisbury, John, prior. 40 ; John, 43 ; 

cathedral, consecration crosses in, 

xli ; presbytery, xlvii. 
Salter, Alexander, 185 ; Richard, 185. 
Saltwood Castle, visit of Society to, 


Sancroft. Archbishop. 229. 

Sanders, William, 108, 109. 

Sandhurst, rector of, 95, 96, 99 ; 
curate of, 100, 102. 

Sands, Mr. Harold. F.S.A., 79. 

Sandwich. St. Clement's, 33 ; S. 
Mary's Church at, 33. 95 n ; SS. 
Mary and Clement, vicar of, 104 ; 
S. Peter's, rector of, 104 ; Mr. Fisher 
sent about two heretics to, 113 ; 
Cardinal Campeggio and Arch- 
bishop Warham at, 4 ; Society's 
visit to, lxxxvii, xcv. 

Sandwich and Deal District, note 
from the local secretary. 297. 

Sare (Sarre), John, rector, 87. 

Sauchelle, Marie, a French refugee, 68. 

Saunder, Richard, 187; Roger, 33. 

Saunders, Canon John, bequest, 49. 

Scot, Andrew, 78 ; Sir Thomas, 193. 

Scotland, abbott, 294. 

Scray, lathe of, 162, 163, 165. 

Scryp, John, vicar, 209. 

Scutage, origin of, 169. 

Seal (Sele), 167, 171, 179; extracts 
from parish registers of, 1 78. 

Seeker. Archbishop, 231, 257. 

Selby, Henry, 184 ; Mary, 184. 

Selby, Little. 113, 113 n. 

Selkirk. Alexander, 61. 

Selling, prior, 41 ; William, 47. 

Selling, church of, early alterations 
in, lxxi. 

Septvans, brasses in Ash Church : 
effigy of Catherine, xciv ; brass 
for Christopher, xciv ; effigy of 
John, xciv ; brass for Walter, 
xciv ; Constance, 48 ; Edward, 
bequest, 48 ; Elizabeth, 40 ; Gilbert 
de, 48 : Sir William, bequest, 

Sevenoak, Joan, 51 ; John, a monk, 52. 

Sevenoaks, Ixi, 2, 150, 170, 171, 173, 
174 ; almshouses in, 189 ; gram- 
mar school, 189 ; names of the poor 
in the almshouses, 190 ; William, 
founder of almshouses and bene- 
factor, 189, 190. 

Sevington. destruction of the altars 
in the church, 104. 

Seyliard, Richard, vicar, 224, 225. 

Shakerley. Erasmus, 181 ; Francis, 
180, 181, 182 ; John, 181 ; Mar- 
garet, 180 ; Maria, 181 ; Martha, 
181 ; Richard, 181 ; Rowland, 180 ; 
William, 181 ; Mr., 182. 

Sharpe, Alice, 238 ; Thomas, 238, 269. 

Sharpey, Thomas, 215. 

Sharp's, Green Cement Works, 275. 

Sheaf e, Mr., 185. 

Sheldwich Church, copy of the Para- 
phrase of Erasmus 111. 
Sheldwich, Agnes, 51 ; John, 51 ; 

Nicholas. 51. 
Shelley, Herbert, 183 ; Sir John, 

Ixii ; Mary, 183 ; Tryphena, lxii. 
Sherndon Manor, lxv. 
Sherwinhope, lathe of, 163. 
Sheryngton's chauntry, 243. 
Shiler, name in the Parish Register 

of Leigh, 183. 
Shilling (Shylling), Daniel, 71 n ; 

Mr,, 66. 71 n. 
Shipbourne Manor, 2, 175. 
Shipway, lathe of, 163, 165. 
Sholden. Hull, place in, 298. 
Shoreham, lxi, 2, 164, 170, 171, 173, 

174 ; almshouses, 200. 
Short, Thomas, 250. 
Short Reach on the Med way. 280. 
Shrewsbury (Shrewsbury), William, 

prior of, 52 ; William, a priest of, 45. 
Shutford, Oxford, oak rood screen in 

the church of, xliii. 
Simpcok, Robert, 266, 



Simpson, Andrew, 228 ; Dr. John, 
vicar, 228. 

Singleton Farm near Dover, earth- 
works at, 298. 

Sinningley in Tonbridge Division, 172. 

Sittingbourne, church, xciv ; rood 
loft in, xliv. 

Six Articles, statute of, 98. 

Skeynes, British remains at, Ixiii ; 
earthworks at, Ixiii. 

Smarden, rood screen at, xliii. 

Smith, Elizabeth, 182 ; John, 182 ; 
Dr. S. J., some earthworks near 
Deal, 298 ; William, 89. 

Smythe, Elizabeth, 13 ; Henry, 13 ; 
Sir John, 12 ; John, 12 ; Lionel, 
Viscount Strangford, 14 ; Matthew, 
239 ; Robert, bequest. 49 ; Lady 
Sarah. 14 ; Sir Sidney Stafford, 13, 
14 ; Stephen, bequest, 35. 269 ; Sir 
Thomas, 12, 13 ; Thomas, 12, 91. 

Snargate, church of, 34. 

Snave, rector of, makes oath the old 
service books done away with, 104. 

Snellyng, Thomas, 106. 

Snodland in Bromley hundred, 168. 

Solayn. Richard, 49. 

Solis, Virgil, one of the " Little 
Masters," 59. 

Solley, Mr., 283. 

Somer, John, 200. 

Somerden, 167, 168. 171, 174. 

Sommersley, Mrs., 187. 

Somner's Antiquities of Canterbury, 
4. 292. 

Sondes, Mr., 104. 

Sone, John. 18. 

Southwark, St. George's Church, 

Southwold, painted celure in the 

church, xlv. 
Sorrell, George, 243. 
Southouse, James, 72. 
Sparowe, Bennett, 48 ; Thomas, 

bequest, 48. 
Speldgisella, manor, 206. 
Speldhurst, parish of. 167. 171. 174. 
Spencer, Elizabeth, 186 : Ellen, 186 ; 

Emme, 186 ; Joane, 187 ; John, 

vicar, 186, 187 ; Katherine, 186 ; 

Thomasine, 186. 
Spendelove. John, vicar, 220. 
Spert, John, bequest, 269. 
Spilsill (Speldgisella), 206. 
Sponden in Sandhurst (Sponleoge), 


Sprake, Margaret, 186. 
Spriver, William, 185. 

Squerryes Court, The British. 
Oppidum, lvii, lviii. 

Stace, Freegift, 225 ; John. 243 ; 

Mildred, 183 ; Thomas, bequest, 35. 
Stalisfield, church, xliv. 
Stal worth, Walter, 214. 
Statiden, Upper, lands in, 70. 
Stanford, borough of, 76, 171, 172. 
Stangrave, manor, lxiv. See also 

Stansted. 175. 

Staplehurst, church of, 34, 206 ; rood 

loft in, xliv ; parish registers, lxxxi. 
Staveley, Sir Charles, 73 ; Charles 

Dunbar, 75 ; Susan, 73, 75. 
Stephen, James, 36 ; King, 175 ; 

William, rector, 48. 
Stephenson, Mr. Mill, on brasses in 

Kent, 131. 
Steven, Elizabeth, 185 ; Thomas, 185. 
Still, Richard, lxiv. 
Stille, John, bequest, 33. 
Stock, John, 256. 

Stockwith, Lewis, surveyor of works 
at Otford, 18, 22. 

Stodmarsh, The Plaster Panels 
at, by T. A. Lehfeldt, 54 ; figure 
subjects symbolizing some of the 
planets, 55 ; originals secured by the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, 54 ; 
vestments at, 1 09. 

Stoke, extracts from parish registers 
of. 185. 

Stokes (Stoks), John, 27, 72. 

Stonard, Alexander, bequest, 53. 

Stone, John, chronicle of, 38, 39, 40. 

Stone, manor of, 172. 

Stone in Oxney, church of, 34. 

Stouting, bailiwick of, 165. 

Stowting, church goods taken away, 

Streatfield (Stretfield), Edward, me- 
morial window for, Westerham, liii; 
Richard, 197. 

Strekenbold, George, 36 ; John, 35 ; 
Thomas, bequest, 35. 

Strode, Catherine, Ixi ; Sir Nicholas, 
lxi ; Thomas, 78. 

Stunt, Walter, 275, 278. 

Sturry, Popish pictures at, 105. 

Styler, John, 182 ; Mary, 182. 

Suckley, Ralph, lxi. 

Sudbury, Archbishop, 111. 

Sudtone, lathe of, 162. 

Suffling, E. R., -English Church 
Brasses, 135, 136. 

Suffolk, Countess of, lx. 

Sumerson, Alexander, 187. 

Simdridge, Bailiwick, 170 ; be- 
quests to the poor, 192 ; Church, 
by Canon Gk M. Livett, lix ; 



manor of, 2, 173, 177 ; mentioned in 
Domesday Book, lix ; tombs and 
brasses, lx ; Combe Bank in, lx ; 
lands in, lxiii. 

Sundridge, Baron, lx. 

Sutton, 205. 

Sutton-Bromley, 165. 176. 

Sutton- Dartf'ord. 165. 

Sutton at Hone, 163, 166, 167, 189. 

Sutton-Valence (Sudtune), 206. 

Swan,, Joane, bequest, 45 ; Joane, 44 ; 

John, bequest, 44 ; John, 44. 
Swannescombe alias Vannescombe, 78. 
Swift, William, 114. 
Swoffer, Robert, bequest, 270. 
Swynner, Mr., 101. 
Sybbell, Dorothy, 179. 
Sydney, Sir Henry, 9 ; Sir Philip, 9 ; 

Sir Robert, 199*; Robert, 9. 
Sydrake. Thomas, bequest, 42. 
Symon, John, 47. 

Symonson, Philip, Further Notes 
on, by the Hon. H. Hannen, 271 ; 

early map of Kent, 271 : Mayor, 
271, 272, 273 ; Mrs.. 274 ; Thomas, 
274 ; map of Otford, 5, 13. 

Sympnell, Rev. Richard, 103. 

Sympson, Robert, rector, 90. 

Syndale Park, Ospringe, 284. 


Taswell, Rev. William, 232. 

Tatnall, Randall, 105. 

Taxatio, The, of 1291, lxviii, lxxv. 

Taylor, A. H., The Rectors and 
Vicars of S. Mildred's, Tenter- 
den, with an Appendix, 207 ; 

A. H., 32 ; Christopher, 42 ; Sir 
John, vicar, 211, 212; Laurence, 42. 
Taylour, Sir William, Lord Mayor, 

Tebauld, see Theabauld. 

Temple, Rev. William, 234. 

Tenterden, The Rectors and 
Vicars of S. Mildred's, by A. H. 
Taylor, 207; the Church of St. 
Mildred, the structure, 207 ; survey 
of the church property and the 
rectory, 254, 255 ; faculty regard- 
ing the removal of seats in the 
chancel, and placing the Com- 
munion table, 256 ; Tenterden 
in Archbishop Parker's primary 
visitation of the Diocese, 257 ; 
bequests by Tenterden folk to their 
parish church, 260, 270 ; bio- 
graphical notes on the rectors, 207 

— 236 ; excommunication of John 
the vicar, with 16 other Kentish 
clergy, 208 ; pardon for outlawry 
of two vicars, 213 : bequest by 
John More, vicar, 215 ; will of 
Peter Marshal, 21 6 : Peter Marshal's 
chantry, 216. 243 ; vicar Broke, 
called to account by Lord Crom- 
well, 217 ; Sir Peter Baker comes 
under the notice of Archbishop 
Cranmer, 218 : complaints made 
against John Bendall, vicar, 221 ; 
a son of George Elie, vicar, ex- 
communicated, 222 ; John Gee, 
vicar, having joined the Church of 
Rome, was present at the Fatal 
Vespers of Blackfriars, 225 ; a 
petition in Parliament against 
Humphrey Peake, vicar, 226 ; 
George Hawke, vicar, presented by 
Oliver Cromwell, 227 ; institution 
of Nathaniel Collington, when the 
parish is said to be much corrupted, 
228 ; Dr. Coomb, vicar, collection of 
Bibles by, 233; sayings of John Ful- 
ler, priest, 240 ; depositions against 
clergymen in Kent 1543, 241 ; a 
seditious sermon preached, 244 ; 
concerning the right to use the 
north door of the chancel, the 
vicar George Elie maintained the 
sole right of the vicar, 245, 246, 
247, 248, 249 ; petition to Parlia- 
ment against the vicar, 250, 251,252; 
list of names of the petitioners, 253; 
Cranmer and the Heretics of Kent, 
243 ; particulars for sale of col- 
leges, etc., in 1545, as far as relates 
to Tenterden, 242, 243 ; many hand- 
some gifts to the church in the 
time of Rev. S. Campbell Lepard, 
235 ; an appendix of ecclesiastical 
matters relating to Tenterden and 
presentments at the visitation of 
Archbishop Warham, 237 ; ex- 
tracts from the will of William 
Marshall, vicar, 238, 239 ; informa- 
tion in the Valor Ecclesiasticus 
relating to this church, 240. 

Tenterden, the church, vestry, the 
wall, schoolhouse, 35. 

Teperidge, 172. 

Textus liojfensis, reference to, lxix. 
Thanet, S. John's Church in, 101 ; 

S. Peter's Church in, 111. 
Thanington. 107. 

Theobald. Theabold, Teabold, Tebold, 
Teboll or Tyboll, Alice. 178 ; Anne, 
179,180; Annys. 179; Archbishop, 2; 
Clemence, 17*9 (2), 180; Dorothy. 
179, 180; Elizabeth, 179, 180; 



(jrysogon, 179 ; Joan, 180 ; John. 
178 (4), 179 (10), 180 (7), 200; 
Katherine, 179 (2), 180 (3), 182 ; 
Margett, 179 ; Richard. 179 (2), 
180 (3); Robert, 179, 180; Sil- 
vester, 178, 179, ] 80 ; Stephen, 179 
(3), 180 (3), 182 ; Thomas. 179 (2), 

Thomas, Jeffrey, lxi ; John, Ixvii ; 
Richard, lxi ; Prior of Christ- 
church, 36. 

Thompson, James, 52 ; Joan, 52 ; 
William, bequest, 52. 

Thoresby, Richard, chaplain, 259. 

Thorn. William, chronicle of, 207 m. 
210 n. 

Thornden, Richard, Bishop of Dover, 
219 ; Richard, 115. 

Thornton, Mr., vicar, 184. 

Thorningabyra farm, 205. 

Thorpe. Bridget. 182 ; Richard, 182 ; 
Sara, 180 : — , 180. 

Throwley, 104. 

Thurnham, vicar of, 120. 

Thwates, Edward. 90. 

Ticehurst Church, 111. 

Tilar, John, bequest, 270. 

Tilbury, co.' Essex, 271. 

Tilbury. East, manor, 272. 

Tilden, New England emigrant, 225. 

Titsey, lxv. 

Tobill, William, 238. 

Tonbridge, castle of, 172 : lowy of, 
162, 172 ; Richard of, 172 ; Town- 
ship of, 2, 163, 167, 168, 171, 172. 

Tordox, Steven, 195. 

Torpe, William, bequest, 30. 

Toullarge, Thomas, rector, 89. 

Trendham, Thomas, bequest, 52. 

Treweman. Thomas, rector, 84. 

Tripp, Bartholomew, bequest, 52. 

Triseham, Richard, bequest, 33. 

Tropham, Richard, bequest, 50. 

Trosley, 168. 

Tucke, Mr., 101. 

Tucker, Ingram, 73. 

Tudeley, 167. 

Turner, Edward, vicar, 188 ; Edward, 
188 ; John, vicar, 191 ; John, 188 ; 
Mary. 188, 230 : Robert, vicar. 229. 
230; Thomas, 188; Mr., 101, 102, 

Twydall, flint implements at, 275 ; 

lands, 276 ; orchards in, 275. 
Twyford bailiwick, 163. 165. 
Tyboll, see Theobald. 
Tye, John, bequest, 30. 
Tylman, Alexander, 180 ; Edward, 

180 : Margaret, 180. 
Tysted, William, 106. 
Tytbesye, Ralph de, rector, lxvii. 


Ulcombe, 168 ; rood loft, 119. 

ITmfrey, Thomas, 43. 

Underdowne. John, bequest, 45 ; 

Nicholas, 45. 
University College, London, 281. 
Upchurch, church, 36 ; marshes, 285 ; 

pottery-making industry, 285 ; 

Roman kilns, etc., discovered, 285. 
Upland, hundred, 168. 
Upsepham, 171. 
Usbarn, Thomas, bequest. 34. 


Vallance, Aymer, F.S.A., The Fit- 
tings of Mediaeval Churches, 


Valouns, Joan, 40 ; Sir Stephen, 40. 

See also de Valance. 
Vane, Alee, 179 ; Edward. 179 ; Erne, 

179; Joan, 181: Richard, 181; 

Robert, 179. 
Van-Luer or Van-dure, Samuel, vicar, 


Vannescombe alias Swannescombe, 
John, 78. 

Vaughan, William, 194. 

Veal, Amy, 72, 75 ; Daniel, 75 ; Eliza- 
beth, 67, 72, 75 ; Nicholas, 72, 75 ; 
Thomas, 75 ; William, Controller 
of the Customs at Dover, 64, 65, 67, 
68, 71 n, 75 ; William, 75 ; Young, 
67, 68. 68 n, 71, 71 n. 72, 73, 75 ; 
Mrs., 64. 

Vertue, Robert, bequest, 44 ; Simeon, 

Victoria and Albert Museum, plaster 
panels from Stodmarsh secured by, 
54, 58, 59. 

Vilestone Manor, 2. 

Vincent, Agnes, bequest, 43 ; Talbotb, 

Vygors, John, 106. 


Wakeley, Seymour, 285. 
Waldershare ( Waldershire), curate 

of, 101, 103. 
Wale, Katherine, 179 ; Thomas, 179, 


Walker, John, 182 ; Mary, 181 ; 
Robert, 181 ; — , 182, 183. 

Wallace, Matthew, vicar, 231, 232 ; 
Rev. Dr., 232. 

Waller (Wauller), Alice, 179 ; Eliza- 
beth, 182 ; John, 182 ; Margaret, 
182 ; Mary, 182 ; Richard, 182, 183 ; 
Thomas, 182 ; — , 180. 


general index. 

Waller. Messrs., monumental brasses, 

Walloppe. Thomas, 106. 

YValmer. Upper, the church of, 283 ; 

earthworks at Hawk's Hill in, 298. 
Walpole, St. Peter in Norfolk, church 

of. xl. 

Walpole, Robert, bequest, 38 ; Wil- 
liam, 43. 

Walter. Archbishop, 209 ; John, 18 : 
Paul, 18. 

Ward, And rew, 96 : Horatio Nelson 
Thompson, 234 : Philip, vicar, 234, 
235 ; Adml., liv ; G-en. George, liv. 

Ward, J. S. M., Manual on Monu- 
mental Brasses, 136. 

Wardens' Accounts of Rochester 
Bridge, 271. 

Ware, Alice, 192. 

Warham. William. Archbishop, 1, 2. 
3, 4, 5, 7, 23, 216, 217. 

Warren, Gen. Sir Charles, 
G.C.M.G., F.R.S., on Highways 
of Primitive Man in Kent, 


Warren. Hierom, 195 ; Mr., 114. 
Washlingstone, hundred of, 167, 168. 

Waterman, Rev. W. Gardner, 
Presentation to, lxi. 

Watson, Alice, 66, 70, 75 ; Mary, 71, 
182 ; Michael, 182 ; — , 183. 

Watte, Agnes, 30 ; Simon, bequest, 30. 

Watts, John, bequest. 26. 

Weaid of Kent, 114. 168, 172 ; forest 
of. 168, 169 ; History of the, 205. 

Weald, Early Charter of the, 
Notes on, by H. S. Cowper, 

F.S.A. ; place names, 203, 205, 206 ; 

translation of, 204. 
Weaver, Alice, 186 ; Margaret, 187 ; 

Richard, vicar, 186. 
Webb (Webbe), Elizabeth, 186 ; John, 

vicar, 90 ; Nicholas, bequest. 42 ; 

Nicholas, 186 ; William, 255 ; 

Mistress, 116. 
Well, chapel. 105, 107. 
Welles. Michael, bequest, 48. 
Welling, 276. 

Werton, Anne, 182 ; John, 182. 
West, Robert, 106. 
Westborn, Alice, 51 ; William, 51. 
Westcliffe, church of, 111. 

Westenhanger, St. Mary, Rectors 
and Patrons, by the Rev. 
T. Shipdem Frampton, M.A., 
F.S.A., 82 ; church of " Ostring- 
hangre " in 1291, 82 ; bequests to 

the church, by Sir John Kiriel, his 
wife and other members of his 
family, 82 ; bequests by other 
persons. 82, 83 ; chapel in. erected 
by Sir Edward Poynings, K.G., 83 ; 
the font, 83 ; the nave, 83 ; rectors 
and patrons, 84. 

Westenhanger House, Notes on 
the remains of, by George 
Clinch, F.G.S., F.S.A. Scot., 76 ; 

the church and traditions con- 
nected with it. 76 ; Leland's 
account of. 77 ; mention of 
marauders of, in the Patent Rolls, 
78 ; ancient spelling, 77 ; owner- 
ship named on Patent Rolls, 77 ; 
plan of in a MS. in British 
Museum, 79 : plan in Archceologia 
Cantiana, vol. xvii, 79 ; description 
of, 79, 80 ; description of Tudor 
work, 80 ; its connection with 
Bodiam and Scotney Castles, 80 ; 
list of books relating to, 81. 
Westerham, bequest to the poor, 191 ; 
hundred, 69, 170, 171, 173 ; Upland, 
lxi, 170. 

Westerham Church, brasses in, 

liii ; chapel of St. Catherine in, 
liii ; church plate, liv ; financial 
statement by the vicar to the prior 
of Christ Church, Canterbury, lvi ; 

Canon G. M. Livett on the 
architecture of, liv ; Dr. Maude 

On, Hi ; memorial tablet for Gen . 
Wolfe, liii ; meeting of Society at, 
xlix ; Piscina, liii ; restoration of, 
liii ; Streatfield memorial window, 
liii ; tower, liv. 

Westerham-cum-Edenbridge, archi- 
tecture of, lxix ; rectors of, lxvii ; 
perpetual vicarage and advowson 
of, lxviii ; tombs, lxx. 

Westminster, Abbey of St. Peter, lxiv. 

Weston, Sir Thomas, 113. 

Westus. Mr., 115. 

Whatman, Lawrence, bequest, 32. 

Wheler, Capt. George, 284. 

Whiston, Rev. Jonathan, 230 ; Mary, 

White, Alice, bequest, 32 ; John, 90 ; 

Stephen, 32. 
Whitefeild, Clement, 248 ; Herbert, 

245, 246, 247 ; Martha, 245, 246, 

247, 249, 250. 
Whitfield earthworks, 298. 
Whiting, William, 284. 
Whitley Forest, 15, 168. 
Whitlock, Agnes, 45 ; Joan, 53 ; John, 

bequest, 26 ; John, 45, 48. 



Whitmore. Herbert, lxv. 

Whittle, Anne, 184 ; Hester, 184 ; 

Thurston, 184 ; William, rector, 

184 ; Mr., 184. 
Whittlesey, Archbishop, 86. 
Whope, Thomas, 51. 
Whyte, Anne, bequest, 47. 
Whytyngton, Richard, Lord Mayor of 

London, lxiv. 
Wickenden, John, 18. 
Wideden, Stephen, bequest, 30. 
Widmere, Sir Nicholas, 213. 
Wierton in Boughton Monchelsea 

(Wiolhtringden), 205. 
Wilkes, manor of, lxi. 
Wilkins (Wilkyns). Anne, 186 (4), 

187, 188 (6) ; Edward, 186 (3), 187 

(2) , 188 (6) ; Elizabeth, 185 (2). 
186 (2), 187 ; Ellen, 187 ; Frances, 

186 ; George, 182, 185 (4), 186, 187 

(3) ; James, 186, 187 ; John, 187, 
188 ; Marie, 186, 187 ; Mary, 182 ; 
Michael, 185 ; Ralph, 185, 186 (2), 

187 (2); Richard, 187 ; Susan, 185, 

187 ; Thomas, 186, 187 ; William, 

Wilkinson, Richard, 228. 
William the Conqueror, a charter of, 

William, John, 237. 
Williams, Elizabeth, 188 (4) ; Hum- 
phrey, 188 (6) ; Humphrey, vicar, 

188 ; Mary, 188 ; William, 188 (2). 
Willoughby, — , Esq., 9. 
Willyams, Anthony, 199. 
Winchepe, John, 52. 

Windows, low-side, notes on, xlv. 
Wilson. Robert, bequest, 33 ; Robert, 

Rector of Hinxhill, 100. 
Winchelsey, Earl of, 228. 
Winchelsey, Archbishop, xli, xlvii, 

208, 209. 
Winchester. Bishop of, 244. 
Windsor (Wynesor), 113 ; Chapel 

Royal at, 113 n ; presentment in, 


Winkland. earthworks at Oaks Farm 
in, 298. 

Wiseman. Anne, 184 ; Charles, 184 ; 
Frances, 184 ; Gusanne, 183 ; Wil- 
liam, 184 ; Mr., 183. 

Witherden farm, 205. 

Wittersham, church of, 36. 

Wiwarlet, lathe of, 162, 163. 

Wode, Margaret, 50 ; John, 50 ; 
Thomas, bequest, 270. 

Wodehouse, Edmund, 88. 

Wodesburgh, John, Prior, 40. 

Woghope, Thomas, 51. 

Wohoppe, Henry, 51. 

Wolball, Peter, 248. 

Wolfe, General, liii. 

Wolffe, John, 18 ; Thomas, 18. 

Wolsey, Cardinal, 8. 

Wolvey, Richard, rector, 89. 

Wood (Woode), James, 18, 250 ; Rich- 
ard. 273 ; Thomas, 242. 
I Woodhouse, John, 48. 
| Woodnesborought, 108, 109. 

Woodruff, Rev. C. Eveleigh, on 
Extracts from original docu- 
ments illustrating the pro- 
gress of the Reformation in 
Kent, 92 ; the British Oppidum, 
Squerryes Court, lvii ; St. 
Martin's Church, Canterbury, 


Woodward, Elizabeth, 186. 
Woolpit, Suffolk, rood in the church 
of, xlv. 

Wootton, parish of, in the bailiwick 

of Eastry, 165. 
Worceter, Thomas, 98. 
Wornden in Marden, 205. 
Wotton, Thomas, 18l 
Wotton, presentment at, 106. 
Wriothesley, Lord Chancellor, 244. 
Wright, Oliver, 66, 70. 
Wrotham, mentions of, 174, 175, 177 ; 

church of, xl, liv, lxi. 
Wulfric, Abbot, 294, 295. 
Wye, destruction of altars, 103. 
Wybourn, William, 106. 
Wyghtman, William, rector, 90. 
Wyllie, Rev. Robert, 284. 
Wymingswold, vicar of, 96, 100 ; 

rood loft, font, etc., 110. 


Ykham, see Ickham. 

Yong, Richard, bequest, 28 ; Thomas, 

bequest. 29. 
Yorke, Richard, 185 ; Stephen, 187 ; 

Mr., 187 ; William, bequest. 48. 
Youens, Mr. E. C, 16, 286. 
Young (Yong), Alice, 66, 68, 69, 70, 

71 ; Elizabeth, 66, 68. 70, 71, 75 ; 

Nicholas, 66, 70. 71, 75 ; Thomas, 

70; Capt. William, 65, 66, 68, 69, 

70 ; William, 65, 66, 70, 72, 73, 75 ; 

Capt., 69, 70, 71. 
Yule. Colonel, 65. 

London : Mitchell Hughes & Clarke, 140 Wardour Street, W, 


SEP J. 65